Infancy Childhood

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Infancy Childhood Powered By Docstoc
					+
    Babies and
       small
      human
     beings!

                 Chapter 3
                 Infancy and
                 Childhood
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    Section 1 - Objective
    Physical, Perceptual, and Language Development


    Understand   that as
     infants grow physically,
     they also develop
     cognitive skills,
     perceptions, and
     language.
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    Define the following vocab words:


     Developmental        Maturation
     Psychology
                           Telegraphic   speech
     Grasping   Reflex
     Rooting   Reflex
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    What are the 3 issues developmental
    psychologists look at?

    1)Continuity vs. stages of
     development
    2)   Stability vs. Change
    3)   Nature vs. Nurture


     Explain   each of these
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What ways are
capacities measured
in newborns?
Sucking

Turning Head

Looking at/for things

Cry

Smile

Show fright or
surprise
+                Thistimeline indicates
                 the amount of time it
                 should take an infant to
Diagram the
                 learn simple skills, such
Maturation
timetable.
                 as: motor functions, body
                 support, pulling up,
                 crawling, creeping, and
This can be      walking.
found on page
                 These  are the first signs
64 Figure 3.2    of intelligence, along
                 with the ability to speak
                 and understand words.
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    What could cause this timetable to
    be thrown off?

    Underfed           Deprivation
                        of Human
    Restriction   of
                        Contact
     Movement
                        Under   of
                        Over
                        stimulation
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    What does the visual cliff
    experiment teach us?

    Explain   this experiment.
    Infants   learn through experience.

     What   are some other examples
      of this concept?
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    What is one of the 1st signs of great
    intellectual development?
       The acquisition of language.

           This is seen by scientists as the only real way to tell if a young
            child has a high intellectual capacity. Any other tests could be
            skewed by muscular development or some other intervening
            variable.


           Are there any intervening variables that might alter these results.
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    How do animals talk to humans,
    and what makes it different?
     They uses symbols to communicate simple ideas
     with human beings. Most often this is done with
     sign language. Examples of this can be seen with
     primates learning and using sign language.


     While animals can learn simple sign language,
     they can not use grammar properly. This is due to
     the animals brain not having the capacity for this.
     They will make very simple sentences.
+                        Student
What are the steps for   étudiant
learning a language?

1 Learn to make
                         allievo
                         студент
the signs (symbols)
2 Learn meaning
of signs (symbols)
                         學生
3 Learn grammar
+   1st year- Babbling sounds

2nd year- vocab of 5 to 15 hundred
              words

  3rd year- use 2 word phrases/
         Simple grammar

 4th year- use of future tense/ ask
      questions in adult form

 5th year- accumulate 5 -10 vocab
   words daily / complex clause

Outline a child’s language development form 1 year old
to 5 years old.
+                             ■ Some psychologists believe that
                               most behaviors are the result of
                               genetics—nature. Others believe that
                               most behaviors are the result of
                               experience and learning—nurture.

                              ■ The newborn is capable of certain
                               inherited, automatic, coordinated
Section 1 Recap
                               movement patterns, called reflexes,
Physical, Perceptual,          which are triggered by the right
and Language                   stimulus.
Development
                              ■ Infants experience rapid
Main Idea: Infants are         development through maturation and
born equipped to               learning.
experience the world. As
infants grow physically,      ■ Depth perception increases in older
they also develop              infants.
perceptions and               ■ There are several steps involved in
language.                      learning language.
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    Section 2 - Objective
    Cognitive and Emotional Development


    Discuss  how as the thought
     processes of children
     develop, they begin to
     think, communicate and
     relate with others, and
     solve problems.
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    Define the following vocab words:

       Schema                 Representational thought

       Assimilation           Conservation

       Accommodation          Egocentric

       Object permanence      Imprinting

                               Critical Period
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    What 2 things are intellectual
    development based on?
    Quantitative      Qualitative
     Changes            Changes
     This is the       This is the
      amount of          manner of
      information        thinking
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    How are assimilation and
    accommodation different?

    Assimilation    Accommodation

    Uses  a pre-    Altersschema to
     existing         new information
     schemas
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    Outline the stages of object
    permanence.
       1-7 months Thinks object ceases to exist

       7-12 months will look in close proximity to its last
        appearance

       12-18 months Looks in last place seen

       18-24 months looks to find in complex places, knows it is
        still there
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    Give an example of conservation
    development.

    Thisis when a child can not think
     about height and width at the
     same time. See the example by
     Piaget in the chapter on page 73.
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    Chart Piaget’s stages of Cognitive
    Development.
    Sensorimotor (0-2) Motor responses to stimuli,
    no object permanence


        Preoperational (2-7) Egocentric thinking, lacks
        conservation, uses symbols to solve simple
        problems

             Concrete operational (7-11) Starts learning
             conservation, trouble with abstract ideas, can
             classify, masters conservation

                  Formal operational (11-adult) Understands
                  abstract ideas & hypothetical situations, capable
                  of logical & deductive reasoning
+
    Explain Harlow’s experiment.
    What does it tell us?
                 Explanation                      How this is related to humans
       Monkeys were removed from                Like the monkeys children will
        their mothers at birth and                seek out comfort. This is also
        placed with other infant
        monkeys in captivity. They were
                                                  the case for adults. This helps
        subjected to loud noises and              to explain the importance of
        flashing lights, to create fear, to       touching and human contact.
        see which artificial mother they
        would move to. One mother was            Coach Simpson will now
        made of steel wires and had               explain why this is important
        food, the other was covered with
                                                  to you and your future children
        terry cloth and had no food.
        The majority of the monkeys                    May the supreme being
        went to the monkey covered                      help us all if you
        with terry cloth.                               procreate!
+
    Outline attachment in human
    infants.

