Overseas Earnings/Balance of Trade by w3QJ0p6

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 16

									CHAPTER 15
International Comparison
Table 15.1   Key data
Table 15.2   Building labour rates in 2008
Table 15.3   Building material supply prices in 2008
Table 15.4   Examples of building costs in 2008 - residential, retail & hotels
Table 15.5   Examples of building costs in 2008 - offices & industrial
Table 15.6   Inflation rates and forecasts
Table 15.7   Production of constructional steelwork
Table 15.8   Outward and inward net foreign direct investment in the construction industry
Text         Construction Sector: Trade Development
Table 15.1 Key data

                                                           Exchange       Exchange          Exchange                                         Sales Tax
                                                                                                                Pricing Key city
Country                                Local Currency                                                                                      VAT (& the like)
                                                            Rate1 / £     Rate1 / euro      Rate1 / $               location
                                                                                                                                        General        Building
Europe
BELGIUM                              Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Brussels                     21.0%            21.0%
BULGARIA                             Lev                           2.25                ..               ..   Sofia                        20.0%            20.0%
CROATIA                              Kuna                          8.40              7.39          6.31      Zagreb                       23.0%            23.0%
CYPRUS                               Euro                          1.15              0.57          0.49      Nicosia                      15.0%            15.0%
                                                                                                                                                                       3
CZECH REPUBLIC                       Koruna                      29.78              29.30        25.03       Prague                       19.0%            19.0%
DENMARK                              Koruna                        8.57                ..               ..   Copenhagen                   25.0%            25.0%
FINLAND                              Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Helsinki                     22.0%            22.0%
FRANCE                               Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Paris                        19.6%            19.6%
GERMANY                              Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Berlin                       19.0%            19.0%
GREECE                               Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Athens                       19.0%            19.0%
HUNGARY                              Forint                     312.86          253.32          216.39       Budapest                     20.0%            20.0%
IRELAND                              Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Dublin                       21.0%            13½%
ISRAEL                               Shekel                        5.88                ..               ..   Tel Aviv                     15.5%            15.5%
ITALY                                Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Milan                        20.0%            20.0%
MONTENEGRO                           Euro                          1.15                ..               ..   Tivat                        17.0%            17.0%
NETHERLANDS                          Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Amsterdam                    19.0%            19.0%
NORWAY                               Nor.Krone                     9.23              7.87          6.72      Oslo                         25.0%            25.0%
                                                                                                                                                                       2
POLAND                               Zloty                         4.59              3.98          3.40      Warsaw                       22.0%            22.0%
PORTUGAL                             Euro                          1.15                ..               ..   Lisbon                       21.0%            21.0%
ROMANIA                              Leu                           4.75              3.64          3.11      Bucharest                    19.0%            19.0%
SLOVAKIA                             Koruna                        1.15             38.69        33.05       Bratislava                   19.0%            19.0%
SPAIN                                Euro                          1.15              1.00          0.85      Barcelona                    16.0%            16.0%
SWEDEN                               Krona                       11.30               9.61          8.21      Stockholm                    25.0%            25.0%
SWITZERLAND                          Swiss Franc                   1.69                ..               ..   Zurich                        7.6%               7.6%
                                                                                                                                                                       4
UNITED KINGDOM                       £ Sterling                    1.00              0.68          0.58      London                       17.5%            17.5%



International (excluding North America and the Caribbean)
                                                                                                                                                                       5
ARGENTINA                          Peso                            6.06              3.45          2.94      Buenos Aires                 21.0%            21.0%
AUSTRALIA                            Aus $                         1.75              1.60          1.37      Melbourne/Sydney             10.0%            10.0%
BRAZIL                               Real                          2.89              2.59          2.22      São Paulo                            ..          5.0%
CHINA                                Yuan                        10.74               9.46          8.08      Shanghai                     17.0%                NIL
EGYPT                                Egyptian £                    8.63              6.75          5.76      Alexandra                    10.0%               2.9%
HONG KONG                            HK $                        12.21               9.08          7.75      Hong Kong                       NIL               NIL
                                                                                                                                                                       6
INDIA                                Indian Rupee                72.49              53.53        45.73       New Delhi                    12.5%            10.4%
INDONESIA                            Rupiah                   14575.20        11811.90        10090.00       Jakarta                      10.0%            10.0%
ISRAEL                               Shekel                        5.88              5.53          4.72      Tel Aviv                     15.5%            15.5%
JAPAN                                Yen                        142.86          139.69          119.33       Tokyo                         5.0%               5.0%
KENYA                                Kenya Shilling             120.83              87.80        75.00       Nairobi                      16.0%            16.0%
LEBANON                              Lebanese £                2360.81         1760.07         1503.50       Beirut                       10.0%            10.0%
MALAYSIA                             Ringgit                       5.32              4.43          3.78      Kuala Lumpur                    NIL               NIL
NEW ZEALAND                          NZ $                          2.23              1.71          1.46      Auckland                     12.5%            12.5%
OMAN                                 Rial Omani                    0.61                ..               ..                         ..             ..              ..
PHILIPPINES                          Peso                        73.89              63.79        54.49       Manila                       10.0%            10.0%
SAUDI ARABIA                         Riyal                         5.90              4.39          3.75      Riyadh                          NIL               NIL
SINGAPORE                            S$                            2.21              1.99          1.70      Singapore                     5.0%               5.0%
SOUTH AFRICA                         Rand                        11.95               7.85          6.70      Various Cities               14.0%            14.0%
SRI LANKA                            Rupee                      179.71          119.32          101.93       Colombo                      15.0%            15.0%
STATE OF QATAR                       Riyal                         5.72              4.26          3.64      Doha                            NIL               NIL
TURKEY                               New Lira                      2.37                                      Ankara                       18.0%            18.0%
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                 Dirham                        5.78              4.30          3.67      Dubai                           N/A               N/A
VIETNAM                              Dong                     29480.70        18619.20        15905.00       Hanoi                        10.0%            10.0%


USA                                  US $                          1.57              1.17          1.00      Various Cities               Varies           Varies
MEXICO                               Peso                        20.24              12.46        10.65       Mexico City                  15.0%            15.0%
CAYMAN ISLANDS                       CI $                          1.29              0.97          0.83      George Town                     NIL               NIL
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS               US $                          1.57              1.17          1.00      Tortola                         NIL               NIL
BARBADOS                             Barb $                        3.14                ..               ..   Christ Church                15.0%            15.0%

Notes
 - = nil: n/a = not applicable.
1. Exchange rates current at 17 February 2010 as published in the Financial Times
2. 7% on Residential
3. 5% on Residential
4. Changed from 15% to 17.5% on 1st January 2010
5. Except housing at 10.5%
6. Service tax for labour portion of Building Works

