amazing physics by amrhussein2000


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									Psychic FAQ: What Is meant by

Karma is a very controversial subject. And when it comes to understanding karma... EVERYONE is an expert, too... right? It's amazing

how many different interpretations there are for how karmic law works, and yet, when you look at the lives of those who are so sure, it

rarely seems to be working at all!

The simplest definition I can give you for karma, from my vantage point and experience as both an emotional intuitive and someone with

hundreds of unique psychic, spiritual and paranormal experiences as well, is super simple.

It's the universal law that regulates actions and outcomes.

Some, like myself... believe that karma is inherently a spiritual process of growth, evolution and progress towards perfection. That your

soul knows... and grows, and constantly strives to do good, to improve and to live in harmony with the universe, and all that is right.

Others who are skeptical of the idea of karma from a SPIRITUAL standpoint, still believe in its fundamental principles of action, reaction,

cause and consequence.

You reap what you sow is a good example of a non spiritual, non "new age" idea of how karma works in our day to day lives, and you'll

find very few people who disagree.

So, from a psychic, perspective, how does karma work in our lives?

Very simple. In my experience, each of us chooses the lives we live and the lessons we want to learn, BEFORE the incarnation even

begins. And each of us, as above, has ONE specific mission that we must fulfill... or our karma becomes chaotic and confused.

To GROW. To evolve and to move forward.

I believe that each of your relationships, right now, are there to teach you a lesson. And on some level, karma is CO OPERATIVE as

well, insofar as the people who are teaching you things that YOU need to grow, are simultaneously learning things they need to learn

from the experience, for them to advance, mature, evolve and grow as well.

In that sense, karma is the one true spiritual truth.

Here is the other very powerful thing.

If you realize that your adversaries, or those who give you problems, or those that make your life difficult are serving you, and helping

you overcome your own blocks, rather than hurting you and holding you back, you NEVER look at the people or the problems around

you the same way again.
Instead of being angry and bitter at those that do you wrong... you can actually feel grateful, and thankful, because if you truly want to

evolve in an authentic sense, they are helping you build the spiritual muscle, and karmic confidence to do it.

In that sense, and in my life, karma... therefore, is everything. And if you live your life from that space, with an understanding of your

true nature, everything becomes FUN and you finally become FREE! (and that is the greatest feeling in the world).

: What is the meant by synchronicity?

Synchronicity or Coincidence? What
The Universe MAY Desperately Want
YOU to Know

A: Synchronicity is a term used by psychics AND scientists to refer to a string of meaningful coincidences. Things that happen that

make you scratch your head, especially when they happen in patterns, or bunches.

Let me give you a good example of a synchronicity.

As an amateur intuitive and professional publisher in the psychic and spiritual industry, I have a lot of "friends" on social media who are

active in the psychic and paranormal space. Writers, researchers, authors, some celebrities and folks who are well known due to their

contributions to the community.

On Facebook, very recently... I kept on seeing a name pop up on my "recommended friends" list, someone I do not know, and had

never heard of before... EVEN though she is friends with lots of the same people, mentioned above.

For whatever reason, I made a mental note that I really ought to see who she is, simply because she suddenly popped onto my social

stream... and it seemed like her face was everywhere I looked. (and again... I had never noticed her, or even heard her name before)

This past Saturday, I was watching one of the BIO channels brand new programs on psychic and paranormal phenomena, called "The

Unexplained". (the first episodes were this past weekend, and many of the programs feature people I've personally written about, and

investigated myself)

All of a sudden, as I'm watching one episode, here I see the same face on TV, that has been staring back at me from my computer

screen for the last 2 weeks, along with her name... and of course, I instantly recognize her name, and image.

Coincidence or Synchronicity?

It depends on your perspective. For me, because I'm a bit more reserved and skeptical before I call something extraordinary, I would

still classify this as a coincidence, rather than a synchronicity. However... if I get a call this week from someone who recommends I write
about, or interview this woman, OR... I serendipitously find some other reference to her in my day to day life that is unexpected, at that

point... as the coincidences add up, they become more meaningful... and start to suggest something more powerful is at play.

Believe it or not, some of very BEST and brightest scientific minds have written passionately about synchronicity, and psychic

experiences that suggest there is much more to this world than meets the eye.

Carl Jung, the father of modern psychotherapy is one, and he documented some crazy cool experiences that are hard to explain away

as chance or luck. (he believed in the psychic explanation personally, and got a lot of grief for saying so as well)

David Bohm, the legendary physicist, wrote about synchronicity in great detail, and with great brilliance, and his work has inspired much

interest in psychic phenomena, karma, and spirituality from a scientific standpoint as a result.

The best way to tell if something is merely coincidence... or is truly a syncronicty?

1 - It should be MEANINGFUL to you. Random weird events that have no real impact on your life may not count as much... whereas

patterns of events that seem to be nudging you in a specific direction, or to take a specific action... SHOULD.

2 - Write down your experiences, and talk to someone who specializes in these areas. A good tarot reader, psychics who believe in

karma (and NOT coincidence) and even a good and open minded therapist can help you string together a series of events... and help

you find the meaning,a and the message that MAY be important for you to hear!

What Are the Earthbound Spirits?
Do some spirits get stuck? What happens to spirits who don't cross over? Are they bound to the earth plane? Stuck in some sort of

endless loop that never ends? Can we still contact or communicate with them? And if so... how do we help them cross over into the


Any of these questions sound familiar? To many people, the concept of earthbound spirits is complex, confusing and often contradicted

by evidence offered by psychics, mediums and spiritual intuitive's who connect with the other side. How so? Let's take a closer look

immediately below.

Filed Under: They MYTH About Earth Bound or "Stuck" Spirits

The truth is, while this is common on TV shows, and psychic and paranormal promotions, the truth is, in my experience, it's really new

age nonsense, or nuttiness at heart.

My experience?

All of us, bar none... have a very similar experience at the moment of death. Seeing and feeling a bright light. Being enveloped by a

feeling of bliss. Having a life review experience where how you lived your life, and how you made OTHERS feel in life through action is
on panoramic display. Being met by loved ones who have already crossed over, and being welcomed by both the light... and the love of

what waiting for all of us next.

This is NOT "heaven" per se... but rather, another dimension of existence that is always there, always around us and always available

to explore. (through psychic mediums, through meditation, through prayer and many other proven techniques that have worked for

thousands of years)

The MYTH about earth bound spirits is simple:

Some spirits, or ethereal energies (the part of each of us that is eternal) can leave a stronger emotional imprint on an area, or a location,

simply based on the amount of feeling that is associated with that spot.

You will often hear stories of haunting for example, or apparitional sightings at places where there as a lot of trauma, or violence, or

danger, or emotional unrest.

Those spirits CERTAINLY aren't stuck. Instead, their energies, or aura is simply imprinted in the environment, and is often so strong that

it's like a scene out of a movie, a frozen moment in the annals of time, a spirit who has such energetic intensity to an area that they have

burned their image into the fabric of the environment.

When I see the TV shows that talk about helping spirits move into the light... I cringe. That hasn't been my experience at all, and quite

simply, while I DO believe that spirits "rest" in different places and levels of awareness and vibration after this life is over due in large

part to our actions in life, I don't believe any spirits are "stuck" here at all. (as where they are, and where we are, is MUCH closer than

most realize - it's all emotion, energy, light and love... and THAT'S what's most important on every realm!)

is There An Afterlife? The Sacred
"Secret" That Psychic Mediums
Tells Us About Life After Life
What happens when we die? Do we go to heaven? What's it's like? And what about hell or negative planes? Is karma real, or do we all

go to the same place, regardless of what we did while alive?

Any of these questions sound familiar? If you are anything like the millions of people who ask these very same questions every day, the

truth is, you are obviously not alone. The ironic thing is, while there is much speculation, myth and religious doctrine and dogma about

what happens when we die, the very BEST evidence for the existence of the afterlife may be available to each and every one of us right


How so?
Have you ever watched any of these new shows on the "near death experience" where people who are gravely sick or injured are

resuscitated and brought back to life to recall an amazing and transcendently beautiful new world? Not only have these experiences

been reported for thousands of years, they occur to roughly 1 out of every 6 or 7 people who have been brought back from beyond the

brink of death. (and have been carefully documented since Dr. Raymond Moody's groundbreaking book "Life after Life" was published

in 1975 detailing hundreds of stories he collected from critically ill patients around the world)

How does that relate to psychic mediums and what they tell us?

