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									ESIF - Solar Thermal Strategy Study - SUN IN ACTION

LEBANON - Page 1

THE SOLAR THERMAL MARKET IN LEBANON
1. Present market situation and future prospects
The first timid steps for the use of solar DHW systems in Lebanon were taken approximately in 1970 by ZEOS S.E. Company. It consisted of a group of engineers and investors and stopped being in the market in 1983. In 1974, the first solar systems (open-loop) were imported from Cyprus by the firm THEA, by someone named Adib-Abu Mrad. He established the TAMACH S.A.R.L. company which is still operating today but with limited activities. The same person of TAMACH S.A.R.L. imported later some units (mainly collectors from USA), while from 1978 to 1980 he imported a few units by the firm Chromagen from Israel. Ever since and until today, he has produced solar DHW systems, mainly collectors. From 1982 to 1984, he exported 100 pieces of solar DHW systems to Syria and about 100 pieces of collectors to Saudi Arabia. The last 3 to 4 years the company is disappearing slowly from the market. Simultaneously, the company SOLIBAN (1974 to 1985) manufactured solar energy systems, and so did the company PESCO (1970 to 1990). For about 12 years, LSECO, a company that first appeared in Saida city with the Architect Mustafa Ghaddar, has been ascending gradually, and it can be said that today it is the only manufacturing company in Lebanon. It has a dignified appearance with its product and a nationwide presence, while in 1994 it also exported 200 square metres of solar collectors to Sudan. It is estimated that it now has the 60-70% of the Lebanese market. The market presented from 1976 to 1982 a small but gradual increase mainly for the central installations at hotels, hospitals and barracks (e.g. Corall beach, A-Haysi building, Comfort Hotel and Hayek Hospital, all in Beirut, and AL-NAOURA in Tripoli). A small number of solar DHW systems were sold at the same period. In the period 1982 to 1991, when the country was in an intense state of war, the market was decreasing constantly. So, during this period, all companies involved in solar energy were running out of business. It must be noted that in 1980, there was "The Lebanese Solar Energy Society" with 12 members (4 manufacturers, and the rest Consultants and Engineers devoted to Renewable Energy Studies). This Society closed down in 1982 and they are thinking of re-establishing it in 1995. The Association Lebanaise pour la Maitraise de l’ Energie (ALME) issues regular bulletins and brochures. Its staff are executives mainly from the Allied Engineering Co-operation, secondly from the Mata Engineering and Constructing, and thirdly from the Societe Libanaise d'Ingenierie. Since the end of the civil war in 1992, the country is confronting an important deficiency of electrical energy. Power failures are often for several hours per day. Although solar systems seem like a rational appliance for domestic hot water, still people prefer the solution of buying a power generator (for the electrical needs of the whole block of flats or for individual houses) for supplying electricity to small electric water heaters of 1,5 kW, badly insulated.

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ESIF - Solar Thermal Strategy Study - SUN IN ACTION

LEBANON - Page 2

From 1992 to 1994, foreign brands of solar water heaters appeared, represented by Lebanese dealers or installers. However, only very few systems are installed, mainly in new, single-family houses or villas which are being built at a relatively fast rate. This is because Beirut and Tripoli (the biggest cities) had high, 8-10-12-storeyed buildings with very small terraces and, therefore, the installation of typical solar DHW systems is difficult. The government of Lebanon has not included in its long-term energy programme any strategy related to renewable sources of energy. This is because the whole governmental effort is concentrated in works of infrastructure (damaged roads, the non-existent telephone network) and in making it possible for the State to function properly after the breaking down of the governmental mechanism due to the long-lasting civil war. The public opinion will gradually start to adopt the idea of the use of solar DHW systems. The hotels, hospitals and other commercial buildings’ market, could develop an interest in solar thermal applications relatively fast, if a suitable promotion campaign is adopted.

2. Solar collector production and sales in Lebanon
Year National production m2 18.900 400 400 500 500 500 400 400 400 1.000 3.000 4.000 30.400 Imports m2 340 Exports m2 100 200 Total sales (Home market) m2 19.140 200 400 500 500 500 400 400 400 1.060 3.200 4.150 30.850

1974-1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 TOTAL

60 200 350 950

200 500

Table 2.1 Solar collector production and sales (estimated) Data concerning production came from discussions with the manufacturers LSECO and TAMACH and the dealer Mesmo Solar.

