Chapter 11 Study Questions

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					          Chapter 11 Study Questions
[Note: These questions are meant to be a study guide, not a
substitute for a thorough reading of the book and careful review
of your notes from class. However, if you review this list and
answer all of the questions, it will help prepare you for EXAM
3. All of these questions can be answered by referring to your
book or your lecture notes. No answers will be posted].

  1.     What are the three major methods of controlling
     microbial growth?
  2.     What is meant by the terms sterile and sterilization?
  3.     How does a bactericidal agent differ from a
     bacteriostatic agent?
  4.     How do antiseptics differ from disinfectants? Give an
     example of
  5.    What do we mean when we say a bacterial culture is
  6.    What is the standard temperature for an autoclave? How
     can this
           temperature be reached if steam is only 100C?
  7.    In an autoclave, what kills microorganisms, heat or
  8.    Does boiling a growth medium make it sterile? Why or why
  9.    How does heat kill microorganisms?
  10. What do we mean by thermal death time?
  11. Which is the more effective killer, moist heat or dry
     heat? Why?
  12. What happens to a protein when it denatures?
  13. Is freezing a good means of killing microorganisms?
  14. What is pasteurization? Is it the same as sterilization?
     Give an example
          of a pasteurized product.
  15. Distinguish between ionizing and nonionizing radiation
     and give an
          example of each. Which is the stronger form of
  16. How can meat be made sterile by “cold sterilization”?
  17. How does UV radiation kill microorganisms? Why would UV
          ineffective as an agent for cold sterilization of food
  18. What is the radura and what does it tell you?
  19. Describe a situation in which you would use filter
  20.   Describe an unusual property of the bacterium Deinococcus
     22.    When might a germicidal agent that claims to kill
99.99% of germs on
               a surface, not be an effective agent?
     23.    Why would be want a germicidal agent to be “broad
     24.    From a chemical standpoint, all phenols contain
________ and _______.
     25.    What chemical is used to disinfect drinking water?
How does it kill
     26.    Give an example of something that would be
sterilized by ethylene
     27.    What are “quats” and why are they germicidal?
     28.    What halogen is used to disinfect skin prior to a
surgical incision?
     29.     What is a coliform? Which coliform in particular is
used as an indicator
               organism in drinking water analyses and why?
     30.     How does formaldehyde kill microorganisms?

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