Very simply. Because most mediums describe the very same world that the near death experiencers report. A world filled with light and

love. And a world where this IS judgement... but that judgement is usually done by YOU, about you. Where you FEEL the way you

made others feel in life... and you get a chance to understand the true essence of karma, and how we are all created to connect, not


Most mediums will tell you that while being religious is a perfectly good path (and many mediums are) it's NOT about rules and rituals in

the afterlife... and that all of us, regardless of what we believed in life about god or holy books, go to a place that is reflective of our

CONCIOUSNESS and awareness and our deeds. (not our dogma)

In an amazing irony?

It's the very SAME thing near death experiencers report... with most who have one reporting that they come back with more authentic

and genuine spirituality and less reliance on organized religion and doctrine to determine what they do.

That's the very same message I've heard mediums report for well over a decade at this point... and if you want the same
inspiration, the same enthusiasm for life, and the same inner knowing that you are HERE for a reason, it's information that's
available to YOU, right now... when you're ready!

Psychic Secrets You WON'T ever See
on TV

Are you fascinated, excited and inspired by psychic phenomena... and simply can't get enough? Or like I once was... are you curious but

not convinced, and need some extra inside information to help make your mind up? As someone who has had a decade long amazing
adventure into psychic phenomena of ALL types both personally and professionally alike, there is LOTS about the new age universe

you won't see on TV... but is very cool, and very inspiring as well. Curious to know more? Let's take a look immediately below!

1 - Some Psychics Cheat

Yes, it happens. Even good psychics occasionally have off days... and will try to use normal senses to pick up good information they

can use. I've seen it happen even with readers I like and respect, and this is yet another reason why phone readings, and short yes no

answers are much better than sitting in front of a reader face to face.

2 - PROOF? Past Life Memories Are Powerful

I hesitate to say anything is "proven" in the psychic and paranormal universe, but there is MUCH more evidence for past lives than most

of us see on TV. While hypnosis, regression and even psychic readings for past life recall is great to watch, the best evidence for past

lives actually comes from children who remember incredible details about lives, languages, and even sometimes have physical scars

that resemble birthmarks of the previous personality they remember.

3 - Not all mediums work the same way (and SOME give better evidence than others)

There is a famous medium in Boston, for example... who actually draws a portrait of the person she sees in spirit, while communicating

messages from your loved one as well. If that isn't a double dose of overwhelming evidence that something extraordinary is

happening... I'm not sure what is. (and often the people who come through are NOT who the people coming in for the reading expect to


4 - The more OPEN minded you are... the easier you are to "read"

Why? Who knows? But there is an avalanche of evidence that suggests that folks who believe in the power and potential of psychic

abilities, and spiritual realities are far more "readable" by a psychic or medium, even if the psychic or medium has no idea whether they

believe or not. Why this is? There are lots of theories. I happen to believe that like energy is MOST receptive to like energy... and the

more similar your beliefs, the more connected your thoughts, feelings and emotions become with someone who wants to bond with


5 - More than 75% of people worldwide believe in some sort of psychic or spiritual reality separate from the physical

And believe it or not, this number is going UP... even while beliefs in traditional religion are going down. In addition, about 50% of all

people report having had an experience they consider paranormal, be it psychic, or spiritual, or simply unexplainable by conventional


6 - You do NOT need a medium to communicate with your loved ones

Yes, it helps. And yes, if you are skeptical, close minded and completely UNCONVINCED, a good medium can change your life. (much

like one did mine) However, the vast majority of experiences with spirits don't come from psychics and mediums, they come
spontaneously... with ordinary people having extraordinary experiences that change their lives forever. (often dream visitation

experiences, or connecting with a deceased love one through ordinary senses like smell, sight, sound or touch)

7 - People who have ONE genuine psychic experience, rarely stop there

As a matter of fact, folks who have ONE single experience that convinces them that there is more to life than the material often become

complete psychic "junkies" thereafter. In my own life, one single reading with a medium, by phone... so astonished me and permanently

changed my world view, that I literally became a professional in the field! (as an international publisher of psychic blogs, newsletters,

content and communities... as well as a amateur medium myself)

The truth?

Ordinary life is boring. Opening yourself up to the wild, wacky, weird and wonderful world of the unknown is a great way to live life... and

exploring some of the above for yourself will change YOU forever as well! (and hopefully, give you the gentle nudge you need to

discover YOUR true passion as well!)

Air Pressure? Feeling the Weight on your Shoulders.

The weight of air resting on a given area of the Earth's surface is known as air pressure. Air pressure (or atmospheric pressure) is
always greatest at sea level, where the air is at its most dense. Therefore at the top of a mountain the air is less dense and therefore the
pressure is lower.

The air is composed of billions of tiny particles that are constantly moving in all directions, bouncing off whatever they encounter. These
collisions constitute what is known as air pressure. The more collisions occurring within a certain area then the greater the air pressure
will be.

We are completely unaware of this, but the air is constantly exerting pressure on us, on average this is 14 � pounds per square inch. (1
kg per sq cm ) . Air molecules are naturally drawn towards the earth by gravity, and as a consequence the density of the air is greater
near the surface of the earth. Therefore the number of molecules in a given area, the air pressure, decreases with altitude. These
molecules are in constant motion and this prevents them from settling at ground level.

At sea level, standard air pressure is 1013, but typically the pressure varies between 980 and 1040 millibars (mb). As with any aspect of
the atmosphere there are extremes and the highest and lowest recorded pressures are as follows:

The highest recorded atmospheric pressure, 1085.7 mb, occurred at Tonsontsengel, Mongolia, 19 December 2001.

The lowest sea level air pressure ever recorded was 870 mb in the eye of Typhoon Tip over the Pacific Ocean on October 12th 1979

Air pressure is measured using a barometer. Although the changes are usually too slow to observe directly, air pressure is almost
always changing.

Weather maps showing the pressure at the surface are drawn using millibars. Air pressure can tell us about what kind of weather to
expect as well. Winds blow in an attempt to combat the differences in air pressure. Windis the movement of air over the surface of the
Earth, from areas of high pressure to low pressure. A large change in pressure over a relatively small distance, a large pressure
gradient, can result in far stronger winds. When the isobars are tightly packed, locations within that large pressure gradient can expect
windy conditions. As air rises and creates an area of low pressure, water vapour in the atmosphere will condense and form clouds.
However sinking air, in an area of high pressure, means that no condensation will take place. This is why low pressure is associated
with cloudy skies and unsettled conditions, and high pressure is associated with clearer skies and drier conditions.
Winds near the Earth's surface rotate anti clockwise toward the centre of areas of low pressure and clockwise outward from the centre
of areas of high pressure in the Northern Hemisphere, with an opposite flow (clockwise around areas of low pressure and counter
clockwise around areas of high pressure) occurring in the Southern Hemisphere. The main reason for this pattern is the Coriolis force,
which results from the Earth's rotation on its axis and deflects wind to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the
Southern Hemisphere.

So keep tapping your barometers and feel the weight of the air pressing in around you!

Facts about tornadoes

Facts about tornadoes and their devastating impact.

Tornado Fact 1. The deadliest ever tornado was the 'Tri-State' tornado that passed through Missouri, Illinois and Indiana on March
18th 1925. During its 3� hour life this tornado killed 695 people along its 219 mile path.

Tornado Fact 2. Tornadoes are measured and rated using the Fujita scale.

Tornado Fact 3. Tornadoes tend to occur in mid-latitudes, and as they are restricted to land masses this means mainly in
the northern hemisphere.

Tornado Fact 4. Those over the US tend to be the most violent as the North American continent has a combination of warm, moist Gulf
air from the south colliding with cold air travelling down from the north west, producing ideal tornado forming conditions.

Tornado Fact 5. On some days up to 20 tornadoes may be spotted in Tornado Alley- the flat country of the mid-west stretching from
Texas through to Oklahoma and Kansas.

Tornado Fact 6. A wind speed of 280mph was ascribed to a tornado that hit Texas in April 1958

Tornado Fact 7. The average life-span of a tornado is approximately 15 minutes. However some can last much longer, on 26th May
1917 the Mattoon-Charleston Tornado lasted seven and a half hours and travelled 293 miles.

Tornado Fact 8. A 'super Outbreak' of tornadoes during 3rd and 4th April 1974 saw 148 individual tornadoes cross and devastate and
area from Alabama to Michigan.

Tornado Fact 9. Although they can and do travel in any direction, the majority of tornadoes travel from south-west to north-east.

Tornado Fact 10. The US endures around 750 tornadoes annually.