Source of data: International Construction Cost Survey, Gardiner & Theobald LLP.
Contact: Brian Livingston 020 7209 3000
Table 15.2 Building labour rates1 in 2009
                                                                                                                                           £/hour
                                                             Basic rate2                                        All-in rate3,4
                                            Unskilled        Semi-Skilled       Skilled         Unskilled      Semi-Skilled           Skilled
Country
Europe
BELGIUM                                        26.05            27.79            29.53            33.87            36.47              38.21
BULGARIA                                        1.33             1.89             2.31             1.69              2.33                2.82
CROATIA                                         2.98             4.52             5.95             5.12              7.62             10.12
CYPRUS                                          6.86             7.47             8.25            12.23            13.03              14.50
CZECH REPUBLIC                                  4.20            10.07            17.63             8.40            16.79              28.55
FINLAND                                         9.93            12.95            15.72            16.87            22.01              26.72
FRANCE                                         10.61            12.87            14.28            19.10            22.54              26.55
GERMANY                                         9.54            13.36            15.35            15.99            22.89              26.65
GREECE                                          5.64             6.51             8.25             9.55            10.86              13.89
HUNGARY                                         2.59             5.21             9.91             4.47              9.27             11.06
IRELAND                                        12.92            14.70            16.15            23.40            26.72              29.36
ITALY                                          13.68            15.50            17.37            25.53            25.99              27.76
MONTENEGRO                                      2.95             3.80             5.06            28.14            30.13                 7.59
NETHERLANDS                                             ..                 ..             ..      30.40            34.74              36.47
NORWAY                                         13.87            19.84            25.47            34.69            41.19              44.98
POLAND                                          3.92             4.36             6.76             5.45              6.11                9.81
ROMANIA                                         2.00             3.16             3.79             2.74              4.00                5.27
SLOVAKIA                                        4.52             5.21             6.95             6.51              6.95                9.99
SPAIN                                          18.24            18.24            19.11            20.84            21.71              24.32
SWEDEN                                         16.38                       ..    16.91            31.95                          ..   33.10
UNITED KINGDOM                                  7.75             8.35            10.30            10.30            11.16              13.67


International (excluding North America and the Caribbean)
Argentina                                       5.70             6.20             6.73            11.98            13.02              14.32
China                                           0.73             0.92             1.09             1.25              1.58                1.87
Egypt
Hong kong                                       5.81                              9.17             6.71                               10.56
India                                           0.17             0.26             0.34             0.26              0.34                0.43
Indonesia                                       0.62             0.69             0.79             0.86              0.98                1.10
Israel                                          8.50             9.35                             11.05            11.90
Japan                                          12.11            14.77            17.08            18.20            22.19              25.62
Kenya                                           0.31             0.52             0.83             0.31              0.62                1.12
Oman
South Africa - Durban                           6.35             9.64            17.35             8.90            13.51              24.27
Sri lanka                                       0.43             0.51             0.58             0.52              0.61                0.70
State of Qatar                                  1.22             1.31             1.57             1.49              1.66                1.75
Turkey                                          3.16             3.58             3.79             4.21              4.63                5.26
United Arab Emirates                            2.77             3.12             3.46             3.05              3.43                3.81


North America
USA - Los Angeles                              25.70            30.03            33.26            30.84            36.04              39.62
USA - New York                                 31.80            40.70            46.43            47.70            56.60              69.96
USA - Seattle                                  22.20            27.56            31.89            25.53            31.70              36.67
USA - Washington                               20.99            26.08            29.26            26.08            31.16              36.89
Mexico                                         3.95             16.74            22.12


Caribbean
BARBADOS                                       2.39              3.34             4.77             2.62             3.58               5.17
Cayman Islands                                 9.38             12.86            19.64            10.33            13.76              22.44

Notes
.. = not available; no data have been provided by local offices.
1. The rates within these tables are representative of each country, and cannot be directly compared on a like-for-like basis.
2. The Basic rate is the basic amount paid to a site operative, based upon figures promulgated by the national wage fixing body in the
    country. In many cases employers may be paying above or below the basic rate.
3. The All-in rate is the gross hourly cost of employing the site operative, based upon the standard working week for the country,
     including items such as insurances, statutory contributions and taxes.
4. All-in rate for the Middle East includes the cost of importing labour, food and accommodation.

Source of data: International Construction Cost Survey, Gardiner & Theobald LLP.
Contact: Brian Livingston 020 7209 3000
Table 15.3 Building material supply prices1 in 2009

                                Steel rebar    Structural      Ordinary       Concrete          Aggregate       Sand                  Carcassing   Common        Concrete      Glass
                                                                                           2
                                high yield        steel        cement        (20N/mm )         (all grades)   (coarse)    Plaster       timber      bricks    blocks (100mm)   (6mm)
                                                                                       3                                                       3                         2            2
Country                          £ / tonne      £ / tonne      £ / tonne        £/m             £ / tonne     £ / tonne   £ / tonne     £/m        £ / 1000       £/m          £/m


Europe
BELGIUM                             416           1,185           104             69               13            6                       261         391            10          86
BULGARIA                            355            542            80              40                6            9           71                      124            8            7
CROATIA                             616            696            101             45               15            17         168          190         369            7           20
CYPRUS                              356            695            59              59               10            10         104          469         417            10          10
CZECH REPUBLIC                      840           1,007           81              84               17            24          94          252         269            17          17
DENMARK                            1,118          1,806           140            159               18            14         532          585                        15          86
FINLAND                             611           1,195           110             65               11            10         348          281         463            11          38
FRANCE                                                            161            113               49            52         278          360                        13          39
GERMANY - BERLIN                    421           1,280           177             61               12            18         128          284         399            18          16
GREECE                              347            651            48              52               10            10          96          347         69                         13
HUNGARY                             492           1,090           77              60                2            9          129          179         182            11          25
IRELAND                             386            483            118             58               13            15         126          207         389            4           35
ITALY                               512           1,086           118             82               16            20         129          202         130            9           28
NETHERLANDS                         639            977            174             78               15            16         317          330         365            14          31
NORWAY                              867           2,059           152             95               12            12         201          336         705            28          42
POLAND                              414            512            85              53                8            15         164          183         218            12          19
ROMANIA                             588            994            104             50                5            5          136          136         271            27          23
SLOVAKIA                            608           1,433           96              74               48            48         287          187                        9           50
SPAIN                               999           1,685           102             73               14            15          61          162         117            11          36
SWEDEN                              938                           155            133               11            8          328          748         432            17
SWITZERLAND                         442           1,341           185             63               12            19         135          298         418            19          16
UNITED KINGDOM                      500            910            85              60               25            28         200          275         175            10          25


