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Study guide following the completion of the chemistry of life and macromolecules unit for anatomy & physiology.
Name: __________________________ Class: _____________________ Date: _____________________ Chemistry of Life Study Guide Vocabulary 1. Element – 2. Compound – 3. Mixture – 4. Atom – 5. Proton – 6. Electron – 7. Neutron – 8. Ion – 9. Isotope – 10. Valence Electrons - 11. Covalent bond – 12. Ionic bond – 13. Buffers – 14. Monosaccharides – 15. Disaccharides – 16. Polysaccharides – 17. Hydrophobic – 18. Hydrophilic - 19. Protein - 20. Nucleic acid - 21. Denaturation - Anatomy Teaching Resources http://www.aurumscience.com/anatomy.html Page 1 Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Short Answer 1. What are the four elements that make up most of living matter? 2. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are found in sodium? (Atomic number = 11, Atomic mass = 23) 3. How can you tell by looking at a molecule whether it will have a lot of potential energy? 4. Show how a single bond, double bond, and triple bond are drawn using carbon atoms. 5. Oxygen has 6 valence electrons. How many covalent bonds can it form? How do you know? 6. Why are sodium and chlorine ions attracted to each other? What kind of bond do they form? 7. Salts usually dissolve and break apart when in water. Sugar never does. What is the difference between these two molecules? 8. Explain how water striders are able to stay on the surface of water. 9. When looking at a pH scale (see below), be able to identify a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, weak base, and neutral substance. 10. For each disaccharide, give an example of where it is found and what monosaccharides it is made of: a. Sucrose – b. Lactose – c. Maltose – 11. For each polysaccharide, given example it where it is found and its purpose. a. Cellulose – b. Starch – c. Glycogen – d. Chitin – Page 2 Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ 12. How can herbivores digest cellulose? 13. Why can’t lipids dissolve in water? 14. What are fats made of? 15. Explain why saturated fatty acids are solid and unsaturated fatty acids are liquid. 16. How are phospholipids different than fats? What can they dissolve in? 17. What element do amino acids have that other molecules do not? 18. For each of the biochemical tests, know what molecule they work against, and what a positive result looks like. Test Used to Identify… Positive Result Benedict’s Iodine Sudan IV Biuret Page 3
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