Tornado Fact 11. Tornadoes can occur at any time of the year, although there tends to be a peak in the US in Tornado Alley during May
and June.

Tornado Fact 12. Few people survive seeing the inside of a tornado vortex. Bill Keller from Kansas survived such a vortex in June 1928:
"A screaming, hissing sound came directly from the end of the funnel, and when I looked up I saw right into the very heart of the was brilliantly lit with constant flashes of lightning...around the rim of the vortex, small tornadoes were constantly breaking
away and writhing their way around the funnel"

Tornado Fact 13. The inside of the funnel contains extremely low pressure equal to the pressure difference between ground level and
an altitude of 4,900 feet - giving huge suction power

Tornado Fact 14. In the town of Natchez, Mississippi, in 1840 a tornado one mile wide touched down killing 48 people on land and
drowning a further 269 in river boats and steam ships on the Mississippi river.

Tornado Fact 15. A waterspout is a tornado that occurs over water rather than land. However they are generally less violent, and will not
move systematically northeastwards like a tornado would.

Tornado Fact 16. A bridge is not a good place to shelter from a tornado! Generally the confined space will increase the
overall wind speed. This is despite well known TV footage of a news crew sheltering under a bridge. They did not receive a direct hit
from the tornado and the bridge was of a rare design where they could crawlamongst the exposed girders for shelter and grip.

Tornado Fact 17. The most northerly tornado ever observed was on August 26th, 1976 at Kiana, Alaska, 54 miles north of Anchorage.

Tornado Fact 18. Well this is advice, more than fact. If you are caught out in the open by a tornado with no nearby buildings to shelter
in, lie in a ditch, or lowest possible area, and protect your head and neck with your arms. Then pray.

Tornado Fact 19. Tornadoes are transparent, and appear so in the early stages of development, until dust and debris are picked up and
give them colour.

Tornado Fact 20. Only 2% of tornadoes are classed as violent (F4 and F5), but these account for 70% of all tornado deaths.

Tornado Fact 21. 70% of all tornadoes are weak (F0 and F1), and account for less than 5% of all tornado deaths.

Tornado Fact 22. 50% of all fatalities from tornadoes occur amongst residents of mobile homes.

Tornado Fact 23. Hurricane Beulah spawned 115 tornadoes over Texas in September 1967.


How I Created Computerized, Self-learning Science Course

In 1995 I decided to teach four fundamental ideas that are the foundations of Chemistry - atoms, molecules, the Periodic Table and
chemical reactions. I also decided to present much of the course as a dialogue between a teacher and a student. This all came together
as a dialogue between Merlin and Arthur and, with some literary license, the subjects fit neatly into the four Ancient Elements. So I
launched my website with an introduction page that linked to the four lessons about atoms (Air), molecules (Water), the Periodic Table
(Earth) and chemical reactions (Fire).

I discovered newsgroups and posted a few messages explaining what I had done and directed people to my website. I asked for
feedback and gave my email address. I soon had plenty of new Internet friends - teachers complimenting me, and students with lots of
questions, asking for more details or wanting a clearer explanation. So I put aside some time each week to answer them.

It occurred to me that I was "Merlin" answering the questions of dozens of "Arthurs" and, in the process, creating a better course! As I
answered each letter I also posted my emailed replies on my website. Some questions asked that I explain a point more completely or
give an example. So I did and then I copied my answer into the webpage in the appropriate section. Other students asked that I give
more details or explain a subject that interested them but was not included in the course. So I replied and added the new information to
the site. I learned where I was not being clear and rewrote those sections until I no longer received emails asking for clarification.
Feedback from my students made the course better and better. The ability to "instantly" change my website meant that I could swiftly
correct errors and explain myself.
The idea of a complete course taught over the Internet excited me so I started to give it some thought and planning. I drew up a proper
syllabus and added a lot of extra material to a series of "behind the scenes" webpages that I would release when I was ready. I also
learned about Internet Relay Chat (IRC), long before the days of Instant Messaging, and decided this would be a great way to present
advanced ideas and encourage discussions.

The curiosity that students have about Chemistry is often overshadowed by anxiety over the math but only a small portion of Chemistry
requires math. So, I made a bold decision - create a Chemistry course that was light on math! After all, I was not being held to anyone's
standards but my own. I was not going to offer credit or a degree. In order to emphasize the difference I changed the name of my
course from "Principles of Chemistry" to "Principles of Alchemy (Chemistry)." I also decided to find topics in my advanced Chemistry
books that I could integrate into the course without math.

I posted my ideas in some newsgroups and recruited students. All of them were homeschoolers. I began by emailing my students the
location of our first lessons and details about how the course would be run. Over the next few months I would send them lessons (or
addresses to lessons), suggest some additional websites to read and experiments to try, and meet each week for IRC so we would
discuss Chemistry. The class started. But it did not go smoothly or as planned.

Our first IRC meeting, scheduled for an hour, lasted three hours - at least it did for some of us. People were constantly being "dropped"
during the IRCs as the Internet readjusted by bumping each of us off the net - randomly and without warning. My carefully designed
class plan, with lots of prepared materials to paste into the IRC, fell apart. Within a couple weeks I had decided that real-time teaching
over the Internet was just a shadow of what classroom teaching is all about. I learned that any attempt to make Internet teaching like
classroom teaching was a farce. Lectures on the Internet, meant to simulate classroom lectures, are a calamity and the real-time nature
of the attempt is a technological nightmare. Teaching via the Internet it is best done asynchronously.

As a matter of fact, the Internet's "timewarping" is both its weakness and its strength. The trick is to use it correctly. I started to send
students my lessons in email. I would simply bundle up my pages (htm) and images (gifs) into a zipped file and send it as an
attachment. For students who could not accept email attachments (because of size limits) I placed the zipped bundle at the end of a
hyperlink so they could download it via my website. It worked great. Students could do all their reading off-line using their browser.
HTML allows me to compose and rewrite the "hypertextbook" with most of the advantages of an on-line webpage. Through email my
students could - carefully and without the time restrictions that hover over IRC - compose their questions off-line and read my replies off-
line. I learned that email is a very effective way to tutor students, run asynchronous discussion groups and deliver lessons.

Throughout the course's development, the idea of exams kept coming up. It is very easy for a student to cheat via the Internet so the
honor system is the only viable option. Of course, "Principles of Alchemy" is non-accredited. Regardless of official recognition, tests can
be a very useful part of a course when used correctly - with lots of feedback that turns the exam into a learning experience.

For several years I offered a series of exams that were included as part of the course. These exams, like the lessons, were sent to the
student as a zipped package of webpages. The student answered each question by clicking on a hyperlink that opened an email box in
which they would type the answer. This allowed me to ask very broad questions and encourage them to write long essays.

Writing exams is easy but grading them can be very hard if you (like me) believe that the student deserves more than a list of "right",
and "wrong" as the feedback. I gave detailed replies to each student's answer and I saved all my emails so I could copy and paste my
replies to different students who had the same answer. Correct answers were easy - I said, "you are right" and reiterated why it was
correct. Wrong answers took more work because I explained not only why that was the wrong answer, but also explained the correct

As time went by the workload of grading and answering the exams got easier because I could draw upon my extensive history of
previous emails. As any experienced teacher knows, students often make the same mistakes. After about a year of exams, I was simply
pasting most of my replies. However, this still meant for a lot of work, especially as the number of students increased. I had to make
choices; limit the number of questions, spend more time grading, or limit the number of students. Limiting the number of questions was
not appealing because it made the sampling small and coverage uneven while placing more weight on the few remaining questions. I
could not spend more time on this project or hire someone else to do it, without increasing the price of the course - and it seemed wrong
to price the course out of reach of more students in order to maintain testing. Fortunately, for most of the questions I now had a
stockpile of replies for the most "popular" wrong answers. Also, the history of wrong answers showed where students often were
confused. I decided to use these as fodder for a series of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and automate it! I discovered javascript.

I learned to use javascript to write, reply and grade the MCQ exams. When a student chooses an answer a javascript box pops up
immediately. If the answer is right the javascript says so and reiterates why it is correct. If the student chooses one of the three wrong
answers, the pop-up script explains that it is wrong and tells why it is wrong while sometimes providing a clue to the right answer. The
student can change his/her answer immediately. Indeed, it is possible for a student to simply click around at random until a perfect
exam is completed but that is not the point. The honor system is the foundation of any distance education and the tradeoff - instant
response to each answer - is a useful learning tool. (Besides, any student knowledgeable about javascript would be able to "crack" the
exam and get all the correct answers anyway!) Therefore, I decided that my exams would be an additional form of learning that can give
an indication of a student's understanding of the subject but not intended to "pass" or "fail" people.