International (excluding North America and the Caribbean)
ARGENTINA                          2,521          7,283           208            191               20            36         486         1,015        270            35          75
CHINA                               366            588            31              32                5            7                       192         48             2            3
EGYPT
HONG KONG                           603                           47                                4            6                                                  5            9
INDIA                               400            483            62              55                7            6          110          483         48             3            4
INDONESIA                           703            823            75              44               15            14          31          515         26             3            7
ISRAEL                              510           1,700           72              42               10            10                                                 6           17
JAPAN                               42             560            68              84               16            18         318          371         553            10          11
KENYA                               574            839            171             87               19            16          1           248         293            6            7
LEBANON                             348            562            53              50               13            11                      415          6             6            6
SOUTH AFRICA - Durban               586           1,590           110             88               18            12         544          460         155            7           33
SRI LANKA                           501            890            80              55               10            14                                  38             3           10
STATE OF QATAR                      498           1,922           79              61               13            12                                                 15          105
TURKEY                              316            419            55              29               16            13          51                      253            5           15
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                329           1,299           54              52               10            14         173          242                        8           13


North America
LOS ANGELES                         757            645            70              85                7            8           91          124         267            15          54
NEW YORK                            744            722            95              86               13            11         114          130         324            14          60
SEATTLE                             673            595            64              81                8            6           88          116         270            15          51
WASHINGTON                          725            661            67              83                9            8           90          121         280            15          51
MEXICO                              735            412            82              62                6            6                                                  17          19


Caribbean
CAYMAN ISLANDS                      568           2,544           125            160               28            30                      203                        10          39
BARBADOS                           2,482          4,654           202            264               14            23                                  74             23

Notes
.. = not available; no data have been provided by the local offices
1. Unless stated, all rates include delivery to site and local discounts, but exclude VAT and local taxes.

Source of data: International Construction Cost Survey, Gardiner & Theobald LLP.
Contact: Brian Livingston 020 7209 3000
                                                               1,2
Table 15.4 Examples of building costs                                in 2009

Residential, Retail & Hotels
                                           High rise appartments                  Shopping centre           High quality capital city hotel    Provincial/ suburban hotel

                                                            Typical                          Typical                             Typical                         Typical
                                           £ / m2          number of        £ / m2          number of           £ / m2          number of        £ / m2         number of
Country                                 Low     High         floors       Low    High         floors        Low       High        floors      Low      High       floors
Europe
BELGIUM                                 1,042    1,259
BULGARIA                                 459      793          12          401      534         3           979       1,071                   321      510           4
CROATIA                                  565      999          10          534      739         3           912       1,347          7        695      1,043         4
CYPRUS                                   868     1,303                     782      1,303                   1,563     1,997                   782      1,129
CZECH REPUBLIC                           571     1,007         10          537      873         2           840       1,511          8        672      1,175         3
DENMARK                                 2,042    2,552         10         1,587     1,983       2           1,779     1,890         10        1,645    2,056         3
FINLAND                                 1,442    1,806          5         1,154     1,563       3           1,672     1,780          5        1,181    1,574         3
FRANCE                                  1,346    1,997                     547      1,954                                                     1,259    1,911
GERMANY                                  707     1,068          6          828      1,290       2           1,425     2,377          6        1,030    1,540         4
GREECE                                   955     1,563                     868      1,737                   1,737     2,605                   1,129    1,737
HUNGARY                                  511      847           8          655      959         3           1,103     2,173          5        879      1,119         4
IRELAND                                  782     1,303          7         1,737     2,388       4           1,737     2,605          6        1,520    2,171         4
ITALY                                   1,433    2,518                    1,997     3,126                   2,015     2,996                   1,303    2,084
NORWAY                                  1,788    2,601                    1,051     1,767                   2,656     3,360                   1,897    2,493
POLAND                                   672     1,025                     611      977                     1,025     1,296                   802      1,040
ROMANIA                                  497      588          10          588      723         3           1,175     1,446          7        768      994           4
SLOVAKIA                                 638      868          12          578      716         2           868       1,433          7        608      799           5
SPAIN                                   1,129    1,911                     868      1,824                   1,520     2,171                   1,042    1,911
SWEDEN                                  1,053    1,080          3         1,567     1,885       3           1,930     2,319          3        1,699    2,071         3
SWITZERLAND                              741     1,299          6          867      1,568       2           1,493     2,890          6        1,079    1,872         4
UNITED KINGDOM                          1,400    2,200          8         1,250     1,500                   1,900     2,300         10        1,450    1,900


International (excluding USA)
ARGENTINA                                313      551          15          n/a       n/a                    570        664          10        399      475           4
CHINA                                    316      419          25          642      940         7           968       1,201         25        707      852          15
HONG KONG                                942     1,195                    1,490     1,777                   1,695     2,055                    n/a      n/a
INDIA                                    345      483          50          414      621         10          483        621          15        345      414
INDONESIA                                463      617                      343      377                     566        686                    497      617
ISRAEL                                   629      672          19          689      740         2           969       1,275         15        799      893           4
JAPAN                                    n/a      n/a                      651      1,428       5           2,646     3,507         20        1,967    3,185        10
KENYA                                    232      276           6          579      703         4           497        745           8        124      372           2
LEBANON                                  670      862          25          590      670         4           1,277     1,532         18        926      1,159         4
SOUTH AFRICA - Durban                    544      879                      398      598                     753       1,046                   502      795
SRI LANKA                                216      262          12          192      220         3           211        229          12        172      234           3
STATE OF QATAR                          1,267    1,529         25         1,267     1,310                   1,573     2,009         20        1,529    1,660
TURKEY                                                                     354      548         5           644        902          19        387      644           5
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                     935     1,247                     866      1,177                   1,645     2,164                   1,385    1,732


North America
LOS ANGELES                             1,813    4,756         45          n/a       n/a                    1,745     3,901         40        1,198    2,737         8
NEW YORK                                1,844    4,643                     n/a       n/a                    2,099     4,070                   1,336    2,798         8
SEATTLE                                 1,848    4,619         45          n/a       n/a                    1,608     3,490         40        1,232    2,601         8
WASHINGTON                              1,717    4,325         45          n/a       n/a                    1,526     3,498         40        1,145    2,608         8
MEXICO                                  1,272    1,908          6          954      1,590       3           1,272     1,908          4        954      1,431         4


Caribbean
CAYMAN ISLANDS                           960     1,658          5          772      1,413       2           1,413     1,760          5        879      1,387         2

Notes
.. = not available; no data have been provided by local offices
N/A = not applicable
1. The above descriptions are indicative only, as construction specification and requirements will vary between countries.
     Therefore, building costs are for typical buildings in each country.
2. Typical number of floors have only been provided where identified by local offices.