         6 months 1 signs of attachment


    6 months -3 years deep, caring, &enduring
                  emotional bonds

     3 years- adult can remember &imagine
     mother/ can even have relationship in her
                     absence
+
    Explain each of the following:

       Secure Attachment                    Avoidant Attachment
           Needs to be close, but will          Disapprove of mother
            explore (will come back to)           leaving (ignore when she
                                                  comes back)




       Resistance Attachment                Disorganized Attachment
           Does not care when left              Confused and act
            alone, but are angry upon             inconsistently
            return
+                      ■ Children’s knowledge of
                       the world changes through
                       the processes of assimilation
                       and accommodation.

                       ■ Piaget described the
Section 2 Recap        changes that occur in
Cognitive and          children’s understanding in
Emotional
                       four stages of cognitive
Development
                       development.
Main Idea: As the
thought processes of   ■Infants begin to develop
children develop,      emotionally by attaching to
they begin to think,   specific people, usually their
communicate and        mothers.
relate with others,
and solve problems.
+
    Section 3 - Objective
    Parenting Styles and Social Development


    Describe  the social
     decisions children face as
     they grow and progress
     through the stages of life.
+
    Define the following vocab words:


    Authoritarian    Socialization
     family
                      Identification
    Democratic
                      Sublimation
     Family
                      Role Taking
    Permissive
     Laissez-faire
     family
+

What type of
family are you
from?
Answer using a TV
family
+
    Why are children from
    democratic/authoritarian families more
    confident?
    Establishment   of limits of children


    Response   to children with warmth
+
    What causes children of democratic
    families to make decisions better than
    others?

    1)Assumptions of responsibility are
     gradual
    2) Identify with parents  they do not
     treat as incompetent
    3)Parents present a model of
     responsible, cooperative, and
     independence to be imitated
+
    Summarize the section on child
    abuse.
     Causes:                     Effects:
                                      Child has loss trust
      Formerly   abused
                                      Guilt
       parents
                                      Anti-social behavior
      Low patientce level            Depression/ Emotional
      Unrealistic                     Problems
       expectations                   Identity crisis/ Low self
                                       esteem
      Stress
      Children less              Reduction:
                                       Parent Education
       responsive & more           

                                      Child Abuse laws
       difficult to care for
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    What are the dimensions of
    socialization?
     1stLearning the
     rules

     2nd Acquiring
     identities

     3rdLiving with others
     & yourself
+
    Diagram Freud’s Stages of
    Psychosexual Development.
                           Oral - Weening


          Genital – giving
         pleasure = getting            Anal – Potty Training
             pleasure



                                      Phallic – competition
     Latency – sexual desires
          pushed away                  w/ same sex parent



See also Figure 3.13 on page 82 in textbook
+
    Diagram Erikson’s Stages of
    Psychosexual Development.

    Stage 1 – Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Early infancy – Is my world predictable and
      supportive?

    Stage 2 – Autonomy vs. Shame &
    Doubt
    • 1 – 3 years old – Can I do things myself or
      must I rely on others?
+
    Diagram Erikson’s Stages of
    Psychosexual Development.


    Stage 3 – Initiative vs. Guilt
    • 3 – 6 years old – Am I good or bad?

    Stage 4 – Industry vs. Inferiority
    • 6 – 12 years old – Am I successful or
      worthless?
+
    Diagram Erikson’s Stages of
    Psychosexual Development.

    Stage 5 – Identity vs. Role
    confusion
    • Early teens – Who am I?


    Stage 6 – Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Young adult – Shall I share my life with
      someone or live alone?
+
    Diagram Erikson’s Stages of
    Psychosexual Development.

     Stage 7 – Generativity vs.
     Stagnation
     • Middle adult – Will I succeed in life?

     Stage 8 – Ego integrity vs.
     Despair
     • Older adult - Have I lived a full life?

    See also Figue 3.14 on page 84 in your textbook
+ Diagram Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
  Development. Give an example for each
  stage.
                Pre-Conventional

                              Reference
    Stages    Orientation                  Example
                               Group

                                            It is ok to
               Obedience
                                           steal if you
      1             &              Self
                                           do not get
               Punishment
                                              caught



                                           Stealing
               Instrumental    Immediate
      2                                    helps his
                 relativist      family
                                            family
+ Diagram Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
  Development. Give an example for each
  stage.
                   Conventional

                               Reference
    Stages    Orientation                     Example
                                Group

                                              His in-laws
                                              will respect
                  Good            Extended
      3                                        him if he
               boy/Nice girl       family
                                               steals the
                                                  drug


                               Self serving
                                              It is illegal to
      4        Law & order       view of
                                                    steal
                                 society
+ Diagram Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
  Development. Give an example for each
  stage.
                Post-Conventional
+
                           ■ There are four basic parenting styles—
                            authoritarian, democratic or authoritative,
                            permissive or laissez-faire, and
                            uninvolved.

                           ■ Socialization is the process of learning
                            the rules of behavior of one’s culture.

                           ■ Freud’s theory of psychosexual
                            development suggests that all children
                            are born with powerful sexual and
Section 3 Recap             aggressive urges, and in learning to
                            control these impulses, children acquire a
Parenting Styles and        sense of right and wrong.
Social Development         ■ Erikson’s theory of psychosocial
                            development suggests that the need for
Main Idea: Children         social approval is important.
face various social
                           ■ The cognitive-developmental theories
decisions as they           of development suggest that social
                            development is the result of the child
grow and progress           trying to make sense out of his
through the stages of       experiences.

life.                      ■ Kohlberg suggested that humans
                            progress through six stages of moral
                            reasoning.

				
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posted:8/8/2012
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