During the first few years I offered email tutoring along with the course but, as time went by, I realized that there was less of a need for
it. My frequent and extensive updates, based upon emailed answers and tutoring, had allowed me to create a "perfect" course - tested
against many students and now needing no additional assistance! So I gave people the option to not sign up for tutoring when they buy
the book - they could buy the book and later, if they decided they wanted or needed the tutoring, they could buy that separately. The
result? Nobody wanted tutoring so I have dropped it. I should feel bad that I am now "out of the loop" but the fact that a tutor is not
needed indicates that I have successfully created a self-learning course!

"Principles of Alchemy (Chemistry)� has come a long way from its beginnings. I now offer the entire course as a "hypertextbook" - a
series of webpages that are read from the hard drive. Students (parents) who order the book are sent a password and download
instructions. Each home is considered a "site" and treated as a "site license" so the whole family can enjoy the course and use it with all
the kids. It is a big hit among homeschoolers and I have also discovered that there are many adults who enjoy Chemistry when taught in
a friendly way. The course has now matured into a complete self-learning program and it looks like this.

Each section, called an "Ancient Element", contains "lectures" presented in dialogue style. Like reading a script, the student "listens in"
on the conversation between Merlin and his student, Arthur. The back and forth nature of dialogue means concepts can be explained in
a natural manner. Merlin explains something and Arthur asks questions about it - often the questions that come immediately to mind.
Arthur makes common mistakes and Merlin corrects him. Problem solving is easily demonstrated and common errors in thinking are
identified. A dialogue unfolds in which Chemistry is learned. Dialogue is my substitute for lectures and the nature of this writing allows
me to teach at a reading level of around 8th grade.

Dialogues conclude with "Arthur's Notes" - a compilation of the salient features discussed in the dialogue. I added this feature as a
review. There is no new information in the Notes but the information is presented in a more condensed form. This also prepares the
student for the next part, which I call "Questions and Answers" or "Q and A".

"Q and A" started as self-exams but I decided it would be better to leave the testing to the javascripts. Instead, "Q and A" became a
place where we would do a little bit of review and then dive into more advanced subjects. This worked very well and was "field tested"
with students when I was still actively creating the course. In "Q and A" I walk the student through more complicated topics by asking a
series of leading questions. Like most of the course some of this grew out of emailed correspondence with curious folks who wanted
more information. In its current version, about half of the new material is presented in the "Q and A" - not as a series of facts but as a
series of questions and answers that draw the student more deeply into the subject. I believe the "Q and A" sections make the student
feel like Arthur! They challenge the student and Merlin's questions hyperlink to detailed answers.

Each Ancient Element has a "Do This!" - simple, optional home experiments to try. Common household materials are used to illustrate
some of the concepts learned. "Do This!" is not intended to be a substitute for real laboratory work. I cannot sincerely offer a true
laboratory class without expecting a significant investment of the students' time and money. Instead, each "Do This!" is intended to be a
"Chemistry lab lite."
After completing an Element, the student takes a computerized (javascript) exam. These multiple-choice questions provide immediate
feedback, are graded by the computer and, once successfully completed, give the student a Certificate of Completion, which can be
printed. After successfully completing the comprehensive Final Exam the student is given a �Diploma� and the title of "Apprentice
Alchemist". The certificates, diploma and title are meant to encourage the student to continue with the course while providing incentive
to achieve a perfect score. The five exams each have 20 questions so there are a total of 400 javascripted responses in the entire

I have learned from trial and error how to create a computerized, self-learning Chemistry course. (And based
upon this experience I have created other self-learning science courses.) If a course can be designed to be self-
learning, it does not matter where or when a student learns. Students work at their own pace - where they want
and when they want. They do not have to follow a schedule of events. They do not have to struggle to keep up
with the rest of the class or wait for the rest of the class to catch up to them. However, those same qualities also
make it too easy to put off the learning so it is important to keep the student interested and motivated. That is why
I write the dialogues with "characters" - Merlin is a little bit stuffy and strict while Arthur has the curiosity and
distractions of youth. I believe these characters and the "story" make the learning interesting and keep the reader
coming back. The Certificates and Diploma motivate and encourage the student to achieve goals.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming Psychology Science Fair Projects

It doesn't matter if you're shopping for display boards for your science project, or Shar Levine science fair books,
employ a business on the world wide web, or are a college professor or father, you'll need to study a little
about kids science fair projectsthat address the field or Neuro Linguistic Programming or NLP "reframing."
Various terrifichigh school science fair projects can be executed in the area of human psychology!

As a picture frame creates edges or moldings on a print, the ways of thinking that you opt for can limit what
exactly you consider as imaginable or could possibly call forth all kinds of prospects. You (and if you permit them,
friends) are persistently setting timeframes, boundaries or limits on what you might and certainly can't do, often
without any genuine thought about the outcomes or if the boundaries are true.

Modifying the mindset of an experience could possibly exemplify a large influence on how you identify with,
decipher and reply to that happening. This is where you might produce reeeally cool high School Science Fair
Projects. I'm not proposing easy high School Science Fair Projects but phenomenal and at least a effective
science fair project.

Changing ones outlook is called reframing in NLP. The design of reframing is to assist a human experience their
activity and the power of their impressions from a dissimilar outlook (frame). The human being ought to possibly
be more resourceful or encounter many more alternatives in the way they react.

Reframing is taking place all around us
Statesmen are proficient at reframing. It looks as if not withstanding exactly what occurs statesmen can put a
positive twist on it for them or a negative spin for their foes.

Jokes eipitomize reframes. You are escorted to imagine in A single mind-set and then the mind-set (implication or
conditions) changes.

Nusery rhymes often utilise reframes to assist kids in seeing unalike views or the resulting aftermath. An
illustration is a crying wolf.

An apology is a reframe that applies a contrasting meaning or context to your conducts.

A few more known reframes are
A daddy brought his opinionated daughter to visit Milton Erickson,the notable hypnotherapist. The daddy pointed
out to Erickson, "My daughter won't mind me or her mommy. My daughter is repeatedly expressing her own
impressions." After the parent ceased describing his teen's condition, Erickson stated, �Now is it not superb that
she might be capable of stick up for herself if she's primed to get a place of her own?� The daddy sat in
amazement. That comprised the extent of the therapy and the dad Presently distinquishes his daughter's
repsonses as a advantageous asset in the future in her life story.

Content and Context Reframes
In NLP, you should find two primary kinds of reframes. They're subject matter (or implication) and a context

Content Reframe
The message or cognitive content of a case is specified by what things you decide to scrutinize. We decide our
experience by the interpretation we offer to the experience.

Your high school teacher brought up the words Science Fairs. Your quick answer, "Oh no, an additional 3 to 5
month undertaking."

To reframe this case, Remember the NLP presumption "All behavior has a positive intent" and ask inquiries
including: What other definition may I give to this circumstance? A probable reframe could be: "Great, I am
excited to create cool science experimentsfor 3 to 5 months and i don't have to prove my hypothesis or not!

With this reframe you've now enrolled in the Science Fair Lover Society!

What comprises the goodness in this reaction? You have become a more resoureful individual and the result of
Neuro-Linguistic Programming Science experiments will in all probability be fantastic.

Context Reframe
Just about all responses are valuable or suitable in some backgrounds. If you disrupt a spokesperson by
standing up and providing your thoughts in the middle of a speech, it may be judged as wrong. The exact same
conduct at the end of the presentation to offer some other frame of reference could be satisfactory.

A potential reframe: "Isn't that an outstanding expertise to possess when I desire to get things completed or to
refrain from potential predicaments?" You're at this point in a more educated place and might assist yourself to
select behaviors that could be better in different situations.

Some remaining thoughts
When giving a reframe to an acquaintance: Be certain that you have their endorsement to submit the reframe.
You could hope your reframe is best you can do and yet it may not work for the acquaintance, merely because
they possess a unique frame of reference of the world than you do. Keep in mind the NLP presumption,"There
exists no disappointment, only feedback," and examine different imaginable reframes.

NLP High School Science Fair Projects

Ask the School principal to allow you use 5 minutes at a teacher's meeting to communicate to the teachers. State
to the teachers that you want their assistance to conduct a Neuro-Linguistic Programming Kid's Science Fair

You cannot discuss with them what your hypothesis is simply because that will skew the results. State to them it
is going to be a brand new way of communicating to kids.

