Chapter 10: Thinking and Language
1. Define these basic terms/concepts in your own words and give something of an example to illustrate.
Part I: Thinking
- confirmation bias
- functional fixedness
- hindsight bias
- belief bias
- belief perseverance
- artificial intelligence
- deductive vs. inductive reasoning
- using analogies to solve a problem
-using "working backwards" to solve a problem
Part II: Language
- IDEAL as a problem solving strategy
- morphemes vs. phonemes
- displacement (when used in language)
- expressive power of language
- telegraphic speech ( in children)
- given-new contract
- 2 ways to decode written language
- Clever Hans phenomenon
- productivity property of language
- 2 kinds of aphasia & what parts of the brain govern these deficits?
Answer the following questions .
1. What prohibits monkeys & chimps from learning complex language?
2. What is dyslexia anyway?
3. Say what you want about computers, why might they always be limited in the kind of thinking they can do?
4. What does the research show about the safety of flying relative to driving a car? And if so, why are people so
irrational when it comes to the risk of flying?
5. Can you list four or five strategies to aid you in problem solving?
6. What's sad about all the languages that are disappearing?
6. What do Broca & Wernicke's area control? Where are these areas located?
7. Can you explain the great debate between Chomsky and Skinner regarding language?
8. What is linguistic determinism?
? What is linguistic relativism?
9. What was Benjamin Lee Whorf's idea about linguistic relativity? Is it true or false? Why?
10. How can analogies help us solve problems?
11. What is it that experts have that we commoners don't that allows them to solve problems easily?
12. How could you change a person's mind if they were stuck in belief perseverance?
13. Just what could the famous monkeys Washoe, Kanzi and Loulis do regarding speech? Why were they limited
in the amount of language they could do?
14. Would a cat growing up in Paris speak French?
15. What's this about the stages of language development: babbling, one-word stage, two-word stage?
16. What do we know about deaf kids and language development?
17. What is it called when a child invents words like "goed" "falled down" etc.?