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Chemistry of Life and Macromolecules Student Notes Outline

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Student notes outline to accompany the anatomy & physiology lecture covering basic chemistry of life and important macromolecules.

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									[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                     Anatomy Notes Outline

 I.    Chemistry in Biology

          a. Matter -


          b. Element -


          c. Compound -


          d. Mixture -


          e. Label the elements and compounds in this example reaction:

             Na(s) + Cl2(g) – NaCl(s)


 II.   Essential Elements of Life

          a. Six Most Prevalent Elements

                                               Chemical       Percent of
                              Element
                                                Symbol       Human Body




          b. Elements Below 1.0% -


          c. Trace Elements –


III.   Atomic Structure

          a. Atom –



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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                  Anatomy Notes Outline

         b. Subatomic Particles

                i. Protons –


               ii. Neutrons –


               iii. Electrons –


         c. The Nucleus –


         d. Neutrality –


         e. Atomic Structure Diagram




IV.   How Atoms Are Drawn

         a. Electron Cloud –


         b. Orbital Diagram –


 V.   Types of Atoms

         a. Atomic Number –


         b. Atomic Mass –




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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                      Anatomy Notes Outline

          c. Periodic Table Format




          d. Isotope Format




VI.    Ions
          a. Definition –


          b. Four Common Ions

                   i.

                  ii.

                  iii.

                  iv.

VII.   Isotopes

          a. Definition –


          b. Stability –


          c. Carbon-14 Dating

                   i. Isotopes of Carbon


                  ii. Half-Life

          d. Radioactive Tracers

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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                      Anatomy Notes Outline


Chemical Bonds

 I.    Chemical Bonding

          a. Covalent Bond –


          b. Ionic Bond –


          c. Potential Energy –


 II.   Covalently Bonded Molecules

                                      Type(s) of    Electron-Shell     Structural
                     Molecule
                                       Bond(s)         Diagram          Formula

           Hydrogen (H2)



           Oxygen (O2)



           Water (H2O)



           Methane (CH4)



III.   Ionic Bonds

          a. Ion –


          b. Example Reaction




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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                    Anatomy Notes Outline

IV.   Properties of Water

         a. Polarity –


                i. Hydrogen Bonding –


         b. Cohesion –


         c. Adhesion –


         d. Heat Capacity –


         e. Universal Solvent –


 V.   Acids and Bases

         a. Neutral Solutions –


         b. Acidic Solutions –


         c. Alkaline (Basic) Solutions –


         d. Example pH Levels:

                i. Blood


               ii. Sweat


               iii. Saliva


         e. Buffers –




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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                      Anatomy Notes Outline

 VI.    Van der Waals Interactions



VII.    Chemical Bond Strength (Strongest → Weakest)

           a.

           b.

           c.

VIII.   Molecular Shape

           a. Importance of Shape –



           b. Morphine and Endorphins –


Organic Chemistry

   I.   Valence Electrons
           a. Placement within atom


           b. Octet Rule


  II.   Carbon
           a. Number of Valence Electrons


           b. Organic Compounds


 III.   Macromolecules
          a. Classes
                 i.

                 ii.

                 iii.

                 iv.

           b. Polymer –

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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                   Anatomy Notes Outline

IV.   Carbohydrates

         a. Elements –


         b. Monosaccharides –

                i. Examples –

               ii. Purpose –

         c. Disaccharides –

                i. Examples –

               ii. Purpose –

         d. Polysaccharides –

                i. Purposes –

               ii. Starch –

               iii. Glycogen –

              iv. Cellulose –

               v. Chitin –

 V.   Lipids
          a. Hydrophobic –


         b. Three classes:

                i.

               ii.

               iii.

         c. Structure

                i. Glycerol –

               ii. Fatty Acids –




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[UNIT 1 – CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND MACROMOLECULES]                      Anatomy Notes Outline

         d. Saturated Fatty Acids –


         e. Unsaturated Fatty Acids –


         f. Phospholipids –


                  i. Bilayer –


VI.   Proteins

         a. Functions:

                  i.


                 ii.


                 iii.


                 iv.


                 v.

         b. Building blocks –



         c. Shape and function -




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