Source of data: International Construction Cost Survey, Gardiner & Theobald LLP.
Contact: Brian Livingston 020 7209 3000
Table 15.5 Examples of Building Costs1,2 in 2009

Offices & Industrial
                                                                       City centre air conditined         Factories, warehouses,
                                     City centre heated offices                                                                           Out of town business park
                                                                                 offices                         industrial
                                                         Typical                           Typical                            Typical                     Typical
                                             2                                 2
                                       £/m              number of        £/m              number of        £ / m2            number of      £ / m2       number of
Country                             Low   High            floors      Low   High            floors      Low     High           floors    Low     High      floors
Europe
                                                        Typical                           Typical                            Typical                      Typical     Typical   Typical   Typical   Typical
BELGIUM                              868     1,129                   1,042    1,303                      434      738                     782    1,129
BULGARIA                             689         732       16          796         818       21          301      308            1        434     434         1
CROATIA                              608         910       8           695    1,043          20          330      478            1        586     717         3
CYPRUS                                 n/a        n/a                1,042    1,737                      782    1,303                     868    1,389
CZECH REPUBLIC                       604         840       6           672    1,007           6          403      672            1        672    1,007        6
DENMARK                            1,594     1,998         5         1,657    2,071           5        1,505    1,881            3       1,517   1,896        2
FINLAND                            1,251     1,576         5         1,356    1,686           5          771      938            1       1,125   1,369        2
FRANCE                               107     2,171                   2,041    2,866                      547      912                    1,172   1,607
GERMANY                            1,087     1,530         5         1,404    1,954           5          472      938            1       1,030   1,463        4
GREECE                                 n/a        n/a                1,042    2,084                      608    1,172                    1,042   1,563
HUNGARY                                n/a        n/a                  642         943        7          393      486            1        575     703
IRELAND                            1,303     1,650          5        1,737    2,171           5          651      955            1        608     782         2
ITALY                              1,172     1,476                   1,389    2,301                      651    1,563                    1,824   2,692
NETHERLANDS                        1,139     1,337                   1,392    1,789                      576      846                    1,247   1,425
NORWAY                             1,474     2,601                   1,583    2,710                      954    1,669                    1,474   2,385
POLAND                               666         990                   776    1,066                      414      567                      n/a     n/a
ROMANIA                              701         791       5           768         881       20          362      407            1        663     746         5
SLOVAKIA                             578         825       6           664         955       10          373      664            1        582     716         5
SPAIN                                  n/a        n/a                1,042    1,650          10          521      955                     912    1,476
SWEDEN                             1,505     1,770         3         1,549    1,841           3          823      867            1       1,257   1,788        1
SWITZERLAND                        1,139     1,861         5         1,471    2,376           5          494    1,140            1       1,079   1,779        4
UNITED KINGDOM                     1,100     1,700         7         1,500    2,200          12          350      500                     900    1,400        4


International (excluding USA)
ARGENTINA                              n/a        n/a                   n/a         n/a                   228      456           1         n/a     n/a
CHINA                                  n/a        n/a                   572        814       35           298      493           1         n/a     n/a
EGYPT                                  n/a        n/a                   n/a         n/a                   n/a      n/a                     n/a     n/a
HONG KONG                              n/a        n/a                 1,089    1,490                      630      966                     n/a     n/a
INDIA                                  n/a        n/a                   483        690       10           276      414           5         414     552        5
INDONESIA                              n/a        n/a                   425        600                    343      377                     343     360
ISRAEL                                 n/a        n/a                   629        723       16           230      272           1         612     748       10
JAPAN                                  n/a        n/a                 1,743    2,303         15           658    1,260           1         n/a     n/a
KENYA                                  n/a        n/a                   290        414       16           166      290           2         331     497        4
LEBANON                               606        766       14           606        766       14           415      501           1         543     689        4
SOUTH AFRICA - Durban                  n/a        n/a                   502        753                    239      439                     n/a     n/a
SRI LANKA                             188        200        4           238        270        4           163      175           1         n/a     n/a
STATE OF QATAR                         n/a        n/a                 1,223    1,529         30           699      874                   1,310   1,573
TURKEY                                 n/a        n/a                   773    1,095         20           322      644           3         n/a     n/a
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES                   n/a        n/a                   693        900       20           485      693                     658     900


North America
LOS ANGELES                            n/a        n/a                 1,951    5,030         45           753    1,608                   1,163   2,430
NEW YORK                               n/a        n/a                 2,226    4,929                      700    1,717                   1,240   2,099
SEATTLE                                n/a        n/a                 1,882    4,893         45           753    1,574                   1,198   2,357
WASHINGTON                             n/a        n/a                 1,717    4,325         45           700    1,399                     954   2,099
MEXICO                                253        735                    n/a         n/a                   210      340                     241     276


Caribbean
CAYMAN ISLANDS                         n/a        n/a                 1,413    2,107          6           428      532           1         n/a     n/a

Notes
.. = not available; no data have been provided by local offices
N/A = not applicable
1. The above descriptions are indicative only, as construction specification and requirements will vary between countries.
     Therefore, building costs are for typical buildings in each country.
2. Typical number of floors have only been provided where identified by local offices.

