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									Marketing Research
Aaker, Kumar, Day and Leone
Ninth Edition
Instructor’s Presentation Slides
                                                                             2



  Chapter Eight

                         Information Collection:
                             Qualitative and
                         Observational Methods




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                  Marketing Research 10th Edition
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   Marketing Research

                                          Marketing Research




                         Primary                                      Secondary




      Qualitative                  Quantitative         Qualitative           Quantitative




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                                            Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Information Collection :
  Qualitative and Observational Methods



              • Recommended to
                capture the basic feel   • Limited to providing
                of a problem prior to      information on current
                conducting more            behavior
                analytical study


               Qualitative               Observational
               Methods                   Methods




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                             Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Qualitative Research Methods

      Exploratory
        • Conducted primarily to explicitly define the problem and formulate
          hypotheses

      Orientation
        • To learn more about target customer (e.g. Culture, language)


      Clinical
        • To gain insights into topics that are difficult in a structured
          research


http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                                   Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Qualitative Research Methods (Contd.)
    • Four major constraints:
         ▫ Volume of data
         ▫ Complexity of analysis
         ▫ Detail of clarification record
         ▫ Time-consuming nature of the clerical efforts required


    • Computer technology helps alleviate these problems and
          increase the use of qualitative research




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                               Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Use of Computers in Qualitative Research

                                     Transmitting

                                        Storing

                                        Coding

                                Searching and Retrieving

                                 Building Relationships

                                    Matrix Building
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  Individual In-depth Interviews
   • Nondirective interviews
        ▫ Respondent given maximum freedom to respond


   • Semi-structured or focused individual interviews
        ▫ Covers a specific list of topics or sub-areas


                                Individual in-depth interview techniques
                                      • Laddering
                                      • Hidden-issue
                                      • Symbolic Analysis



http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                                              Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Focus Group Discussions
      • Offers participants more stimulation
        than an interview; makes new ideas
        and meaningful comments more likely


      • Issues to be addressed:
           ▫ Outlining the intended direction of
             the group
           ▫ Explaining how participants were
             recruited
           ▫ Re-educating observers on the
             concepts of random selection,
             statistical reliability, and
             projectability of research results
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   Types of Focus Groups




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  Key Factors for Focus Group Success

    Planning the Agenda


    Recruitment


    Moderator


    Analysis and
     Interpretation of the
     Results
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   Ten Tips for Running a Successful Focus Group
    1.    You can never do too much planning for a         7.    Most client organizations conduct more
          focus group                                            focus groups than are necessary to achieve
                                                                 the research objective
    2.    Manage the recruitment process actively to
          get the right people in the groups
                                                           8.    One of the most important services a
    3.    Don’t prejudge the participants based on               moderator can provide is a fast report
          physical appearance                                    turnaround

    4.    The best focus group moderators bring            9.    Client observers should be thoroughly
          objectivity and expertise to a project
                                                                 briefed about research objectives before the
                                                                 sessions start
    5.    Achieving research objectives does not
          guarantee a successful group project
                                                           10.   The most valuable service a moderator can
    6.    The moderator and client should coordinate             provide is objective conclusions based on the
          their efforts at all stages of the process for         interpretations of the research, without
          the research to achieve its objectives                 regard for what the client wants to hear



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   Trends in Focus Groups

      • Telephone Focus Groups


      • Video Conference


      • Two-way focus groups


      • Online focus groups


http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/    Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Projective Techniques
   • Presentation of an ambiguous, unstructured object, activity, or
     person that a respondent is asked to interpret and explain.


                           Categories of Projective Techniques
                                  •   Word Association
                                  •   Completion Test
                                  •   Picture Interpretation
                                  •   Third Person Techniques
                                  •   Role Playing
                                  •   Case Studies




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                                    Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Limitations of Qualitative Methods
      • Potential susceptibility of the results to get misused
        or misinterpreted


      • Results not necessarily representative of the whole
        population


      • Moderator or interviewer's role is extremely critical
        and can lead to ambiguous or misleading results


http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                        Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Observational Methods
   Casual Observation          Content Analysis


   Systematic Observation      Physical Trace Measures


   Direct Observation          Humanistic Inquiry


   Contrived Observation       Behavior Recording Devices



http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                 Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Limitations of Observational Methods
   • Cannot be used to observe motives, attitudes or
     intentions


   • More costly and time consuming


   • May yield biased results if there are sampling problems
     or if significant observant subjectivity is involved




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                    Marketing Research 10th Edition
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  Recent Applications of Qualitative and
  Observational Methods

      • Talking Shopper program by Pathfinder Research Group


      • Virtual Customers system for evaluating service quality


      • On-site observation to observe and learn customer
          purchase decisions as they are being made




http://www.drvkumar.com/mr10/                         Marketing Research 10th Edition

								
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