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CHAPTER 9 � INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD by DC3njpl

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									 CHAPTER 9 – INFANCY AND
       CHILDHOOD

I.    METHODS AND ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENTAL
      PSYCHOLOGY
      A. Definition – study of psychological
      B. Some chart course of
      C. Some interested in
      D. Methods
         1. Naturalistic-observational
         2. Correlational
         3. Experiential
      E. Two types
         1. Longitudinal
         2. Cross-sectional
II.   PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
       unborn are profoundly
      A. Prenatal environment
         1. During the earliest
         2. Cell ball implants
         3. 8th week –
         4. Placenta can filter
         5. Good
         6. Drugs –
         7. Certain diseases are a
         8. Prolonged stress
         9. Sameroff & Chandler (1975 – severe stress
III. THE NEWBORN BABY
     A. Neonates – newborns – most senses
     B. Absorb and
     C. Form attachments to
     D. Sleep 16 – 20
     E. Reflexes
        1. Rooting
        2. Sucking
        3. Grasping
     F. Contact and communicate
     G. Distinctive
     H. Aware world

IV. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
    A. Maturation – automatic
    B. Developmental norms – age when
    C. Development of CNS –
    D. Physical maturation
    E. Focus on
    F. Critical periods –
    G. Sometimes acquire particular

V.   PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
      can see and hear
      Riesen (1947) – chimps, light
      Blakemore & Cooper (1970) kittens, vertical
      Held & Hein (1963) kittens, feedback
      Riesen (1950) born blind
      Stimulation, experience,
      Ability to perceive is
   A. Acuity and Pattern Perception
      1. Visual Acuity – ability to
      2. Neonates lack
      3. Fantz (1961) infants 1 – 15
      4. Faces preferred
      5. Abstract information from
      6. Prefer more and more
   B. Distance and depth
      1. Visual
      2. Walk & Gibson (1961) 6 – 14 months
      3. Loom-zoom procedure – perceive motion
      4. Likely that seeing and
   C. Object perception
      1. Fantz (1961) 1 – 2 months know the
      2. Sense graspable nature
      3. 5 months –
      4. Object permanence –
      5. Person permanence –
   D. Other senses
      1. Can tell
      2. Infants better distinguish
      3. Also make contact with
      4. Senses do not
      5. Perception grow sharper
        a. Nervous system
        b. Experience

VI. MEMORY DEVELOPMENT
    A. Fantz (1965) pattern
       1. Babies can
       2. Remember old
    B. Very young
    C. Cause of
       1. Age and increase
       2. Language
       3.Ever-increasing
       4.During middle-childhood
       5.As grow older

VII. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
     A. Piaget’s Approach (1896-1980)
        *Trained as biologist
        *All behavior in terms
        *Through play children
        *As grow,
        1. Sensory Motor (0 – 2 years)
        2. Preoperational thought ( 2 – 7 years )
        3. Concrete Operations ( 7 – 11 years )
        4. Formal Operations ( 11 – 15 years )
     B. Criticisms of Stage Theory
        1. Focus on 2 of his
          a. Distinct stages
          b. Go through each
        2. T.G.R. Bower ( 1976) development not
        3. Lieben (1974); Samuels (1974) – fits
        4. Horn (1976) – much evidence
        5. Scott Paris & Jill Weissberg (1986) –
            development more
        6. Kagan (1976) – better see Piaget’s model as
        7. Cognitive development – ongoing
VIII. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
      A. Social Development During Infancy
         1. Imprinting – Konrad Lorenz –
         2. Attachment – social bond
         3. At first thought
         4. Contact Comfort
         5. By 6 months
         6. Autonomy – sense
         7. Stronger the attachment
         8. ~ 2 test
      B. Social Development During Childhood
         1. Socialized – process by which
         2. Social world
         3. Instruct in how
         4. Models
         5. Expectations
         6. Styles of parenting
         7. Siblings –
         8. Social development
           a. 1st more achievement
           b. 2nd & 3rd more socially
         9. Playmates teach
         10. School – drastic adjustment
         11.Teachers are
         12.Social skills to
         13. Poor relations with peers
         14.Major influence
      C. Sex Typing and Sex Roles
         1. Boys and girls
         2. What
         3. Boys more
   4. Most differences
   5. Learn
   6. Possible infants notice
   7. Fathers more likely
   8. Even Sesame Street
D. Social Cognition
   1. Mental understanding
   2. Ability depends
   3. Limits way
   4. Middle childhood – leave egocentrism
   5. Think about

								
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