Source of data: International Construction Cost Survey, Gardiner & Theobald LLP.
Contact: Brian Livingston 020 7209 3000
Table 15.6 Inflation rates and forecasts1,2
                                                                                                         Retail price inflation (%)
Country               2000     2001    2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010         2011          2012
Europe
BELGIUM                3%      3%       2%    1%     2%     3%     3%
BULGARIA              11%      5%       4%    6%     4%     7%     7%     13%    9%     0%      0%           3%            2%
CROATIA                3%      7%       3%    4%     3%     1%                   6%     -1%
CYPRUS                 1%      2%       2%
CZECH REPUBLIC         3%      7%       3%    4%     3%     4%     2%     3%     6%     0%
DENMARK                                                                          3%     2%      2%           3%            3%
FINLAND                4%      0%       2%    2%     3%     3%     3%     8%     2%     0%      1%           3%            3%
FRANCE                 2%      1%       2%    2%     2%     2%     0%     4%     1%     1%      1%           3%            2%
GERMANY                2%      2%       1%    1%     2%     2%     2%     2%     3%     0%
GREECE                10%      8%       6%    5%     7%     6%     6%     6%
HUNGARY                6%      5%       5%    4%     4%     5%     2%
IRELAND                6%      5%       5%    4%     4%     3%     4%            1%     -4%     0%           2%            2%
ITALY                  3%      2%       8%    5%     5%     2%     -1%    -1%    5%     1%      1%           1%            3%
NETHERLANDS            3%      2%       3%    0%     1%     2%     2%
NORWAY                 2%      5%             3%     1%     1%     2%     2%     2%     2%      1%           2%            1%
POLAND                                               9%     7%     25%    10%    7%
PORTUGAL              10%      6%      18%    -3%    16%    17%    21%    7%     -4%
ROMANIA               10%      16%      -6%   -3%    16%    17%    21%    13%    -3%    -7%     4%          11%           10%
SLOVAKIA               3%      2%      11%    6%     5%     2%     2%     8%     3%     1%      2%           1%            2%
SPAIN                  6%      7%       5%    3%     2%     4%     4%     4%     4%     4%
SWEDEN                 3%      4%       4%    3%     7%     0%     9%     6%     5%     10%     3%           4%            5%
SWITZERLAND                    1%       1%    1%     0%     1%     4%     4%     4%     4%
UNITED KINGDOM         3%      2%       2%    3%     3%     2%     4%     4%     3%     1%      1%


                                                                                               Building tender price inflation (%)
Country               2000     2001    2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010         2011          2012
Europe
BELGIUM                4%      4%       4%    2%     5%     4%     11%    6%     9%     -7%
BULGARIA              10%      4%       5%    3%     5%     2%     2%     8%     -7%    -12%    -4%          4%            7%
CROATIA                3%      2%       0%    2%     3%     2%     3%     5%     7%     -15%
CYPRUS                          12%       11%    5%     11%    10%    6%     6%
CZECH REPUBLIC                   3%       2%     0%     2%     3%     4%     2%     10%    5%     -15%
DENMARK                          4%       2%     2%     2%     3%     2%     5%     5%     2%     0%     2%         2%            3%
FINLAND                          4%       0%     2%     2%     0%     2%     4%     11%    0%     -1%    1%         2%            3%
FRANCE                           4%       6%     1%     2%     6%     2%     5%     6%     4%     1%     1%         2%            1%
GERMANY                          0%       0%     0%     0%     2%     1%     4%     6%     3%     0%
GREECE                          10%       7%     5%     5%     6%     6%     6%     6%
HUNGARY                         13%       5%     -5%    -1%    5%     7%     8%     6%     2%     -5%    7%
IRELAND                         13%       5%     -5%    -1%    8%     4%     5%     -4%    -10%   11%    1%         6%            5%
ITALY                            3%       3%     4%     2%     5%     4%     2%     2%     3%     -5%    -2%        1%            2%
NETHERLANDS                      4%       7%     3%     1%     3%     1%     2%     6%     3%     -3%
NORWAY                           5%       4%     3%     2%     4%     3%     4%     5%     3%     1%     1%         1%            2%
POLAND                          24%       40%    34%    19%    9%     7%     20%    12%    8%
PORTUGAL                         9%       6%     17%    -3%    15%    17%    20%    7%     -3%    2%     13%
ROMANIA                          9%       16%    -7%    -3%    15%    17%    20%    7%     -3%    -8%    5%        11%            9%
SLOVAKIA                         4%       3%     11%    3%     10%    3%     5%     7%     5%     -17%   -5%       13%            5%
SPAIN                            6%       7%     6%     3%     2%     4%     4%     4%     4%     4%
SWEDEN                           3%       4%     3%     3%     4%     3%     7%     5%     4%     8%     3%         3%            3%
SWITZERLAND                      5%       1%     0%     -2%    2%     1%     7%     4%     4%     -2%
UNITED KINGDOM                   9%       3%     4%     3%     4%     4%     5%     5%     2%     -9%    -5%        1%            2%


                                                                                                                Retail price inflation (%)
Country                         2000      2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010      2011          2012
International (Excluding North America)
ARGENTINA                        0%       -1%    39%    5%     8%     11%    11%    29%    30%    29%
AUSTRALIA                        6%       4%     3%     3%     2%     3%     2%     2%     3%
EGYPT                           10%       10%    9%     8%     25%    10%    26%    30%    3%
HONG KONG                       -2%       -3%    -3%    -2%    0%     2%
INDIA                            6%       8%     7%     4%     7%     9%     6%     19%    16%    5%     22%
INDONESIA                        6%                     10%    7%     18%    15%    8%     12%    6%
ISRAEL                           1%       0%     5%     -2%    1%     2%     0%     3%     4%     5%     5%
JAPAN                           -1%       -2%    0%     -4%    11%    10%    3%     3%     -5%    -1%    0%         0%
LEBANON                          3%       3%     4%     4%     6%     -1%    -3%    3%     31%    16%
OMAN                                                    15%    17%    11%    17%
SAUDI ARABIA                     2%       2%     1%     3%     5%     2%     2%
SRI LANKA                       12%       24%    12%    -1%
TAIWAN                          -2%       -1%    0%
TURKEY                          52%       56%    100%   35%    20%    12%    8%     10%    8%     7%      7%           8%            8%
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES            -4%       0%     0%


                                                                                                         Building tender price inflation (%)
Country                         2000      2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010         2011          2012
International (Excluding North America)
ARGENTINA                        2%       1%     69%    21%    25%    10%    24%    22%    21%    15%
AUSTRALIA                        5%       3%     8%     5%     4%     3%     3%     4%     4%
BRAZIL                           7%       12%    15%    16%    13%    6%     6%     4%
CHINA                            1%       0%     1%     0%     0%     -5%    0%     8%     7%     2%
EGYPT                           10%       10%    9%     8%     25%    10%    26%    30%    3%
HONG KONG                       -12%      -8%    -9%    3%     3%     3%     5%     12%    16%    -8%
INDIA                            9%       7%     7%     4%     7%     8%     6%     19%    16%    14%    12%
ISRAEL                           2%       1%     2%     2%     5%     6%     4%     3%     3%     0%      1%
JAPAN                           -1%       -1%    -1%    4%     2%     -3%    2%     2%     0%     -1%     0%           0%
KENYA                            7%       7%     3%     6%     3%     11%
LEBANON                          4%       3%     3%     5%     29%    -5%    3%     3%     12%    8%
MALAYSIA                         2%       -2%    4%     3%     9%
NEW ZEALAND                      1%       2%     2%     1%     10%    3%     6%     4%     5%
OMAN                                                    25%    20%    17%    14%    12%
SINGAPORE                       -1%       0%     2%     6%     3%
SOUTH AFRICA                     5%       6%     15%    3%     18%    14%    7%     7%     13%    3%      6%           6%            6%
SRI LANKA                        7%       5%     5%     0%     12%    32%    8%     19%    20%    10%
TAIWAN                          -1%       -1%    0%
THAILAND                         7%       11%    -3%    7%     7%
QATAR                                                   25%    2%     17%    14%    12%
TURKEY                          52%       56%    100%   35%    20%    12%    8%     10%    8%     7%      7%           8%            8%
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES             0%       1%     0%


