Generalforsamling by yurtgc548

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									        BIOGASS11
          March 09 2011




     Biogas in Denmark
- status and framework conditions

           Lars Rohold
     Danish Biogas Association
                                                                       March 09 2011


Biogas as renewable energy in EU
       In relation to the objective of 20 to 30% renewable energy in the EU
       there is a long way before biogas becomes more common to use as
       energy source.
                                                                       We are
                                                                       here !!!




    Source: European Environmental Agency




2
                                        March 09 2011
          Renewable energy in Denmark


                                           Heat pumps


                                           Waste

                                           Biogas

                                           Wood



                                           Straw


                                          Wind




Danish Biogas Association
                                              March 09 2011


      Biogas in the Danish Energy
                 System
   Biogas is a “Small player”

   Renewable energy is depending on political will

   Competition with other RE, Combustion and wind
    energy.




Danish Biogas Association
                                        March 09 2011
          Renewable energy in Denmark


                                           Heat pumps


                                           Waste

                                           Biogas

                                           Wood



                                           Straw


                                          Wind


                                  ’11



Danish Biogas Association
                                     March 09 2011

   Central biogas plants in Denmark
                            Nordic BIoEnergy
                            Reference plant
Endeavour of the
Danish Energy
Authorities:
About 20 central
biogas plants were
built in the late 80s
and early 90s.
They represent a
total unique
international
reference
                                         March 09 2011

                  Danish biogas plants
Number of plants
   21 centralized biogas plants
   60 farm scale biogas plants               




Joint and farmscale biogas
  plants 2003
    Manure             1.742.156 t
    Organic residues    450.708 t
    Total              2.192.864 t


Danish Biogas Association
                          Linkogas A.m.b.a
                                                       March 09 2011




15 – 20 years experience in operation of biogas plants


Co-operative owned by 60 farmers
 Liquid biomass and Raw                          Digested biomass
 Slurry
                                   Methan for
                                    heat and
                                   electricity     Storage tank




                            Tank




Solid Biomass
                      Linkogas A.m.b.a
                                                                                        March 09 2011




    Cattle slurry                        275   tonnes/day       100,000   tonnes/year
    Pig slurry                           165   tonnes/day        60,000   tonnes/year
    Other biomass                        110   tonnes/day        40,000   tonnes/year
    Totally                              550   tonnes/day       200,000   tonnes/year


    Biogas production                                           6.4 mill. Nm3/year
    Digester capacity (3 x 2400 m3)                                7200 m3
    Process temperature (thermophilic)                               52 °C
    Post-digestion capacity                                        2400 m3
    Post-digestion temperature                                       49 °C
    Gas storage capacity                                           5000 m3
    Utilisation of biogas       Gas engines 2 x 1 MW, CHP-generation + gas boiler
    Biomass transport vehicle 1 x 20 m3 and 2 x 30 m3 vacuum tankers
    Average transport distance                                     5-10 km



    Contractor                 Krüger Ltd. / BIOSCAN A/S
    Engineering                BIOSCAN A/S
    Operation start-up/Rebuilt 1990/1999



9
                                          March 09 2011

                  Co-digestion

 Manure                                Organic
                                         waste
                            Biogas
                            Plant

 Digested                            Renewable
 biomass                                energy
Danish Biogas Association
                                                     March 09 2011

  Biogas Potential for selected
       types of biomass
Biomass                     Gaspot.            TS%

Pig/Cattle Manure           20 – 30   m3/ton   5 – 10%
Slaughter house Waste       50        m3/ton   15%
Conc. Manure                70        m3/ton   25%
Energy Crops (In general)   150       m3/ton   33%
Maize Silage/Corn Silage    200       m3/ton   33%
Wheat Straw                 400       m3/ton   90%
Pure Fat                    1000      m3/ton   95 -100%


Biofuel residuals
Ethanol Effluent (wheat)    75 - 85   m3/ton   12%
Glycerin (from Biodiesel)   600       m3/ton   ---
                                                                                              March 09 2011
               Danish energy sector
From centralized power plants to decentralized production
      Centralized production in the mid 80’s                         Decentralized production of today
                                               Legend:
                                               • Decentralized CHP
                                               • Centralized CHP
                                               • Wind mill park




Danish Biogas Association
                                                  March 09 2011

            Danish Political Model
   Biogas to Decentralized CHP for heat and power
    production