When you have your volunteers for your Neuro-Linguistic Programming Science Fair Project, randomly decide on
instructors that will practice "reframing." Educate them what exactly it embodies and how to execute reframing.
Verbalize to the teachers that they must not tell anybody about the project.

You shouldn't report to the other teachers what to do except to do the greatest job ever in teaching than they ever
have accomplished. Administer a pretest and post test to the kids (let the School principal guide you in
determining a test). And ascertain if the kids who were given positive reframing for Two months elevated their

Visting Expert: Madeline Binder, M.S. Ed; M.S.Human Services Counseling
Virtually every page of our Best Science Fair Projects internet site comprises models of science experiments
for you and your family to examine. I encourage you to come by and browse so you and your kids can have the
Most awesome Super Science Fair Projects on the globe! In order to make certain a perent's task more simple
there certainly are science fair books for kids, piles of children's science fair gear, and kits that can be especially
for your family's Super Science Fair Projects all of it in one place.

Newly Revealed 3600-Year Old Wisdom Text Describes Extinction of the Dinosaurs

In recent years, scientists have begun to challenge the popular K-T extinction event theory advanced by Nobel laureate physicist, Luis

Alvarez. In 1990, he found evidence of a large impact resulting in an Extinction Level Event (E.L.E) in what is now Chicxulub, Mexico.

His theory that this E.L.E. wiped out the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago was soon adopted. However, an increasing number of

modern scientists are now casting doubts on his theory. Furthermore, a newly released 3600-year old wisdom text called The Kolbrin

Bible supports these challenges to Alvarez�s theory with a prescient human account.

At the core of this E.L.E. debate is a thin global layer of iridium that capped the living presence of dinosaurs on this planet. It is called

the KT boundary. Iridium is rarely found on the surface of the Earth, but it is common to asteroids, and there is a sharply defined global

layer of Iridium that dates back to the Chicxulub impact event.

Doubts about Alvarez�s theory are founded in equally credible explanations of the KT boundary. One notable theory is the "KT-

Deccan Traps volcanism-induced carbon cycle perturbation extinction theory" of Dewey McLean, Professor Emeritus of Geology in the

Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA. Besides the science, what makes McLean�s theory

attractive is the amount of effort Alvarez has invested to suppress it.

While precise dating of deep time events is difficult at best, ample evidence exists to suggest that at about the same time Alvarez�s

asteroid cratered the Yucatan peninsula, a hotspot volcano produced the Deccan Traps eruption with equally devastating results.

Unlike an explosive supervolcano event such as the last Yellowstone eruption, the miles-thick Deccan Traps eruption flowed out over

thousands of square miles, and released massive amounts of iridium into the atmosphere. Sizable remnants of this lava pile still exist

on a volcanically active Reunion Island in the Indian Ocean.

Enter The Kolbrin Bible. The first part of this 11-book secular anthology was authored by Egyptian academics after the Jewish Exodus

and is referred to as the Egyptian Texts. The last part was authored by Celtic priests shortly after the death of Jesus. Within the Book

of Gleanings is one passage that clearly supports the K-T Deccan Traps of Dewey McLean:

"GLN:3:5 In olden times, there were spawned great monsters and beasts in fearful form, with frightful gnashing teeth and long ripping

claws; an elephant was but a rat in comparison with them. Then, because of heavenly rebellion and turmoil, and the terror

overwhelming the hearts of men, The Great One hardened the face of the land, which had become unstable, and the beasts were

changed to stone. This was beforetimes, when the Destroyer still slumbered in the upper vaults of Heaven."

The reference to an object the Egyptians called the "Destroyer" is repeated often. The Kolbrin Bible and the Egyptian academics

explain that it was a long-period orbiting object, which during its last two flyby events caused the Great Deluge (Noah�s Flood) and the
Ten Plagues of Exodus. Unlike the Torah (Old Testament) this ancient work explains these events as natural disasters -- not the

punishments of an angry deity.

This account in The Kolbrin Bible is part of what remains of the Great Book as the Egyptians first called it. First penned in ancient

hieratic, the Great Book was approximately 4 times the size of the King James Bible. The impetus for the work was the defeat the

Egyptians suffered at the hands of Moses. Convinced their own gods had been proven to be impotent, they initiated the first regional

anthropological study in the history of humankind.

Throughout the breadth of their trading sphere, their academics and scribes would do their business as usual, but in their off hours

began interviewing local wise men. The aim was to record historical accounts and folklore in the hopes of uncovering any clue that

might lead the Egyptians to the one true God of Abraham. The field notes of these interviews were then sent back to Egypt and

incorporated into the Great Book.

One civilization that received special attention from the Egyptians was the seafaring Phoenicians. Enamored by the Great Book, the

Phoenicians translated it to their own 22-leter alphabet and took a copy of the work to Britain during the late Bronze Age, which at that

time was a major exporter of tin. The Celtic priests of Britain embraced the work, which was mostly destroyed during the 1184 arson of

the Glastonbury Abbey. What remained was combined with other Celtic texts and translated into Old English and collectively published

as The Kolbrin Bible. After WWI, the work was updated to Continental English and the first copies were released in the early 1990�s.

For interested researchers, this 3600-year old work offers vital corroboration of Dewey McLean�s KT-Deccan Traps eruption theory,

plus an abundant source of prescient historical accounts of ancient global disasters. The details in these accounts are as crisp as the

man-on-the-street interviews one sees in modern televised news broadcasts. Copies of the work are available online and can be

purchased in book stores in the English speaking world.
The Invisible Ether and Michelson Morley really!

The concept of the invisible ether or 'aether' is an old concept dating to the time of the ancient Greeks. They considered the ether as
that medium which permeated all of the universe and even believed the ether to be another element. Along with Earth, Wind, Fire and
Water Aristotle proposed that the ether should be treated as the fifth element or quintessence; this term which literally means 'fifth
element' has even survived down to the present day to explain an exotic form of 'dark energy' which is crucial in some cosmological
models. These ideas spread throughout the world until the advent of a new springtime in scientific thought. The first person in the
modern era to conceive of the idea of an underlying ether to support the movement of light waves was seventeenth century dutch
scientist Christiaan Huygens.

Many others followed in expressing their opinions on the ether concept. Whilst Isaac Newton disagreed with Huygens wave theory he
also wrote about the 'aethereal medium' although he expressed his consternation in not knowing what the aether was. Newton later
renounced the ether theory because in his mind the infinite stationary ether would interrupt the motions of the enormous masses (the
stars and planets) as they moved in space. This rejection was reinforced by some other problematical wave properties which were not
explicable at the time; most notably, the production of a double image when light passes through certain translucent materials. This
property of matter known as 'birefringence' was an important hurdle to be overcome for a proper understanding of the wave nature of

Some time later (1720) whilst working on other astronomical issues related to light and the cosmos, English scientist James Bradley
made observations in hopes of quantifying a parallax. This effect is an apparent motion of foreground objects in comparison to those in
the background. Whilst he was unable to discern this parallax effect he happened to reveal another effect which is prevalent in
cosmological observations; this other effect is known as stellar aberration. Bradley was able to easily describe this aberration in terms
of Newton's particle theory of light. However, to do so in light of the wave or undulatory theory was difficult at best since to do so would
have required a 'motionless' medium; the static nature of this ether concept was of course the property which had originally caused
Newton's denial of the idea.

But Newton's acolytes would find themselves in a difficult position when it was shown that birefringence could be explained through
another interpretation of the nature of light. If light was treated as being in a side to side action or 'transverse motion' then birefringence
could be attributed to a light wave rather than the particle or corpuscular theory of Newton. This along with the detection of an
interference effect for light by Thomas Young in 1801 renewed the ascendancy of the wave theory of light. These findings however
carried with them all of the preconceived notions prevalent in the scientific mind. Since it was assumed that waves like water and sound
waves required a medium of propagation, it was similarly assumed that light still needed a medium or ether for its waves to be
transmitted across the universe.

However, further problems would afflict the ether theory. Because of the unique properties of a transverse wave it became apparent
that this hypothetical explanation required the ether to be a solid. In response, Cauchy, Green and Stokes contributed theoretical and
mathematical observations to an 'entrainment' hypothesis which later came to be known as the 'ether drag' concept. But nothing would
give more impetus to these ideas than when James Clerk Maxwell's equations (1870s) required the constancy of the speed of light (c).
When the implications of Maxwell's equations are worked out by physicists, it was understood that as a result of the need for a constant
speed of light only one reference frame could meet this requirement under the teachings of Galilean Newtonian relativity. Therefore,
scientists expected that there existed a unique absolute reference frame which would comply with this need; as a result, the ether would
again be stationary.

