The SQUEEZE by mujB2kr

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 34

									introduction

               DAVID GEIGER
               BAE – STRUCTURAL OPTION
overview
proposal
goals
depth
breadth




                DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                           DULLES, VIRGINIA
conclusion




                         SENIOR THESIS PRESENTATION
                                 14 APRIL 2009
   introduction                                     DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                    INTRODUCTION                                      DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                         SENIOR THESIS 2009
                   Building Overview
overview




                   Proposal Summary
proposal




                   Goals

                   Depth Study
goals




                     • Structural System Redesign




                                                                                         DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                   Breadth Study
depth




                     • Cost Comparison
                     • Schedule Comparison
breadth




                     • 7th Floor Acoustics


                   Conclusions
conclusion
introduction                                            DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                  OVERVIEW                                                DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                             SENIOR THESIS 2009
                7 Story Commercial/Office Building
    overview




                  • (7) Stories of office space above grade
                  • (1) Sub-grade floor
                       Houses building services and amenities
proposal




                Square Footage: 202,110 gross floor area

                Site Area: 12.37 acres
goals




                                                                                             DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                Project Duration
depth




                  • Fall 2000 – Spring 2002

                Project Delivery Method
breadth




                  • Design-Bid-Build
conclusion
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 OVERVIEW                                                      DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                  SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Location:   21000 Atlantic Boulevard
    overview




                           Dulles, Virginia 20101
                                25 miles northwest of Washington, D.C.
                                5 minutes from Dulles International Airport
proposal
goals




                                                                                                  DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
breadth
conclusion
introduction                               DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 OVERVIEW                                    DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Project Team
    overview




                   Owner:
proposal




                   Architect:



                   Structural Engineer:
goals




                                                                                DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth




                   MEP Engineer:            KCF-SHG Inc.
breadth




                   Civil Engineer:
conclusion




                   General Contractor:
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 OVERVIEW                                                DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                            SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Existing Floor System
    overview




                   •   7” one-way slab on post-tensioned beam system
                   •   F’c = 5000 psi
                   •   ½” DIA. 7 wire, low-relaxation strand
                   •   48”x 17” post-tensioned beams
proposal




                   •   3-day curing time before post-tensioning
                   •   40’ spans


               Existing Columns
goals




                   •   Cast-in-place




                                                                                            DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                   •   24”x 24”
depth




                   •   f’c = 5000 psi (Floors C-2)
                   •   f’c = 4000 psi (Floors 4-PH)
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                             DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 OVERVIEW                                                        DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                    SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Existing Lateral System
    overview




                      Ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames in both directions
                         • Post-tensioned beams
                         • Reinforced columns
                         • Slab drops
proposal




                                                     • Frames in east-west direction
goals




                                                                                                    DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
breadth




                 • Frames in north-south direction
conclusion
introduction                                                     DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                       OVERVIEW                                                         DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                           SENIOR THESIS 2009
                   Existing Foundation
    overview




                           •   5” slab on grade reinforced with 6x6 – W2.0xW2.0 WWF
                           •   Strap beams ranging from 24”x 36” to 48”x 48”
                           •   24” foundation wall
                           •   Pile caps
proposal




                           •   Cast-in-place caissons with diameters ranging from 30” to 75”
goals




                                                                                                           DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
breadth
conclusion




               South Elevation
introduction                                            DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 PROPOSAL                                                       DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                   SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Proposal Summary
overview




                    To conduct a comparison between the existing concrete system and
                        a steel redesign to determine which building material resulted in
                        more benefits, both in regards to time and money
    proposal




                        • Gravity System
                            o Composite metal deck system

                        • Lateral System
goals




                            o Ordinary steel moment frames




                                                                                                   DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                        • Foundation System
depth




                            o Resist overturning
                            o Reduce number of caissons, if possible
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                              DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 GOALS                                                             DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                      SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Design Goals
overview




                    Respect the current column layout to maintain large spans and
                       open floor plans

                    Limit total floor depth to preserve floor-to-ceiling heights of 9’
proposal




                       and prevent additional façade costs

                    Establish a design that quickens construction and decreases total
                       project costs
    goals




                    Preserve a suitable working environment within the 7th floor




                                                                                                      DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                       office space
depth




                    Become more familiar with steel design and construction
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                   DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                            SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Floor System
overview




                    Composite metal deck

                    Chapter 4, ASCE 7-05
proposal




                    Vulcraft Product Catalog

                    Design governed by fire rating
goals




                    Benefits
                       • Speed of steel construction




                                                                                            DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                       • No shoring
    depth