                                                                                                                   Retail price inflation (%)
Country                         2000      2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010         2011          2012
North America
USA                              3%       2%     2%     3%     4%     2%     4%     3%
LOS ANGELES                          3%            1%              3%    3%          4%           2%    3%     3%     5%     0%
NEW YORK                             3%            1%              3%    3%          4%           2%    3%     3%     5%     0%
SEATTLE                              3%            1%              3%    3%          4%           2%    3%     3%     5%     0%
WASHINGTON                           3%            1%              3%    3%          4%           2%    3%     3%     5%     0%


MEXICO                                                                                            4%    4%     4%     6%


                                                                                                                                    Building tender price inflation (%)
Country                             2000          2001         2002      2003       2004         2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010         2011         2012
BOSTON                               7%           -2%              -8%   3%          11%          8%    12%    8%     3%     8%
HAWAII                               3%
LAS VEGAS                            3%
LOS ANGELES                          3%            0%              3%    2%          7%           9%    14%    1%     -1%    -8%     1%
NEW YORK                             7%           -2%              2%    3%          11%          8%    12%    8%     7%     -9%     5%
PHEONIX                              3%
PORTLAND                             3%
SAN FRANCISCO                        5%                            1%
SEATTLE                              2%            1%              1%    5%          9%           7%    6%     3%     3%     -9%     2%
WASHINGTON                           2%            1%              1%    5%          9%           7%    6%     3%     4%     -8%     3%


MEXICO                               7%            6%              6%    5%          5%           7%    11%    10%    9%     3%


Notes
.. = not available; no data have been provided by local offices.
1. Figures for 2010 to 2012 are forecasts
2. Disclaimer: Forecasts are those of Gardiner & Theobald and in no way represent the views of BERR.


Source of data: International Construction Cost Survey, Gardiner & Theobald LLP.
Contact: Brian Livingston 020 7209 3000
Table 15.7 Production of constructional steelwork (000 tonnes)1

                                                                                           Actual                                                                      Forecast
                                      1997       1998       1999       2000       2001       2002        2003       2004        2005     2006     2007        2008         2009

Austria                                 79         69        149         175        190        190        180        177          157      167      175         184           ..
Belgium & Luxembourg                   305        320          ..          ..         ..       310        195        165          180      180      214         249           ..
Denmark                                103         99        115         126        186        206        166        181          209      225      254         245         240
Finland                                105        110        125         135        165        165        142        145          143      147      148           ..          ..
France                                 629        620        770         840        830        830        805        766          763      808      840         821           ..
Germany                              1,718      1,832      1,773       1,841      1,860      1,753      1,536      1,475        1,461    1,643    2,032       2,150       2,275
Hungary                                  ..         ..         ..          ..         ..         ..        77          ..           ..       ..       ..          ..          ..
Italy                                  970      1,000        950         960        990        990      1,075      1,225        1,125    1,105      910         950         920
Netherlands                            560          ..         ..          ..         ..       624        535        453          399      476      494         528           ..
Norway                                  73         72         72          76         72         61         68         64           75       79       79          75          76
Portugal                                 ..         ..         ..          ..         ..        57        105        108          101      108      113         118         124
Romania                                  ..         ..         ..          ..         ..        22         24         34           50       54       65          75          80
Slovenia                                13         13         31          30         29         31         30         28           30       35       39 (f)      42           ..
Spain                                  737        740          ..          ..         ..         ..         ..         ..           ..       ..   1,450           ..          ..
Switzerland                             80         80         70          72         85         82         99        102          107       90      107          90           ..
United Kingdom                       1,037      1,062      1,093       1,108      1,159      1,159      1,206      1,263        1,334    1,395    1,462       1,349       1,309

Total                                6,409      5,697      5,148       5,363      5,566      6,480      6,243      6,185        6,134    6,512    8,382       6,876       5,024

Notes
 .. = not available.
f = forecast figures.
1 = these statistics relate only to the usage of hot rolled structural steel and do not include strip steel used for purlins,
 rails and cladding, nor hot rolled steel used in piling.

Source of data: European Convention for Constructional Steelwork - http://www.steelconstruct.com/eccs/annual/statistic2008.pdf.
Contact: Annie Gieskes 032 2762 0429
Table 15.8 Outward and inward net foreign direct investment in the construction industry

                                                                                                                                                         £ million
                                                                                     1                                                    2
                                                                Outward investment                                    Inward investment
                                                              Flows                                                Flows
                                                                                                                                              Net investment
                                                                                   Net investment
                                                                                                                                              position in the
Area and main country                    Year    Net investment3,4 Net earnings5   position abroad4   Net investment3,6   Net earnings5                   6
                                                                                                                                                   UK