As a consequence, by the late nineteenth century the aether was assumed to be an immovable rigid medium. However, earlier
previous theories existed as to the nature of the aether. One of the most famous of these is known as the 'aether drag' hypothesis. In
this concept, the aether is a special environment within which light moves. Also, this aether would be connected to all material objects
and would move along with them. Measuring the speed of light in such a system would render a constant velocity for light no matter
where one tested for light's speed. This 'aether drag' idea originated in the aftermath of Francois Arago's experiment which appeared
toshow the constancy of the speed of light. Arago believed that refractive indexes would change when measured at different times of
the day or year as a result of stellar and earthly motion. In spite of his efforts, he did not notice any change in the refractive indexes so

Many other experiments would follow; these were performed in order to find evidence of the aether in its many different abstractions.
However the most important of these was conducted by american scientists Michelson and Morley. Their experiment considered
another alleged effect of a different aether theory which came to be known as the aether wind. Since the aether permeated the entire
universe, the earth would move within the ether as it spun on its axis and moved within the solar system about the sun. This movement
of the earth with respect to the aether gave rise rise to the idea that it would be possible to detect an 'ether wind' which would be sensed
because of the aforementioned movement. Thus, their experiment was essentially an attempt to detect the so-called ether wind. This
mysterious zephyr would be nearly impossible to detect because the aether only infinitesimally affected the surrounding material world.
Michelson first experimented in 1881 with a primitive version of his interferometer; a mechanism designed to measure the wave like
properties of light. He would follow this by combining forces with Morley in the most famous 'null' experiment of physics.

In this investigation, Michelson utilized an improved version of his interferometer device. Michelson's apparatus would help him win the
Nobel prize for his optical precision instruments and the investigations carried out with them. His most important study being what
became known as the Michelson Morley experiment of 1887. Michelson and Morley used a beam splitter made of a partially
transparent mirror and two other mirrors arranged horizontally and vertically from a light source. When a beam of light traveled from a
source of coherent light to the half-silvered mirror (the semitransparent mirror) it is transmitted to either of the horizontal
or vertical mirrors. When the light returned to the eyepiece of an observer the separately returning light waves would combine
destructively or constructively. This phenomenon is known as the interference effect for light. It was hoped that a shifting of the
interference fringes from that which was normally predicted would be able to ascertain the existence of the aether wind.

To detect this effect, the Michelson interferometer was prepared in such a manner as to minimize any and all extraneous sources of
experimental error. It was located in a lower level of a stone edifice to eliminate heat and oscillatory effects which might comprise the
experimental results. Additionally, the interferometer was mounted atop a marble slab that was floated in a basin of mercury. This was
so that the apparatus could be moved through a variety of positions with respect to the invisible ether. But despite their many
preparations the experiment did not yield the expected fringe patterns. Thus, Michelson and Morley concluded that there was no
evidence for the existence of the ether. Others would replicate the experiment in different incarnations which modified the premise of
the experiment. Each and every one returning a similar negative result. Modern theorists have taken these results and those of many
other experiments as being indicative of the non-existence of the aether. However, even the negative result of Michelson Morley has
come in to question as far back as 1933.

In that year, Dayton Miller demonstrated the fact that even though the duo's experiment had not specifically found the expected range of
interference patterns, they had found an interesting little noticed effect. Miller then went on to suggest that Michelson Morley had found
an experimental sine wave like set of data that correlated well with the predicted pattern of data. He also described how thermal and
directional assumptions inherent in the experimental arrangement may have impacted badly on the fringe interference data. Thus, the
test may have been performed in an imperfectly conceived experimental setup and with a built in mathematical bias against the
detection of an appropriate outcome. Thus, in the future the aether theory in some form or another may still be sustainable as a
foundational theory of physics.

Perhaps it is best to leave with these ideas as expressed in 1920 by Einstein who stated that he believed the ether theory to still be
relevant to his ideas on space and time:

"More careful reflection teaches us, however, that the special theory of relativity does not compel us to deny ether. We may assume the
existence of an ether"

he continued:

"Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense,
therefore, there exists an ether"

and finally:

"According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no
propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any
space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable
media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it."

Big Bang Booming - Back to the Future
Then God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. This ancient description of the creation of the universe found in the Book of
Genesis may be accurate after all. The big bang theory describesthe beginning of the universe as having been precipitated from an
infinitesimally small point. In this small volume, all matter and energy was concentrated until its contents exploded in either a smooth
expansion or an incredibly violent energetic explosion that formed the planets, stars and galaxies. Originally this theory had competition
from what is called the 'steady state' theory whereby the universe is forever expanding and new matter and energy is created
spontaneously within the space left by the receding galaxies. However, empirical observations have directed astronomers and
scientists into the acceptance of the big bang model. But how did we get to this point in our understanding?

In the early part of the twentieth century the American astronomer Vesto Slipher and the German Carl Wirtz made some important
astronomical discoveries. Using spectral analysis, Slipher deciphered the mixtures of gases contained in planetary atmospheres as well
as nebulae. What distinguishes his findings is the discovery that most if not all galaxies outside of our own demonstrate what is called a
'Red Shift.' This shift is simply a changein the wavelength of the light emitted by those objects under investigation towards a longer
wavelength. Wirtz similarly catalogued many red shifts of the nebulae which he chose to study. But it was still to early for them to
realize the full potential meaning of their observations. That would wait until Einstein's General Relativity would be interpreted by other
scientists through further mathematical analysis.

His contemporaries demonstrated to Einstein that his new Theory of General Relativity published in 1916 was not compatible with a
'static' universe of space time. The theory predicted an expanding or collapsing universe but not a fixed cosmos. Because he
personally believed the universe to be an invariable space time continuum, Einstein engaged in a degree of scientific legerdemain. To
correct what he perceived to be as 'flaws' in his theory he added the contrivance of a cosmological constant known as lambda to force
the static universe into reality. Einstein's view of perfection in an unchanging space time continuum had led him down a blind alley as
much as Aristotle's concept of perfection had brought that great philosopher into the error of believing in a static Earth at the center of
the universe.

But even with the addition of the cosmological constant lambda, the universe was still found to be unstable and this whole affair would
later be viewed by Einstein as his "greatest blunder." His cosmological acrobatics behind him, Einstein yielded the stage to others for
a clearer understanding of his own theory. It fell to Alexander Alexandrovich Friedmann to consider the consequences of General
Relativity without the constant lambda interfering with his study of these relationships. In doing so, the Russian mathematician and
cosmologist derived the solution which predicts an ever expanding cosmological structure (1922), a prediction which was disagreeable
with Einstein's concept of universal perfection. A couple of years later, Friedmann published his findings in "About the Possibility of a
World with Constant Negative Curvature of Space." But the entire hypothetical construct still lacked a complete verbalization
mathematically and theoretically.

Enter the Reverend Father Georges Lemaitre, a Catholic priest from Belgium. Rev. Fr. Lemaitre provided the equations necessary to
formulate the basis of Big Bang theory in his work entitled "Hypothesis of the Primeval Atom." He postulated that the universe began as
a primordial atom of infinitesimal volume and enormous massenergy as well as space and time and everything else comprising the
future universe. At some point the universe began with the explosion of this super atom. Lemaitre published his theoretical ideas
between the years 1927 and 1933 and speculated that the movement of the nebulae demonstrated the validity of the explosion of his
cosmic super atom. Unfortunately, he also wrongly believed that cosmic rays might be an after effect of the super atom's big bang.
These are now known to be generated not from a universal conflagration but from galactic sources unrelated to the big bang.

However, the new theory still lacked a major source of observational support. This would be provided by Edwin Hubble's observations
of the redshift of galaxies. Taking up where Slipher and Wirtz left off, Hubble employed a novel technique to discern the properties of
the galactic movements. By choosing to observe stars that are known as Cepheid Variables he could more accurately make
measurements. Cepheids are a type of star that brighten and darken and lighten back up in regular periods of time that are well
known. Cepheids that have identical cycle times of brightening darkening and brightening again also have identical or nearly identical
luminosity. Thus, if one compares the length of the cycle to the amount of light apparent to the observer it is possible to accurately
prepare an estimate of the distance to the cepheid.