                    Drawbacks
                       • Maximum clear span of 17’
breadth




                       • Infill beam needed
                       • Larger slab depth
conclusion
introduction                                             DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                     DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                              SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Floor System
overview




                    Infill beams

                    Chapter 4, ASCE 7-05
proposal




                    13th Ed. AISC Steel Manual

                    Design governed by ΔLL
goals




                    Benefits
                       • Can span 40’




                                                                                              DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                       • Lighter than concrete
    depth




                    Drawbacks
                       • Larger beam depth
breadth




                       • Needs fireproofing

                    In order to keep floor-to-ceiling
                        heights at 9’, need to camber
conclusion
introduction                                                  DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                          DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                   SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Camber
overview
proposal




                      Reduces overall cost of infill beams
                          compared to no camber
goals




                                                                                                   DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion




               Typical floor layout of cambered beams
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                    DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                             SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Lateral System
overview




                    Ordinary steel moment frames in both the east-west
                        and north-south directions

                    Beam to column connections are fixed by providing
proposal




                        flange welds

                    Benefits
                       • Lighter framing
goals




                       • Better in tension
                       • Can span the necessary 40’




                                                                                             DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth




                    Drawbacks
                       • Beam depth
                       • Expensive connections
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                            DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                    DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                             SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Lateral System Design Loads
overview




                    Wind
                     • ASCE 7-05, Chapter 6
                       o Method 2
                       o Serviceability controlled strength
proposal




                              in east-west direction
goals




                                                                                             DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                   DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                            SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Lateral System Design Loads
overview




                    Seismic
                     • ASCE 7-05, Chapter 12
                       o Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure
                       o Controls strength in north-south direction
proposal
goals




                                                                                            DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion
conclusion   breadth   depth               goals   proposal     overview                              introduction
                                                                                                            DEPTH




                                                                     East-West




                            North-South
                                                                              Lateral System Layout
                                                                                                            DULLES, VIRGINIA
                                                                                                                               DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE




DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION                               SENIOR THESIS 2009
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                       DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Lateral System Design Loads
overview




                    Inherent Torsion
                     • Mt = V(e)

                    Accidental
proposal




                     • Mt,a = V (e + .05L)

                    Minimal effects due to symmetry
                        • Maximum shear caused by torsion less than 1 kip per frame
goals




                                                                                                DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                         DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                 DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                          SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Lateral System Member Design
overview




                    Preliminary hand calculations
                     • Design loads from ASCE 7-05 procedures
                     • Portal Frame Analysis for Moments
                       o Exterior, façade-supporting beam
proposal




                           • deflection of L/500 controlled
                           • used conjugate beam method
                       o Column, interior
                           • Table 6-1, AISC Steel Manual
goals




                           • Interaction equation
                           • Iteration until OK




                                                                                          DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                   DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                            SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Lateral System Member Design
overview




                    RAM Analysis
                     • Design loads from ASCE 7-05
                       o Beams
                           • drift controlled design
proposal




                           • repetition of members
                       o Column
                           • used Eq. H1-1a, interaction equation
                           • drift controlled design
goals




                           • repetition of members




                                                                                            DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                              DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                            DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                     SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Serviceability
overview




                     Wind
                      • h/400
                      • h/500 for members supporting precast or curtain wall façade
proposal




                     Seismic
                      • .020hsx
                      • amplification factor
                           o δx = (Cd x δxe)/I
goals




                     Drifts taken from RAM using ASCE 7-05 lateral loads




                                                                                                     DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                     Serviceability controls design in the east-west direction only
    depth
breadth
conclusion
introduction                                             DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                         DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                  SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Floor Depth
overview




                    Due to serviceability standards, beams as large as W18x130’s
                     were needed for typical floor framing
proposal
goals




                                                                                                  DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth
conclusion




                    Preserving ceiling-to-floor height of 9’ not achieved,
                     must use 8’-8”
introduction                                          DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                  DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                           SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Foundation
overview




                    Overturning moment calculated in both directions
proposal
goals




                                                                                           DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                    North-south direction good
    depth




                     by inspection

                    East-west direction checked
breadth




                     for overturning
                        • .9D + 1.6W

                    Mresisting > Moverturning
conclusion
introduction                                          DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 DEPTH                                                   DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                            SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Foundation
overview




                    Intermediate caissons removed
                    84 C.Y. of concrete saved
                    Loads on caissons checked using cantilever method
                        and compared to existing loads on plans
proposal




                        • Live load reduction
                        • 1.2D + 1.6W + L + .5Lr
goals




                                                                                            DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
    depth
breadth




                              1        2
conclusion
introduction                                          DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 BREADTH                                                       DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                  SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Schedule Analysis
overview




