What is the difference between leadership and management by gdDK26


									What is the difference between leadership and management?

       Leadership is defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
       Leadership is about coping with change, management is about coping with complexity.
       Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans,
       designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against plans. Management
       consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders, coordinating and
       staffing the organization, and handling day-to-day problems. (Page 176)

148.   What “breakthrough” resulted in consistent and strong support for traits as predictors of leadership?

       When researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework, it
       became clear that most of the dozens of traits that emerged in various leadership reviews
       could be subsumed under one of the Big Five. This approach resulted in consistent and
       strong support for traits as predictors of leadership emergence. (Page 177)

149.   What are the implications of the behavioral theories of leadership?

       If trait research had been successful, it would have provided a basis for selecting the “right”
       persons to assume formal positions in groups and organizations requiring leadership. In
       contrast, if behavioral studies were to turn up critical behavioral determinants of leadership,
       we could train people to be leaders. The difference between trait and behavioral theories, in
       terms of application, lies in their underlying assumptions. If trait theories were valid, then
       leaders are born rather than made. On the other hand, if there were specific behaviors that
       identified leaders, then we could teach leadership – we could design programs that implanted
       these behavioral patterns in individuals who desired to be effective leaders. (Page 178)

150.   Identify and explain the two dimensions of leadership described in the Ohio State studies.

       The Ohio State studies proposed that two categories accounted for most of the leadership
       behavior described by employees. They called these two dimensions initiating structure and
       consideration. Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and
       structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment.
       Consideration is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships
       that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their
       feelings. (Pages 178-179)

151.   Explain Fiedler’s contingency model. In your discussion, describe the role of the LPC (least
       preferred coworker) questionnaire and identify the key situational factors that determine leadership
       effectiveness, according to this model.

       Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership. This
       model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between
       the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. The least
       preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire is used to determine what the leader’s basic style is.
       Sixteen contrasting adjectives are used to ask respondents to describe their least-preferred
       co-worker. If the least preferred co-worker is described in relatively positive terms (a high
       LPC score), then the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this
       co-worker. This person is considered relationship oriented. If the least preferred co-worker
       is primarily interested in productivity, they would be labeled task oriented. Fiedler assumes
       that an individual’s leadership style is fixed. Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions
       that define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness. Leader-
       member relations are the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their
       leader. Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position
       power is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing,
       discipline, promotions, and salary increases. The better the leader-member relations, the
       more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the
leader has. With knowledge of an individual’s LPC and an assessment of the three
contingency variables, Fiedler proposes matching them up to achieve maximum leadership
effectiveness. Task-oriented leaders tend to perform better in situations that were very
favorable to them and in situations that were very unfavorable. Relationship oriented leaders
perform better in moderately favorable situations. Fiedler has suggested recently that task-
oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationship-
oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations. There are two ways to improve
leader effectiveness. You can change the leader to fit the situation. The second alternative
would be to change the situation to fit the leader. This could be done by restructuring tasks
or increasing or decreasing the power that the leader has to control factors such as salary
increases, promotions, and disciplinary actions.
(Pages 180-182)

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