2.1 Estimated park of solar collectors in working order Glazed collectors 25.000 square metres - 278 -

ESIF - Solar Thermal Strategy Study - SUN IN ACTION

LEBANON - Page 3

2.2 Estimated annual solar thermal energy production 25.000 m2 x 450 kWh/m2 = 11.250 MWh/year 2.3 CO2 emissions avoided in 1994 Lebanon: 11.250 MWh x 0,8 tonnes/MWh = 9.000 tonnes CO2/year

3. Product types and solar thermal applications
About 60% of solar collectors are used for central installations (hotels - hospitals) and only 40% are used for individual domestic water heaters. They operate 95% the open-loop thermosiphon type solar water heaters. Lately, many new hotels use a series of individual units compared to the old hotel installations that were only using central hot water storage tank with the collectors installed on the roof.

4. Product technology and production methods
All the storage tanks (horizontal/LSECO or vertical/TAMACH) are made of 3 mm galvanized steel sheet and they are all equiped with a 1.500 Watts electrical heater. LSECO also manufactures copper plate boilers (1,5 and 1,7 mm bottoms). They do not face any particular corrosion problem. The water pressure is 1 bar (every house has its own water tank on the roof). The absorber plates manufactured by LSECO are copper tubes with copper or aluminium fins. TAMACH is using galvanized tubes and galvanized or aluminium fins. LSECO uses in all its collectors 3 mm toughned glass (made in USA). All others use 4 mm normal glass. Insulation: Glasswool for the collectors and polyourethane (PU) or glasswool for the storage.

5. Product distribution networks, marketing and after sales methods
The only recent promotion activities are participation in exhibitions and leaflet distribution. LSECO has three large showrooms in Beirut, Tripoli and Saida.

6. Incentives and financing methods
Lebanese companies are obliged to pay around 30% customs duty for any imported solar DHW system, and they are placed either in Tariff Category No. 85/12-11 (water treating materials, water heating electromechanical devices, etc.) for industrial use, or in Tariff Category No. 85/12-21 for other uses. While the custom duty on materials or components needed for manufacturing or assembling solar water heaters (e.g. copper, electrical resistances, thermostats) is around 20%, V.A.T. is not yet added to any product sold in Lebanon. A way of direct financial aid for purchasing a solar water heater through a bank loan is already applied by one company, with relative success. - 279 -

ESIF - Solar Thermal Strategy Study - SUN IN ACTION

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7. Typical solar domestic hot water system
The sizes of the locally manufactured solar DHW the following (January 1995):  200 lt storage open loop/2 m2 collector  200 lt storage open loop/3 m2 collector  300 lt storage open loop/4 m2 collector  300 lt storage open loop/6 m2 collector systems and the relevant prices in the market are 608 ECU 810 ECU 972 ECU 1.296 ECU

The company LSECO is developing a new model of 150 lt storage aiming at reducing the price to 324 ECU. The price of the imported systems (closed loop) is 1.134 ECU for the system 200 lt/3 m2 up to 2.430 ECU for the system 300 lt/4m2. VAT is not applied yet to any product sold in Lebanon. The installation cost of a typical system varies from 30 to 80 ECU, plus tubing cost. The cost of installing a DHW system is relatively high for medium income families. At this moment, only owners of villas and large apartments in new buildings can afford such an expense.

8. Conventional water heating systems and energy prices
Solar DHW systems are replacing electric water heating. The electricity price for households is about 32 ECU/MWh (0,032 ECU/kWh, January 1995).

9. Prospects for market development
Although the Lebanon rebuilding is ongoing, there is no indication yet of how a solar market will be developed. The lack of a governmental strategy must be overcome, but there is no local solar industry strong enough to push to this direction. Still, the opportunity to develop the market is open because of the insufficient electricity network. Technology and marketing expertise from Europe and neighbouring countries, through the cooperation with local manufacturers and distributors, could help overcome the existing barriers. Legislation favourable to solar systems, like that in Israel, could certainly create a fast growing solar market.