EUROPE                                    2005        -1782             -52              8813               897               146                  1526
                                          2006         -196             ..               15750              296               300                  2456
                                          2007         187             108               1278               184               276                  3808
                                          2008         3904            5275              27377              445               283                  4326
      EU                                  2005        -1762             -64              8708               209               147                  964
                                          2006         -207             ..                ..                268               264                  2254
                                          2007         161              95               1135               258               258                  2313
                                          2008         3915            5260              27298              307               196                  2490
                        AUSTRIA           2005          ..              ..                ..                 0                  0                    7
                                          2006          ..              ..                ..                 3                  ..                  12
                                          2007          ..              ..                ..                 0                  1                    9
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                 0                  1                   22
                        BELGIUM           2005          ..              ..                ..                 1                  0                   10
                                          2006          ..              ..                ..                 3                  0                   13
                                          2007          ..              ..                ..                 0                  3                   11
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                 0                  1                   17
                        BULGARIA          2005           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2006           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2007           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                        CYPRUS            2005          ..              ..                ..                 ..                 ..                   ..
                                          2006           -               -                 -                 ..                 ..                   ..
                                          2007          ..              ..                ..                 15                 ..                  65
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                 ..                 ..                   ..
                        CZECH REPUBLIC 2005             ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                                          2006           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2007           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                 ..                 ..                   ..
                        DENMARK           2005          2               0                 ..                 1                  1                    9
                                          2006          -1              0                 0                  5                  5                   17
                                          2007          ..              ..                ..                 2                  3                   26
                                          2008          ..              2                 19                 4                  2                   52
                        ESTONIA           2005           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2006           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2007           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2008           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                        FINLAND           2005           -               -                 -                 ..                 ..                   ..
                                          2006           -               -                 -                 ..                 ..                   ..
                                          2007           -               -                 -                 0                  ..                   ..
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                 ..                 ..                   ..
                        FRANCE            2005          ..              23               109                 19                25                  102
                                          2006          -6              0                 -2                 14                39                  111
                                          2007          1               1                 -6                 34                41                  192
                                          2008          0               4                 -5                 20                15                  434
                        GERMANY           2005         -22              -15               25                 4                  2                   46
                                          2006         -20              ..                ..                 10                11                   49
                                          2007          10              -2               238                 5                  6                   66
                                          2008          90              ..                ..                 5                  3                  112
                        GREECE            2005          ..              ..                ..                 ..                 ..                   ..
                                          2006          ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                                          2007          ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                                          2008           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                        HUNGARY           2005          ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                                          2006          ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                                          2007           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                  -                 -                    -
                        IRISH REPUBLIC    2005          ..              15                -26                7                  2                   45
                                          2006          ..              13                12                 17                13                   42
                                          2007          20              12                78                 3                 13                   65
                                          2008          15              14               156                112                23                  201
                        ITALY             2005          ..              ..                ..                 ..                 1                    6
                                          2006          ..              ..                ..                 3                  ..                  14
                                          2007          -2              ..                ..                 2                  2                   20
                                          2008          ..              ..                ..                 0                  1                   18
                        LATVIA            2005           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2006           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2007           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2008           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                        LITHUANIA         2005           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
                                          2006           -               -                 -                  -                 -                    -
Table 15.8 Outward and inward net foreign direct investment in the construction industry

                                                                                                                 £ million
                                                                  1                                     2
                                             Outward investment                     Inward investment
                               2007     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2008     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                 LUXEMBOURG    2005     ..           ..                ..     0             0                3
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                               2007     ..           ..                ..    17             ..               ..
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                 MALTA         2005     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2006     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2007     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                 NETHERLANDS   2005    20           20                -69    -74            ..              167
                               2006     8           13                 8     50            61               225
                               2007    56           31                89     43            53               280
                               2008    57           70                220    26            67               466
                 POLAND        2005     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2007     ..           ..                ..     0             ..               ..
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                 PORTUGAL      2005     0            1                11      ..            ..               ..
                               2006    -1            0                 8      ..            ..               ..
                               2007     0            1                 -1     0             ..               ..
                               2008    -1            1                 8      ..            ..               ..
                 ROMANIA       2005     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2007     0            ..                6      -             -                -
                               2008     1            ..                ..     -             -                -
                 SLOVAKIA      2005     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2006     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2007     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2008     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                 SLOVENIA      2005     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2006     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2007     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                               2008     -            -                 -      -             -                -
                 SPAIN         2005     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                               2006     ..          29                 ..     ..            ..               ..
                               2007    49           11                 ..    71             ..               ..
                               2008    12            4                65      ..            ..               ..
                 SWEDEN        2005     2           -1                 4      ..            ..              157
                               2006    -6           -5                 -1     ..            6               70
                               2007     ..           ..                ..    65             ..              314
                               2008     0           -1                19     40             ..              64
     EFTA                      2005    -2            1                 -1     ..            ..               ..
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     0             8               35
                               2007     6            0                 2      -4            8               11
     of which                  2008     3            0                18      -3            8               28
                 NORWAY        2005     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                               2007     ..           ..                ..     1             1               10
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     ..            1               18
                 SWITZERLAND   2005     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..              26
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                               2007     ..           ..                ..     -5            7                1
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     ..            6               10
     OTHER                     2005    -17          11                107     ..            ..               ..
     EUROPEAN                  2006     ..           6                112    27            28               167
     COUNTRIES                 2007    20           13                141    -68           10               1483
     of which                  2008    -13          15                60     142           79               1809
                 RUSSIA        2005     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2007     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                 UK OFFSHORE   2005     ..           1                 ..     6            11               108
                 ISLANDS 7     2006     0            ..               26     26            26               162
                               2007    15            2                57     -68           10               1483
                               2008    -14          15                53     142           79               1801
THE AMERICAS                   2005    901          552               6231   19            162              2494
                               2006    -30          310               2533   1698          157              4138
                               2007    98           -98               3250   40            103              1475
     of which                  2008    200          364               2830   216           134              4835
                 BERMUDA       2005     ..           ..                ..     -             -                 -
                               2006     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2007     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                               2008     ..           ..                ..     -             -                -
                 BRAZIL        2005     ..           ..                4      ..            ..               ..
Table 15.8 Outward and inward net foreign direct investment in the construction industry

                                                                                                                     £ million
                                                                      1                                     2
                                                 Outward investment                     Inward investment
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     ..            ..               5
                                   2007    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                     CANADA        2005    ..           38                 ..     ..            1               26
                                   2006   13            77                76      ..            ..               ..
                                   2007   15            101               -101    1             1                8
                                   2008    ..           62                638     0             0                2
                     CHILE         2005    ..            ..                7      -             -                -
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2007    ..            ..                6      -             -                -
                                   2008    0             0                 ..     -             -                -
                     COLOMBIA      2005    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                                   2006    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                                   2007    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                                   2008    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                     MEXICO        2005    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2007    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                     PANAMA        2005    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2006    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                                   2007    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                                   2008    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                     USA           2005   1187          527               5913    ..           123               ..
                                   2006   -45           227               2400   -491          114              1079
                                   2007   60           -206               3286    8            74               1136
                                   2008   -10           282               2203   44            45                ..
ASIA                               2005   34            88                839     1             1               30
                                   2006    -6           18                138     4             5                ..
                                   2007   63            48                186     3             3               31
                                   2008   253           95                165     ..            3               13
       NEAR & MIDDLE               2005    5            19                107     1             1               11
       EAST COUNTRIES              2006    9            28                89      1             2                ..
                                   2007   30            26                122     1             1                8
       of which                    2008    0            66                51      0             0                2
                     GULF          2005   19            18                53      -             -                -
                     ARABIAN       2006   13            25                62      -             -                -
                     COUNTRIES     2007   28            26                22      -             -                -
                                   2008    -1           66                48      -             -                -
       OTHER ASIAN                 2005   29            69                732     1             1               19
       COUNTRIES                   2006   -15           -9                49      3             3               19
                                   2007   33            21                64      2             2               23
       of which                    2008   254           30                114     ..            3               11
                     CHINA         2005    ..            ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                                   2007    ..            0                 5      0             0                2
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                     HONG KONG     2005    8            15                55      -             -                -
                                   2006   11             1                39      -             -                -
                                   2007   15            17                41      0             ..               ..
                                   2008    9             4                33      -             -                -
                     INDIA         2005    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2007    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                     INDONESIA     2005    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2007    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                     JAPAN         2005    ..            ..                ..     0             0               11
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     ..            ..               ..
                                   2007    -             -                 -      1             ..               ..
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     ..            ..               4
                     MALAYSIA      2005    3             8                 ..     -             -                -
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2007    1             2                 1      -             -                -
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                     SINGAPORE     2005   -22            0                12      ..            ..               ..
                                   2006    -1            0                11      ..            ..               ..
                                   2007    9             ..               13      -             -                -
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                     SOUTH KOREA   2005    -             -                 -      -             -                -
                                   2006    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
                                   2007    -             -                 -      0             ..               ..
                                   2008    ..            ..                ..     -             -                -
Table 15.8 Outward and inward net foreign direct investment in the construction industry