In this manner, Hubble had found that the nebulae or galaxies exhibited a galactic red shift; in other words, that galaxies were receding
away from ours at a speed which is correlated directly with the distance between ourvantage point and the galaxy being studied. The
further away the galaxies were the faster they appeared to be going in moving away from us. The results of these investigations is now
known as Hubble's Law. Essentially, this law states that universe is in an ever expanding mode whereby the intergalactic distances
continue to grow without bound into infinity. Hubble's Law depends upon the shifting of the wavelength of light and after having been
delineated in 1929 has been subsequently proven over and over again. Further, Hubble's constant has been recalculated to a more
'perfect' value and retains a great probability of being 'recomputed' in the future based upon new observations.

Thus, it should be clear to the reader that our scientists have a fateful habit of introducing their preconceived notions of beauty into their
models. From Aristotle's static Earth to Einstein's greatest blunder, the constant which forces a static universe, we proceed only from
the wisdom of our weak minds. The more things change the more things stay the same. Man's hubris knows no limits in our attempts
to understand things without the wisdom to comprehend its underlying meaning. Humble we are not. We are making the same
mistakes we always have. Back to the future.

potential benefits of genetically modified food

Does politics has a place in genetically modified (GM) food debate? "No", is the obvious answer. Politics and science are such sworn
adversaries that they cannot eat from the same plate. Politics mainly thrive on propaganda, vilification, name-calling and personal
gratification at the expense of the general good. Science is anchored on verifiable facts, it is objective, gentle, and seeks to make the
world a better place for all of us to live. You cannot politicize science unless you fancy mediocrity.

One Jeffrey Smith, the author of "Seeds of Deception," this week advised South Africans to avoid genetically modified food like plague.
Why? South Africans stand to lose European beef and poultry markets if they feed their livestock ongenetically modified food. To be on
the safe side, South Africans should use conventional feeds. Pooh!

"There is a massive rejection of genetically modified ingredients in human food in Europe, and growing demand that animals are fed on
conventional crops," Smith told his audience. What a misleading advice!

Deliberately misleading the public on any issue is both morally reprehensible and abominable. Those who exploit the vulnerability of the
poor for self gains risk isolation by the world. Why misinform to confuse? United States of America is a traditional grower of genetically
modified food. The U.S.'s European beef markets have not shrunk as a result of cultivating GMOs.Latest statistics at the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA)show beef and veal exports ballooned from 461 million pounds in 2004 to 615 billion pounds in 2005.
The bulk of the exports went to European markets. Smith lives in the U.S. and ought to have made this clear to his audience. If he did
so, I would not be here penning this article.

Europe, itself, is fast embracing genetically modified food. Last month, the European Union endorsed importation of genetically
modified animal feed. Does Smith want to tell South Africa that Europe is shooting itself in the foot?

Already, farmers in five European Union countries, including France and Germany are growing genetically modified food. They have not
lost their beef and poultry markets. In Spain, GMO Maize's harvest this year will top 50,000 hectares, all of which will be used as cattle
feed. Spain's beef markets in Europe remain intact. They are not in limbo. These are hard facts and no amount of propaganda and
grandstanding will change them. Let's be pragmatic when debating the issue of genetically modified food.This is the only way to help
consumers to make informed decisons.

Debate on pros and cons of genetically modified food is a luxury to Africa. Somebody should not make Africa believe that it would lose
oversees markets for growing genetically modified food. Africa cannot feed itself as of now. Women and kids are dying in Niger,
Ethiopia, and Eritrea of hunger. Priority, now, should not be to grow food for exports but to feed the hungry and the malnourished. To
scare Africa that it will lose oversees markets is putting the cart before the horse.
E=mc2 is Wrong - Einstein's Special Relativity Fundamentally Flawed down

USA (Wire) December 10, 2005 --

Is Albert Einstein's Special Relativity incompatible with the very equations upon which science's greatest theory is built? New
observations made by many scientists and engineers appear to contradict the great German scientist's ideas. Apparently there are
implicit contradictions present within Relativity's foundational ideas, documents and equations. One individual has even pointed that
quotations from the 1905 document and Einstein's contemporaries as well asinterpretations of the Relativity equations clearly and
concisely describe a confused and obviously erroneous theory. It is time therefore, for science to update its thinking on this theory with
a comprehensive analysis of the history leading up to, during and after that revolutionary year of Special Relativity.

As this is the 100 year anniversary of the original release of Special Relativity, a review of the original assumptions, documents
and ideas which led to the acceptance of this theory is timely and warranted. Every year millions of students are taught this theory
without a critical analysis of Relativity. Relativity Theory consists of its two variants Special Relativity and General Relativity and is
considered the cornerstone of modern physics.

Albert Einstein borrowed from the ideas of Fitzgerald, Lorentz and Voigt to create a new concept of the universe. His first work in this
regard later came to be known as Special Relativity and contained many controversial ideaswhich today are considered axiomatic.
Amongst these are Length Contraction, Time Dilation, the Twin Paradox and the equivalence of mass and energy summarized in
the equation E=mc2.

This equation became the shining capstone of the new theory along with its first & second postulates, namely, that the laws of nature
are the same from all perspectives and that the speed of light 'c' is constant in a vacuum regardless of perspective. Further, the theory
also predicted an increase in mass with velocity. Numerous examples have been given of the 'proof' of the validity of Special Relativity.

Most notably, experiments using particle accelerators have sped particles to incredible velocities which apparently provide confirmation
of Einstein's theory. However, doubts remain in the scientific community who have never totally given up the comfort of a Newtonian
world view. This is readily apparent in that they refer to the Newton's 'Law' of Gravitation whilst Special Relativity (SR) and General
Relativity (GR) are given the polite attribution 'The Theory of' or simply SR 'theory' and GR 'theory.' Einstein would continue working on
the ideas of Special Relativity until producing the aforementioned even more controversial treatise.

In his later more comprehensive work called the Theory of General Relativity (1916), Einstein proposed a major re-thinking of
cosmology. He conceived of a space time continuum that is curved by mass; in other words, planets, stars, galaxies and other stellar
objects cause a curvature of space time. The movement of these objects are determined by the aforementioned curvature.

As a result of these ideas, our understanding of geometry, math, physics, science and the universe would never be the same.
However, some scientists are reporting that speed of light is not constant from different experimental observations. One has even
reported errors in the fundamental equations. If so, this would require a major rethinking of the known cosmological models and
assumptions of modern physics.

the Jurassic Period ( amazing)

Jurassic Period lasted more than 60 million years. It began after the Triassic Period about 206 million years ago and lasted until 144
million years ago at the beginning of the Cretaceous period. It is often called the Age of the Dinosaurs. The climate of this period was
warm and stable.

The Jurassic Period Seas
In the seas, there were more and more invertebrate species. Belemnites and ammonites increased and were the most important of the
invertebrates during the Jurassic Period. Gastropods, or sea snails, were a type of mollusk that grew plentiful in the Jurassic period.
Corals began to produce reefs in the warm seas. There were many types of bony fishes, sharks and rays swimming in the tropical seas.

Ocean Predators
The seas of the Jurassic Period were filled with predators. The ammonites, belemnites, and fish were all excellent hunters. This may be
the reason for some species� numbers growing fewer. There were not as many brachiopods or crinoids as in the previous periods.
These animals, that stayed fixed on the sea floor, could not complete with the moving predators for food.

The Marine Reptiles - Mega Predators
The marine reptiles that had gotten their start during the Triassic Period increased in numbers, too. Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs were
most plentiful during the Jurassic Period. They shared the sea with early crocodiles.

Abundant Plant Life Feeds The Dinosaurs
As the land pulled apart, the seas rose. Warm shallow seas again covered parts of Laurasia (North America and Eurasia). With the
warm seas touching the land, the climate became more humid and tropical. Plants grew thick and tall. There were so many cycads that
the Jurassic is also known as the Age of Cycads. Cycads are a seed plant with leaves that look like palms. They have heavy trunks.
Cycads still exist in modern times, but they are not as large or as plentiful as the ones that lived during the Jurassic Period. All of this
plant life fed the many different types of herbivorous dinosaurs that developed. Of course lots of herbivores means good eating for the
carnivores. So many different types of dinosaurs lived during this period that it has been called the Age of the Dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs were the big story during the Jurassic period. The first dinosaurs developed in the Triassic Period but in the Jurassic and
Cretaceous Periods they dominated. There were Sauropods-dinosaur giants, theropods-two legged hunters and ornithopods-bird
hipped plant eaters. Large and small, herbivore and carnivore, dinosaurs ruled the earth. But that is another story.