   Subsidized by the electricity producer

   Utilization of heat in the district heating

    (Only one “costumer” and only one “integration” )


Danish Biogas Association
                                                                                               March 09 2011

              Advantages of biogas plants
   Greenhouse gas reduction                                    100
       Efficient                                                90
                                                                                    7




                                     kg CO2eq per ton biomass
                                                                 80
            heat and power: 220 %
                                                                 70
            transportation: 167 %                               60                 43

       Cheap                                                    50
                                                                 40
            0 to 5 CAD
                                                                 30
                                                                 20                 40
                                                                 10
                                                                  0
                                                                                     CO2
                                                                Fossil fuel substitution eq Methane   N2O




Danish Biogas Association
                                                                   March 09 2011

             Advantages of biogas plants
   Greenhouse gas reduction
                                         Type of waste                  Tonnes
   Utilisation of organic waste         Gut and stomach content        110000
                                         Fat / flotation sludge          71000
     Win-win       situation            Feeding factories               10000
                                         Fish industry                   50000
           increased gas production
                                         Fruit and vegetables             3600
           tipping fee                  Breweries                         800
                                         Bakeries                         1900
           reduced costs for industry   Dairies                         29000
                                         Pectin industry                  7000
     new     types of biomass:          Bleech earth                    17000
                                         Tanneries                        2300
           energy crops                 Pharmaceutical industry         20500
                                         Concentrated fat waste           2600
           animal by-products
                                         Waste from water supply          1600
           glycerine from biodiesel     Other industrial waste          10000
                                         Sewage sludge                   20000
                                         Household and catering waste    17000
                                         Total                          374300

Danish Biogas Association                Joint biogas plants 2002
                                                  March 09 2011

               Advantages of biogas plants
   Greenhouse gas reduction
   Utilisation of organic waste
                                          10 km
   Redistribution of manure
       from
            livestock farmers to plant
             producers
            farm to field
            tractors to lorries
            20-30 km distance




Danish Biogas Association
                                                       March 09 2011

             Advantages of biogas plants
   Greenhouse gas reduction            Kg/ton

   Utilisation of organic waste
                                   Total N: 5,0
   Redistribution of manure       NH4-N: 4,0
   Organic fertiliser             P:            0,9

        declarated nutrient       K:            2,8
         content
        free of pathogens and
         weed seeds




Danish Biogas Association
                                                            March 09 2011

             Advantages of biogas plants
   Greenhouse gas reduction           Wind        Raw        Digested
                                       direction   manure     manure
   Utilisation of organic waste
   Redistribution of manure
   Organic fertiliser
                                   5 minutes
   Smell from slurry reduced
        thinner liquid
        disperses quicker into soil



                                   12 hours


Danish Biogas Association
                                                                    March 09 2011

             Advantages of biogas plants
   Greenhouse gas reduction
                                          Utilisation of Nitrogen in winter
   Utilisation of organic waste                        wheat

   Redistribution of manure        100

                                    90
   Organic fertiliser
                                    80

   Smell from slurry reduced       70

                                    60
   Improved nitrogen utilisation   50


   Reduced risk of leaching        40

                                    30

   Separation of digested          20

    biomass                         10

                                     0
        low technology
                                           Cattle   Pig slurry Digested    Liquid
                                           slurry               slurry    fraction
        net energy surplus
Danish Biogas Association
                                                                            March 09 2011

        Biomass potential in Denmark
     Overall inventory shows that there is enough biomass to hundreds of biogas
      plants


                                        Year 2001   Year 2002   Year 2003   Year 2004
    Manure                       26,0      0,61        0,70        0,85        0,91
    Municipal WW sludge           4,0      0,86        0,87        0,87        0,83
    Industrial waste, DK          2,5      0,59        0,67        0,80        0,86
    Industrial waste, imported    0,0      0,40        0,45        0,55        0,65
    Meat and bone animal waste    2,0      0,00        0,00        0,00        0,00
    Household waste               2,5      0,03        0,05        0,07        0,03
    Garden- and park waste        1,0      0,00        0,00        0,00        0,00
    Landfield gas                 1,0      0,56        0,62        0,44        0,46
    Total                        39,0      3,05        3,36        3,58        3,74

     (All values in TJ)


20
                                                                     March 09 2011

 Political Energy Settlement (2004)

      Energiforlig giver fremtidstro for
      biogas
      Fredag 2. april 2004




     Med regeringens energiforlig i denne uge med alle Folketingets partier
     på nær Enhedslisten gennemføres omsider sidste års aftale om at sikre
     den danske biogas en afregningspris på 60 øre pr. kWh i 10 år frem.