                                                                                                                                                                      £ million
                                                                                                1                                                            2
                                                                           Outward investment                                            Inward investment
                        THAILAND                2005              0                0                 -4                      -                    -               -
                                                2006              ..                 ..              -10                     -                   -                -
                                                2007              0                  0               0                       -                   -                -
                                                2008              ..                 ..              1                       -                   -                -
AUSTRALASIA                                     2005              ..                 ..              ..                     ..                   ..               ..
& OCEANIA                                       2006              -9                -15              99                     -7                  -7               34
                                                2007              ..                14               31                    247                   8                ..
     of which                                   2008              31                20               60                     ..                   ..               ..
                        AUSTRALIA               2005              ..                93               ..                     ..                   ..               ..
                                                2006              -8                -15              ..                     -7                  -7               34
                                                2007              ..                 ..              30                    247                   8                ..
                                                2008              ..                 ..              ..                     ..                   ..               ..
                        NEW ZEALAND             2005              0                  ..              ..                      -                   -                -
                                                2006              0                  0               ..                      -                   -                -
                                                2007              ..                 ..              1                       -                   -                -
                                                2008              ..                 ..              ..                      -                   -                -
AFRICA                                          2005              ..                 ..              ..                     ..                   ..               ..
                                                2006              14                 ..              13                     1                    2                ..
                                                2007              ..                 1               8                      1                    1                ..
     of which                                   2008              5                  4               12                     0                    ..               ..
                        KENYA                   2005               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2006               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2007               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2008               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                        NIGERIA                 2005              ..                 ..              -14                     -                   -                -
                                                2006              ..                 ..              6                       -                   -                -
                                                2007              ..                 ..              ..                      -                   -                -
                                                2008              ..                 ..              ..                      -                   -                -
                        SOUTH AFRICA            2005              ..                 ..              ..                      -                   -                -
                                                2006               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2007              ..                 ..              ..                     0                    ..               ..
                                                2008              ..                 ..              ..                     0                    0                2
                        ZIMBABWE                2005               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2006               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2007               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2008               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
WORLD TOTAL                                     2005             250                1834            21084                  918                  310              4061
                                                2006             -230               3383            18532                 1991                  455              6656
                                                2007             247                71              4753                   475                  392              5580
                                                2008             4393               5758            30444                  677                  433              9455
     OECD                                       2005             -628               608             16914                  851                  259              2522
                                                2006             -241               3362            18229                 2028                  391              5670
                                                2007             156                13              4358                   496                  336              3679
                                                2008             4401               5641            30189                  355                  248              3969
     CENTRAL &                                  2005              ..                 ..              ..                      -                   -                -
     EASTERN                                    2006              ..                 ..              ..                      -                   -                -
     EUROPE                                     2007               -                 -                -                      -                   -                -
                                                2008               -                 -                -                     ..                   -                -


     Notes
     - = nil or less than half the final digit shown.
     .. = not available; data are disclosive.
     1. Net foreign direct investment flows abroad, net earnings from FDI abroad and net FDI international investment
         position abroad analysed by area and main country.
     2. Net foreign direct investment flows into the UK, net earnings from FDI in the UK and net FDI international investment position
         position in the UK analysed by area and main country.
     3. Net foreign direct investment includes unremitted profits.
     4. A minus sign indicates a net disinvestment abroad (i.e. a decrease in the amount due to the United Kingdom).
     5. A minus sign indicates net losses.
     6. A minus sign indicates a net disinvestment in the UK (i.e. a decrease in the amount due to foreign countries).
     7. The UK Offshore Islands consist of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, excluded from definition of the economic
          territory of the UK from 1997.
     8. Prior to 2007 includes data for Bulgaria and Romania. Prior to 2003 also includes data for Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia.
         Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia.
     9. Data for countries not listed are either not available or are disclosive.


     Source of data: Office for National Statistics, Business Monitor MA4.
     Contact: Richard Tonkin 01633 456082
Construction Sector: Trade Development

The role of UK Trade & Investment is to foster business competitiveness in the global market by helping UK firms secure overseas sales and
investments. The Construction Unit aims to assist firms in the construction industry to become more internationally competitive and successful. It
does this in partnership with other Government Departments, trade associations and professional bodies for the construction industry.

To achieve this UK Trade & Investment devotes effort and resource to providing a range of services to companies in accordance with a strategy
specifically focused on adding value where it will improve competitiveness. These services include:

• Providing information on markets and trade opportunities through the UK Trade & Investment website (www.ukti.gov.uk), and our commercial
teams in the British Embassies and High Commissions overseas.

• Providing sector specific information; general political and economic advice on markets and Overseas Market Introduction Service (OMIS)
compiled to a specific brief and commissioned by companies themselves through their local International Trade Advisor.

• Providing support to SMEs for participation in overseas trade fairs, trade missions and seminars and for inward missions to the UK of overseas
buyers, customers and decision-makers.

• Providing assistance with arranging inward missions, conferences and seminars.

If you are interested in finding out more about how UKTI can help you to export please contact:

Construction Unit
Sectors Group
UK Trade & Investment
Kingsgate House
66-74 Victoria Street
London, SW1E 6SW

Tel: 020 7215 8000
Fax: 020 7215 4065
E-Mail: construction.exports@uktradeinvest.gov.uk
www.uktradeinvest.gov.uk/ukti/construction

								
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