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ESIF - Solar Thermal Directory - SUN IN ACTION

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SOLAR THERMAL DIRECTORY 1. Manufacturers and distributors of solar thermal equipment

MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL SERVICES CO. LTD. (MESCO) P.O. Box 14-5344, Beirut Tel.: +961-1-839945, 395192, 831763  Contact: Mr. Mohamed Nehme  Product: installer & retailer of various materials for SDHW WEIL PAUL AND SES FILS P.O. Box 11-287, Achrafhieh, Beirut Ariston Bld., Adis Ishak Str. Tel.: +961-1-200128, 200129, 423126  Contact: Mr. Charbel Kayata, Sahim Mehyo  Product: Distributor of Ariston-Merloni and Solar Systems MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TRADING ASSOC. P.O. Box 7484, Beirut Haddad Bld. / Emile Lahoud Str. Sioufi, Ashrafhieh Tel.: +961-1-398271, 398927, 398270, 398943  Contact: Mr. Antoine Younan, Sonheil Matar  Activity: Distributor of various materials and SDHW ENERMAN S.A.R.L Zonk Mekael / Highway Tel.: +961-9-917275, 917274, +961-1-215518  Contact: Mr. Georges Ibrahim  Activity: Import of components and assembly of SDHW systems

LEBANESE SOLAR ENERGY CO. (LSECO) P.O. Box 100, Sidon Tel.: +961-7-721813, 725421 +961-1-864932, 868279 (Beirut)  Contact: Mr. Mustafa Gadar (owner)  Manufacturer: Domestic thermosiphon solar water heaters  Beginning of solar activity: 1982 TAMACH S.A.R.L. P.O. Box 165878, Beirut Tel.: +961-1-498904, 480062, 217902  Contact: Mr. Adib Abu Mrad  Manufacturer: Domestic thermosiphon solar water heaters  Beginning of solar activity: (1974) 1992 SOLIBAN S.A.L. P.O. Box 11-5040, Anker, Beirut Tel.: +961-1-411351  Contact: Mr. El Khoury Nouhad  Manufacturer of solar DHW systems (1974 to 1985). Now acting as distributor - installer. E.S.W. Regional Dahr-El-Ayn / El-Koura Tel.: +961-6-433530  Products: solar DHW systems, branch of ESW / Cyprus SOLAHART / LEBANON Beirut Tel.: +961-1-314985  Contact: Engineer Abdullah Ahmad  Branch of SOLAHART / Australia ENERGIE-TECHNIK Jal-El-Dib-Maln Road, Beirut P.O. Box 90-1008 Tel.: +961-1-418307/8 Fax: +961-1-417638  Contact: Mr. Jdeidet-El-Matn  Branch of Solar Energie Technik / Germany MESMO-SOLAR P.O. Box 508, Tripoli Tel./Fax: +1212-4783647  Contact: Mr. Walid Mohamed Zreik  Branch of MALTEZOS SDHW / Greece  Beginning of solar activity: 1993 WEBCO NORD Condore Str. - Dandashi Building Tripoli Tel.: +961-1-830068, 833713  Branch of HELIOAKMI SDHW / Greece  Beginning of solar activity: 1994

2.

Technical Consultants specialised in solar projects

PESCO INTERNATIONAL S.A.L. Younes Bld., Zook P.O. Box 11-9666, Beirut Tel.: +961-9-917274, 917275, +961-1-215517/8  Contact: Mr. Nadim Saikali  Manufacturer of solar collectors (1972-1990). Now acting as engineering and solar studies consultant.

3.

Principal sources of information

ARAB-CONSTRUCTION WORLD P.O. Box 13-5121, Chouran, Beirut Fax: +357-9-515347 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY / BEIRUT P.O. BOX 111801, Sonnayeh 2100 Beirut Tel.: +961-1-353390/3 Fax: +961-1-602373 AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BEIRUT Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department P.O. BOX 11-236 Tel.: +961-1-350000 ext.: 3594 Fax: +212-478-1995  Contact: Prof. Nesreen Ghaddar Ph.D., Prof. Hijazim ASSOCIATION LIBANAISE POUR LA MAITRISE DE L' ENERGIE (ALME) B.P. 155-465 or 50 184, Beirut Tel.: +961-1-631251, +961-9-937655

4.

Testing facilities
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ESIF - Solar Thermal Directory - SUN IN ACTION

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AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BEIRUT Mechanical Engineering Department Tel.: +961-1-350000  Contact: Prof. Nescreen Chaddard

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