21
                                                      March 09 2011

    Biogas production in Denmark

        4500
        4000
        3500
        3000
        2500
   TJ




        2000
        1500
        1000
         500
           0
               1980   1990           1995     2000    2005

                             Total     Manure based



Danish Biogas Association
                                                                       March 09 2011

                Biogas development
                                              Government
                Biogas production 1990 - 2006 January 19 2007:
        3000                                  Biogasproduction
                                              to be trippled
        2500
                                              before 2025
        2000
                                                               Centralised
   TJ




        1500                                                   Farmscale

        1000
                                                               Total

        500

          0
               19    1    1    1    1    2    2    2    2
                  90 9 92 9 94 9 96 9 98 0 00 0 02 0 04 0 06


Danish Biogas Association
                                                           March 09 2011

 Political Energy Settlement (2008)
 Fakta: Energiaftalens hovedpunkter
 Her er de 14 hovedpunkter fra torsdagens energi-forlig,
 som alle partier undtagen Enhedslisten står bag.
  Af Thomas Djursing, fredag 22. feb 2008 kl. 10:32


  - Biogasanlæg – både gamle og nye - får en fast
  elafregningspris på 74,5 øre per kilowatt-time.


  (Kilde: Ingeniøren)



Danish Biogas Association
                                                                       March 09 2011

  Payment for electricity from biogas
                                                                 Payment
                                     Payment electricity         from 2008
                                                                 - All plants
             0,12
             0,10
  Euro/kWh




             0,08                                                         Existing
             0,06                                                         New
             0,04                                                         Necessary
             0,02
             0,00
                    1   3   5    7     9   11   13    15   17   19
                                Year after construction


Danish Biogas Association
                                    March 09 2011

              Political influence
         Show examples:
      With palyers in the business




Danish Biogas Association
                      Præsentation for
                    Energipolitisk Udvalg
                    Torsdag den 15. januar 2009




                Levering af biogas til
                   naturgasnettet
Sønderjysk Biogas                                 - Vi gi’r byen gas!
                    Opfordring

  Afsætning af biogas til naturgasnettet bør
  kunne finde sted under samme vilkår som
  afsætning til kraftvarmeproduktion.
  Derved
      – skabes der bedre muligheder for biogas
      – skabes der mulighed for optimal udnyttelse
      – sikres den fremtidige udvikling
Sønderjysk Biogas                           - Vi gi’r byen gas!
             Hvorfor naturgasnettet?

  Afsætning via naturgasnettet giver
  • optimal anvendelse af gassen – intet spild
  • fleksibel placering – bedst mulig logistik
  • udvidelsesmuligheder – sikret afsætning
  • flere anvendelsesmuligheder for gassen


Sønderjysk Biogas                        - Vi gi’r byen gas!
             Hvorfor naturgasnettet?

  Afsætning via naturgasnettet giver
  • mulighed for udvidelse af bestående anlæg
  • intet ”monopol” for kraftvarmeværket
  • biogas i tyndere befolkede områder
  • total fremtidssikring


Sønderjysk Biogas                        - Vi gi’r byen gas!
                                                             March 09 2011

  Government Green Growth Plan 2009
Promotion in biogas through
 From currently 5 % to 50 % of manure into biogas in 2020
 Co-ordination plan for construction of biogas plants
 Plan for integration of biogas into the energy sector
 Obligation for municipalities to point out where to build plants
 Distribution in natural gas grid on equal terms as direct co-generation
 Equal opportunities for biogas to earn money as natural gas suppliers
 Financing
    20 % construction subsidy (in total 300 mill. DKK from 2010 to 2012)
    loans guaranteed by municipalities
    capital from investors




 Danish Biogas Association
                              March 09 2011

    Next Energy Settlement (2011)




Danish Biogas Association
                              March 09 2011

     Next Energy Settlement (2011)




Danish Biogas Association
                                                         March 09 2011

                     Denmark
                            %



                                          Manurebased
                                          Sewage sludge
                                          Industrial sludge
                                          Landfill gas




