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					ICT in Indian Higher Education Ranjit Singh Senior Lecturer, Lovely Professional University Phagwara Punjab India Dinesh Kumar Lecturer Baba Moni Ji Maharaj College Of Education Bathinda Punjab India d.kchawla@yahoo.com ranjitsinghkapil@yahoo.co.in Keywords : Communication, Interaction with teacher, technologies, Home learning, life long learning

Abstract Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) which include radio, television, as well as newer digital technology such as computer and the internet. ICTs are a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, formal and non-formal, to previously underserved constituencies—scattered and rural populations. ICTs helps to devleop the 21st century skills which include digital age literacy, inventive thinking, higher-order thinking and sound reasoning, effective communication, and high productivity. It provides opportunities to deploy innovative teaching methodologies and to deploy more interesting material that create an interest in the students. But there are number of challenges that need to be understood before delving into a discussion of the use of ICT in higher education which included inadequate availability of technology, poor infrastructure, resistance to change and content of language.

ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and are defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a ―diverse set of technological

tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.‖ These technologies include computers, the

Internet,

broadcasting

technologies

(radio

and

television),

and

teleconferencing, education satellite etc. The Open University of the United

Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in

the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily

on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent

years, online programming. Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open

University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video,

broadcast radio and television, and audio conferencing technologies. ICTs

promises to reduce that isolation, and to open access to knowledge in ways

unimaginable not long ago.

The Sub-regional Conference of South, South-West and Central Asia

on Higher Education held in New Delhi 25-26 February 2009, the President Smt. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil said ―we should try to use the proper of

information and communication technologies to reach the last of the untaught

particularly in the rural area. ICT can be used for adopting better teaching

and learning practice and can enhance the sharing of available resources in

term of books; journals and learning materials. We must also focus on

surmounting the digital divide, while attempting to use the power of ICT. It will to spread the reach of education and to improve its quality.‖ There are three

distinct uses of ICT are discernible in the field of education, namely

1. ICTs for Information Processing – Computers and related technology 2. ICTs for Information Dissemination – Internet, Telecommunications,

Mobile Phones, Radio, etc. 3. ICTs for Information Delivery – Multimedia, Internet, Television,

Telecommunication, Radio and Computers

ICTs are a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities,

both formal and non-formal, to previously underserved constituencies—

scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education

due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women,

persons with disabilities, and the elderly, as well as all others who for

reasons of cost or because of time constraints are unable to enroll on

campus.

ICTs prepare better teachers Our society needs quality teachers in the 21st century. ICTs increase the 21st

century skills in which includes digital age literacy (consisting of functional

literacy, visual literacy, scientific literacy, technological literacy, information

literacy, cultural literacy, and global awareness), inventive thinking, higher-

order thinking and sound reasoning, effective communication, and high

productivity.

Digital Age Literacy

Functional literacy

Ability to decipher meaning and express ideas in a

range of media; this includes the use of images,

graphics, video, charts and graphs or visual literacy

Scientific literacy

Understanding of both the theoretical and applied

aspects of science and mathematics

Technological literacy

Competence

in

the

use

of

information

and

communication technologies

Information literacy

Ability to find, evaluate and make appropriate use of

information, including via the use of ICTs

Cultural literacy

Appreciation of the diversity of cultures

Global awareness

Understanding of how nations, corporations, and

communities all over the world are interrelated

Inventive Thinking

Adaptability

Ability to adapt and manage in a complex,

interdependent world

Curiosity

Desire to know

Creativity

Ability to use imagination to create new things

Risk-taking

Ability to take risks

Higher-Order Thinking

Creative problem-solving and logical thinking that

result in sound judgments

Effective Communication

Teaming

Ability to work in a team

Collaboration and interpersonal Ability to interact smoothly and work effectively with

skills

others

Personal and social responsibility

Be accountable for the way they use ICTs and to

learn to use ICTs for the public good

Interactive communication

Competence in conveying, transmitting, accessing

and understanding information

High Productivity

Ability to prioritize, plan, and manage programs and

projects to achieve the desired results Ability to

apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life

contexts to create relevant,

high-quality products

On the other hand, my experiences with other teachers and

colleagues found that use of ICT faces many challenges in the development

of higher education. We stand on the first stair before left many stairs to

achieve the goals. There are require urgent attention list below:

Inadequate availability of technology: A major difficulty faced is incurring

the high initial investment in establishing a computer lab and in procuring

adequate number of computers. It is said to be equally hard to regularly

provide for maintenance and repairs especially if the institution is in rural

areas. Internet connectivity in rural geographies is still very limited both in

terms of bandwidth and accessibility which makes its use limited in many

institutions.

Lack of infrastructure support Apart from suitable physical infrastructure ,

Irregular power supply, internet access, adequate computers, power backup,

suitable configuration, suitable work place in the labs, etc. and the cost of

software needed to support the various operational needs and access to

information still are issues of concern and tumbling blocks in effective use of

ICT

Lack of orientation of teacher educators about technology:

Teacher

educators have knowledge of the potential of ICT in education but most of

them do not have sufficient hands-on experience and exposure to ICTs. Due

to lack of accessibility, they rarely resort to using it; and many may not have

a real perception of what it entails.

Resistance to change: Adoption of technology requires not merely the

competence to use it, but a different view of the entire process and its

components:

learning,

learners

and

teacher

themselves,

pedagogic

ramifications, assessment of learning, and the entire organization. Though

some of the Teacher educators, are willing to adopt technology, most of them

exhibit a natural reluctance to use it, as they may have had no exposure and

hands on training in their initial training period and at subsequent teaching

assignments.

Theoretical basis curriculum: our educational curriculum is based on the theoretical aspect. We add the aspects of ICT in the curriculum on theoretical based only. We don’t give knowledge to them about use of ICT in practical ways. Content of Language English is the dominant language of the Internet. An estimated 80% of online content is in English. A large proportion of the educational software produced in the world market is in English. In India, English language proficiency is not high, especially outside metropolitan areas; this represents a serious barrier to maximizing the educational benefits of the World Wide Web. Where English is a second language it is imperative that teaching and learning materials that match national curriculum requirements and have locally meaningful content, preferably in the local languages, be developed.

From the above discussion we concluded that we should be tackled these

obstacles and reforms in higher education in the aspect of increasing the

positive attitude toward ICT, provide funds by government for better physical

infrastructures as well as environment. I want to prefer that universities

should take more steps to increase the awareness about the use of ICT.

Universities should start compulsory classes to use of ICT for teacher

educator.

References Anzalone, Stephen,―ICTs to Support Learning in Classrooms in SEAMEO Countries: At What Costs?‖. Paper prepared for SEAMEO conf. In Bangkok,March 26-9, 2001.

Blurton, C.,―New Directions of ICT-Use in Education‖. Available online http://www.unesco.org/education/ educprog/lwf/dl/edict.pdf; accessed 7 August 2002.

EnGauge. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory; available from http://www.ncrel.org/engauge/skills/21skills.htm; accessed 31 May 2002.

World Bank (1998), The World Development Report 1998/99. Quoted in Blurton, C., New Directions ofICT-Use in Education.

http://www.digitallearning.in/articles/articledetails.asp?articleid=1958&typ=COVER%20STORY http://www.ignou.ac.in

http://www.open.ac.uk


				
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