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									Intelligence

 Chapter 11
            What is intelligence?
• Socially constructed; whatever society deems
  intelligent
• Two controversies regarding intelligence:
   – Is intelligence a single overall ability or several specific
     abilities?
   – With the tools neuroscience now offers, can we locate and
     measure intelligence within the brain?
 Psychometric Approach (Factor Analysis)

• Study intelligence by emphasizing analysis of
  products of intelligence, esp. IQ scores
• Charles Spearman (1904, 1927
  – Scores on all almost all tests of cognitive ability were
    positively correlated
  – g and s
  – g was a measure of mental force or intellectual power
  – Correlations that could not be explained by g or s are
    group factors
     Psychometric Approach cont.
• L.L. Thurstone (1938)
   – Opposed Spearman’s theories
   – Did not find one dominating g factor
   – Found 7 independent primary mental abilities
      •   Numerical ability
      •   Reasoning
      •   Verbal fluency
      •   Spatial visualization
      •   Perceptual ability
      •   Memory
      •   Verbal comprehension
   – Did not deny existence of g, but not as important as
     primary mental abilities
    Psychometric approach cont.
  – Spearman argued that g tells us most of what we
    need to know about a person's cognitive ability
• Raymond Cattell (1963)
  – Agreed with Spearman
  – 2 kinds of g
     • fluid: basic power of reasoning and solving problems
     • Crystallized: specific knowledge gained as a result of
       applying fluid intelligence
 Information Processing Approach
• Analyzes the process involved in intelligent
  behavior rather than test scores and other
  products of intelligence
  – What mental operations are required to complete
    a task?
  – Relates basic mental processes of perception,
    learning, memory, and cognition to intelligence
• Amount of attention paid
• Processing speed
    Triarchic theory of intelligence
• Robert Sternberg (1988b, 1999)
• 3 types of intelligence:
   – Analytical-measured by traditional IQ tests
   – Creative intelligence
   – Practical intelligence
• Intelligence not just “book smarts”
   – How do you measure this?
           Multiple Intelligences
• Howard Gardner (1993)
  – Focused on how people learn and use symbol
    systems (language, math, music)
  – Does not require same abilities and processes
  – 7 specific intelligences (1998)
     • Use several sources to measure intelligences that cannot
       be assessed by standard tests
  – Allows all people to be highly intelligent in some area
  – Critics argue that some of the intelligences tested
    have nothing to do with the concept of intelligence
         Emotional Intelligence
• Nancy Kantor and John Kihlstrom (1987)
  – Social intelligence: ability to comprehend social
    situations and manage oneself successfully
• Emotionally intelligent people are self-aware
  – Can effectively manage their emotions and
    impulses
• MEIS developed to assess emotional
  intelligence and its components
  – Ability to perceive emotions, understand
    emotions and regulate emotions
DIVERSITY IN COGNITIVE ABILITIES
                    Creativity
• Ability to produce new high quality ideas or
  products
  – How is this assessed? “The Consequences Test”
     • Divergent thinking
  – Components that make up creativity:
     • Expertise
     • A set of creative skills
     • Motivation to pursue creative production for internal
       reasons
     • Adventuresome personality
     • Creative environment
• Is creativity genetic?
      Is Intelligence Neurologically
               Measureable?
• Correlation b/t brain size and intelligence
  – Can this correlation be made? Why/Why not?
• Processing Speed
  – Earl Hunt (1983)
     • How fast you retrieve info from memory
  – Perceptual speed
  – Neurological speed
         Assessing Intelligence
• Aptitude vs. achievement tests
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
  – Includes 14 subtests
  – 7 measure verbal skills; 7 measure performance
    skills
              Test Construction
• Have two major advantages over interviews
  and other means of evaluation:
  – Standardization
  – Summarized with a score
     • Allow for the calculation of norms
  – To determine the value of test, reliability and
    validity most important
          Test Construction cont.
• Reliability
   – Degree to which a test can be repeated with the
     same results
   – To determine reliability, compute correlation
     coefficient
• Validity
   – Make sure the test predicts what it is supposed to
     predict
      • Must have content validity
      • Criterion-related validity (predictive validity)

								
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