                            1.1 TWh – 4,000 TJ power/heat
                            82 manure based plants
                            64 sewage sludge plants
                            5 industrial wastewater plants
Danish Biogas Association   25 landfill gas plants
                                                       March 09 2011

          Sweden – origin of biogas
Gas production (pct)                Wastewater
                                    Co-digestion
   27                               Farm
                                    Industry
                                    Landfill
                            44


                            1.4 TWh – 4,900 TJ
 10                         8 farm and 17 (14) co-digestion plants
      1                     140 (138) waste water treatmant plants
                            4 (3) industrial wastewater plants
            18
                            58 (60) landfill gas plants

Danish Biogas Association
                                        March 09 2011

       Filling stations in Sweden




                              Distribution
                              •Local grids
                              •Natural gas grid
                              •By truck
Danish Biogas Association   Source: Swedish Gas
                                                                             March 09 2011

                     Transportation - Sweden
                             Volume sold of "biogas/natural gas"

             50
             45
             40
             35
 Mill. Nm3




             30
                                                                             Natural gas
             25
             20                                                              Biogas
             15
             10
              5
              0
                95


                        97


                                99


                                        01


                                                03


                                                        05


                                                                07


                                                                        09
             19


                     19


                             19


                                     20


                                             20


                                                     20


                                                             20


                                                                     20
Danish Biogas Association
                                                                     March 09 2011

             Transportation - Sweden
                      Share of natural gas and biogas

  100%
   90%
   80%
   70%
   60%                                                                Biogas
   50%
   40%                                                                Natural gas
   30%
   20%
   10%
    0%
        95


                97


                        99


                                01


                                        03


                                                05


                                                        07


                                                                09
     19


             19


                     19


                             20


                                     20


                                             20


                                                     20


                                                             20
Danish Biogas Association
                                                 March 09 2011

    Sweden – gas utilisation (pct)

                     2
                14

                                    Heat
           4
                                    Transportation
                                    Power
                            53      Flaring
                                    No data
           26
                            Heat most important
                            Transportation fastet growing


Danish Biogas Association
                                                     March 09 2011

  Norway - waste in 29 biogas plants

                            Source sep. household/food waste
                            Food waste retailers

                            Food waste hotels & restaurants
                            Slaughterhouse waste (cat. 2)
                            Slaughterhouse waste (cat. 3)
                            Fish waste (cat. 3)
                            Fats - sewage in foodindustry



Danish Biogas Association
                                                March 09 2011
           Ecopro, Verdal Norway
                Total area 9000 m2
Start up Sludge March 2008, Food waste April 2008
                                     March 09 2011
                WASTE FEEDSTOCKS

Food waste (source separated
 household waste)
 Approx. 15 000 t/a




Sludge (from waste water treatment
 plants)
 Approx. 15 000 t/a
                                                          March 09 2011

                 Typical mass balance


Product               I/O          Comments



Biowaste              1000 kg      Food waste 70-82%
Sorting reject+grit   130-170 kg   This number can be
                                   improved with better
                                   participation
Bio-fertilizer        ~300 kg
Biogas at 60% CH4 125-135 m3       150 m3 on pure biowaste
kWh Electricity       200-250      300 kWh on pure
                      kWh          biowaste
                                                                            March 09 2011


               DIGESTATE – BIO-FERTILIZER
                                                    Cambi bio-fertilizer as produced

The produced digestate (approx. 13 300 t/a)
do not need to go through any maturing process

At Ecopro they intend to distribute the organic
 bio-fertilizer to the agricultural sector and to
 the private sector.

                                              Scotland: Spreading the Cambi bio-fertilizer into
 Attractive bio-fertilizer due to:           grasslands


 - 100% pathogen-free & nutritious
 - Minimal odour (smells like soil)
 - 30% DS content
 - < 0,5% plastic in weight
                                                March 09 2011

          Suggestions for Norway
   Look at the neighbors (Denmark and Sweden)
    …do not repeat bad experience!
   Find the political argumentation for Biogas in the
    RE strategy (…you need political support)
   Calculate the economical “break even” for
    investment (…you need investors)
   Find the biomass and waste available for biogas
    production (…you need biomass and preferably a
    “waste problem”, ex fish industry)
   Recycling og Nutrients as a part of future strategy.
Danish Biogas Association
                             March 09 2011




     Thank you for
     your attention



     www.biogasbranchen.dk
     lars@cambi.dk

Danish Biogas Association

								
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