Learning Objectives – Chapter 12
1. Summarize the reasons for the initial interest in humanistic psychology and explain why the critics of the approach call
it "soft" psychology. List four concepts from humanistic psychology that have been highly researched.
2. Discuss the concept of self-disclosure and the implications of the research on self-disclosure
for humanistic psychology. Give an example of the rule of disclosure reciprocity and specify the
relationship between self-disclosure and feelings of attraction and trust.
3. Explain the role self-disclosure plays in the development of friendships and romantic
relationships. Specify the health benefits of disclosing traumatic experiences and the implications
of self-disclosure for psychotherapy.
4. Describe how patterns of self-disclosure can vary as a function of gender and by the nature of
what an individual is talking about.
5. Contrast loneliness with isolation and give an example of each. Present
some explanations humanistic psychologists give for why loneliness is
such a widespread problem in America.
6. State how loneliness is measured. Discuss some of the causes of
loneliness and the characteristics of lonely people, including the nature of
the interpersonal style lonely people take on and the relative amount of
self-disclosure between lonely people and people who are not lonely.
7. Distinguish between self-esteem and self-concept. Discuss the relative importance of self-
esteem for humanistic psychologists and their work. Distinguish between global and domain-
8. Compare how high self-esteem people and low self-esteem people react to failure. Present
some explanations for why these two kinds of people react differently.
9. Discuss the motives that distinguish high and low self-esteem people, including concerns for
self-enhancement and self-protection. Explain the self-handicapping strategy and the reason for
10 . Define self-esteem stability. Give reasons why some people have feelings about themselves
that fluctuate while the feelings of others are more stable.
11. State the reasons why we should rethink our notions of self-esteem when working with other
cultures. Discuss implications of different conceptualizations of the self in different cultures.
12. Give the humanistic approach’s explanation for why some people desire
solitude. Discuss the research findings on solitude and contrast the drawbacks and
benefits of solitude.
13. Define preference for solitude and describe people at either end of this
individual difference dimension. Describe the method and results of Burger's
research on preference for solitude.