                    Existing Concrete System
                       • R.S. Means
                       • Multiple crews used for forming and post-tensioning
                       • Construction zones: 5
proposal




                       • Column construction per floor: 30 days
                       • Slab and beam construction per floor: 10 days
                       • Post-tensioning per floor: 25 days
                       • Total construction time: 258 days
goals




                                                                                                  DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
    breadth
conclusion
introduction                                          DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 BREADTH                                                DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                           SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Schedule Analysis
overview




                    Steel Redesign
                        • R.S. Means
                        • Single crews used
                        • Construction zones: 3
proposal




                        • Framing construction per floor: 15 days
                        • Deck and detailing: 45 days
                        • SOD preparation and placement: 18 days
                        • Total construction time: 96 days
goals




                                                                                           DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
    breadth
conclusion
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 BREADTH                                                       DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                  SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Cost Analysis
overview




                    Existing System
                       • R.S. Means
proposal
goals




                    Steel Redesign




                                                                                                  DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                        • R.S. Means
depth
    breadth
conclusion




                    Overall estimated savings of approximately $1.8 million
                    Moment connection costs not included
introduction                                          DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 BREADTH                                                DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                           SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Breadth Comparison
overview




                    Cost and Schedule comparison
proposal
goals




                                                                                           DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth




                                                                 *
    breadth
conclusion




                     * Moment connection costs not included
introduction                                              DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 BREADTH                                                          DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                     SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Acoustic Study
overview




                    Checked for sound infiltration in the 7th floor office space due to the
                         reduction in depth of the floor slab
proposal
goals




                                                                                                     DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
    breadth
conclusion




                    Existing PH Floor                                Existing Roof
introduction                                           DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                 BREADTH                                                    DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                               SENIOR THESIS 2009
               Acoustics Study
overview
proposal
goals




                  Redesigned PH Floor                         Redesigned Roof




                                                                                               DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth
    breadth
conclusion




                    Result: No sound penetration found in either case
introduction                                               DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                   CONCLUSION                                                     DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                     SENIOR THESIS 2009
                 Were goals met?
overview




                      Respect the current column layout to maintain large spans and
                           open floor plans
                                                                             YES
proposal




                      Limit total floor depth to prevent additional façade costs and
                            preserve floor-to-ceiling heights of 9’
                                                                      YES/NO
goals




                      Establish a design that quickens construction and decreases total
                           project costs




                                                                                                     DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                                                                             YES
depth




                      Preserve a suitable working environment within the 7th floor
                            office space
breadth




                                                                             YES
                      To become more familiar with steel design
    conclusion




                                                                             YES
introduction                                             DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                   CONCLUSION                                                    DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                    SENIOR THESIS 2009
                 Recommendation
overview




                      Gravity/Lateral system redesign
                         • Applicable to DTC One
                         • Minimal change to architecture
proposal




                      Schedule Analysis
                          • reduced schedule by an estimated 162 days
                          • benefits owner with sooner building opening
goals




                      Cost Analysis
                         • Material costs went up, but overall costs went down




                                                                                                    DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
                         • Estimated an approximate savings of $1.8 million
depth




                      Acoustic Analysis
                         • No new sound penetration caused by the thinner slab
breadth




                      Redesign of DTC One in steel is feasible
    conclusion
introduction                                                     DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE
                     CONCLUSION                                                         DULLES, VIRGINIA




                                                                                                           SENIOR THESIS 2009
                 Acknowledgements
overview




                 I would like to thank the following people for assisting me in this thesis research
                              process:

                 Owner Representatives:
proposal




                           Frank Gambino – Lerner Enterprises, Inc.
                           Kelly Burnette – Lerner Enterprises, Inc.

                 Industry Professionals:
                             Michael Sladki – Cates Engineering, Ltd.
goals




                             Walter Rabe – Schanbel Engineering, LLC




                                                                                                           DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION
depth




                 Advisor:
                               Dr. Linda Hanagan – Penn State University

                 Colleagues:
breadth




                               Benjamin Follett – The Bat Cave
                               Jeremy McGrath – The Bat Cave
    conclusion




                  And a special thanks to my family and friends for all of their love and support.
conclusion   breadth   depth   goals   proposal     overview            introduction




                                                           Questions?
                                                                              CONCLUSION
                                                                              DULLES, VIRGINIA
                                                                                                 DULLES TOWN CENTER BUILDING ONE




DAVID GEIGER – STRUCURAL OPTION                   SENIOR THESIS 2009

								
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