Why the Human Body Is More like City than a Machine
For someone who loves science, as I do, it is disheartening to know that most people don't love it. Some
positively hate it and proudly announce the fact. But how many people would openly confess to hating art, i.e.
painting, sculpture, theater, literature, etc.? Quite to the contrary, they are more likely to boast about their love for
it. Given the chance, they will regale you with their knowledge of Bach, Beethoven, Dante, Hemingway, Pavarotti,
Picasso, Rembrandt, Rodin, Shakespeare, Schubert, etc.

This attitude is more than a bit strange. Without wishing to offend anyone, I would argue that science is essential
while art isn't. This is not to diminish any of these artistic luminaries. Whether we have a direct interest in science
or not, virtually everyone would agree that it plays an overarching role in the modern world. Therefore, ignorance
of science is ignorance of a driving force of the world we all live in.

It is not necessary to have a profound knowledge of science to better understand it and help shape its influence
on the way we live. However, it is necessary to have at least a basic understanding; otherwise, we resign all
responsibility for how the world is developing and how this development will affect our own lives — and especially
the lives of our children and our children's children.

Whether one has a scientific bent or not, few aspects of science should be more important to most of us than the
functioning of our own body. But many people have only fuzzy and sometimes false ideas of what is going on
inside of them. I do have a scientific bent (math and physics); yet for a long time I also had fuzzy and false ideas
about my body. I believe that this was largely due to trying to explain the mechanisms of the body through
analogy to something more familiar and ostensibly less complicated.

The human body is often likened to a well-oiled machine, but it would be better to compare it to a city.

The cell at the center

A city is made up of all kinds of people (doctors, lawyers, merchants, teachers, architects, bus drivers, refuse
collectors, etc.) all engaged in activities that in one way or another contribute to keeping the city viable. However,
much of what happens in a city is less about keeping it viable than about keeping it running.

The same is true of the human body. Rather than being made up of cogs and wheels, it is made up of thousands
of millions (trillions) of individual cells, each one trying to stay alive long enough to carry out the role for which it
was designed. It is the task of keeping these cells alive and active that explains most of the structures and
functions of the body.

Once this idea has been fully accepted, much about the human body — or the body of virtually any other living
organism — becomes almost self-evident. So the basic idea is well worth repeating.

In a city, most of what happens is dedicated to keeping its individual inhabitants alive and active. In the human
body, most of what happens is dedicated to keeping its trillions of cells alive and active.

If the individual cell is the center of all attention, just exactly what is it?
By simplest definition, a cell is the smallest possible living unit. It cannot be sliced into two or more pieces that we
would still classify as living. Why? Because anything smaller would not be able to fulfill the basic criteria of being

Technically, of course, cells do divide in order to reproduce themselves; however, this is quite different from
simply cutting them in two. Huge numbers of cells die every day. New cells must continually be created to replace
these dead cells. Cell division (mitosis) is the essential way this is done. Describing the process of mitosis is
beyond the scope of this article.

What does it mean to be alive?

Already in this short text I have used words related to being alive and being dead, and I have said that keeping
our trillions of individual cells alive long enough to do their assigned jobs is largely what the structure and
functions of the body are all about.

We all believe that we know what is alive and what isn't. However even biologists, whose job it is to study and
understand life, cannot fully decide on how to define it so that everyone would agree. Nevertheless, over the
centuries they have come to accept that for anything to be alive, it must fulfill at least four criteria. It must be able

1. Convert nutrients (food) into energy.

2. Use energy to carry out vital functions.

3. Expel waste materials.

4. Reproduce itself in order to ensure future generations.

Let's look at these four criteria in a bit of detail.

While the human body is made up of trillions of cells, some living organisms are made up of only one cell.
Because cells are so small, they are invisible to the naked eye. Until they were discovered under the first
primitive microscopes in the 17th century, no one even suspected they actually existed.

There is a wide variety of unicellular (single-cell) organisms, both animals and plants. But since they all fulfill the
four criteria of life defined above, we do not need to look at any one type in particular in order to understand the
human body.

Building the body cell by cell

We are going to examine the structure and functions of the body from the bottom up, i.e. see what happens when
unicellular (single-cell) organisms get together to form more and more complex multi-cellular organisms.

Imagine a unicellular organism living all by itself. Such an organism would generally live in an aqueous (watery)
environment. Why? Because the nutrients (food) it needs to survive is floating in the water all around it. All the
cell has to do is take in the pieces it wants. It never has to go looking for food, because the food comes to it.

Once the food is inside, the cell has mechanisms for converting it into the energy it needs to maintain itself and
allow it to function. It also has mechanisms for expelling any waste materials it may have taken in by mistake or
created by the process of converting food into energy.

Now let's image that the single cell decides to link up with another cell to form a bi-cellular organism. With this
association, very little changes. Both cells still independently take in food from the aqueous environment, convert
it into energy, and expel waste materials. But what would happen if these two cells decided to associate with a
third cell to form a tri-cellular organism? Again, very little, because each cell would continue acting almost as if it
were still completely independent.

But notice, a single cell has total access to the aqueous environment to take in food and expel waste. As two
cells, access to the aqueous environment would still be very high but no longer total because of where the cells
are joined. Each time a new cell associates, access to the aqueous environment decreases. The cells on the
outside of the group maintain nearly total access; however, for those near the center of the group, access
becomes considerably reduced.

What happens when the organism becomes so big that some cells have no access to the aqueous environment
at all? Being unable to take in food and expel waste, these interior cells would rapidly die. We might therefore
reasonably conclude that there must be a limit to the number of cells that can form an organism. Once the
number becomes so great that certain cells no longer have access to the aqueous environment, growth must

However, we know this isn't true; otherwise, we wouldn't exist. So another structure must be possible.

Instead of completely blocking inside cells from the aqueous environment, the organism arranges itself to create
a tiny tunnel. This allows the aqueous environment to flow to and from the cells near the center. As the organism
takes on more and more cells, it creates more and more tunnels for the aqueous environment to flow to and from
the cells inside.

This is a fundamental concept. No matter how deep they are inside the organism, all cells must have access to
the aqueous environment that contains food and takes away waste. Otherwise, they will die.

This is true not just for microscopic organisms visible only under a microscope; it is true for all living organisms.
Thus, the more cells an organism contains, the more "tunnels" it needs to ensure that each and every one of its
cells can take in food and expel waste.

The fact is, the vast majority of the 100 trillion cells in the human body are located deep inside. This means that
the body needs an almost countless number of tunnels; moreover, it must organizes them into complex systems
to ensure that even cells in the very center of the body are still surrounded by an aqueous environment
containing food and capable of carrying away waste. Otherwise, they rapidly would die — and you along with

If this idea seems somewhat abstract, let's return to our comparison with a city.

Why do different cells do different things?

Suppose we start with only one person living in the middle of a field. The field supplies all of his needs. When he
is hungry, he simply goes into the field and picks some crops to eat. When his body converts the food into
energy, the waste materials can also be expelled into the field.

Now let's suppose that a second person arrives on the scene. No problem. Both of them can fully satisfy their
needs from the crops in the field. If more and more people arrive, eventually it will become inefficient for each
individual to go into the field to find food. So the group decides that some people should gather the food while
others should stay in the house to cook it.

The people in the house are now cut off from the source of food. In order to keep the cooks alive and functioning,
the people who go into the field now have to bring back enough food for everyone, not just for themselves. This is
like creating a "tunnel" in our multi-cellular organism.
Without putting too fine a point on it, the people who go into the field to gather the food can also expel the waste
materials their bodies create (urination, defecation). But what about the people inside the house? When the
group is still rather small, they too can occasionally go into the field specifically to expel waste. However, as the
community becomes bigger and bigger, more and more houses are built. The houses in the center become
increasingly distant from the field, so going there to expel waste becomes increasingly difficult. Something has to
be done.

At this point, the community decides to reorganize itself. Now, instead of having only two specialized jobs
(gathering food and cooking it), they add two more for a total of four.

1. Some people (those living closest to the field) gather the food.

2. Some people (those living nearer the center) receive the food and divide it among all the members of the

3. Some people cook the food.

4. Some people collect waste (human and food) from the houses and expel it back into the field.

In short, a smaller and smaller proportion of the community is now actually gathering food, while a larger and
larger proportion is becoming involved in distributing it, cooking it, and disposing of waste.

We are of course still talking about a very small community. But if you think about it, this is exactly what happens
even in a major city, only more so.

A very small number of people are engaged in gathering or cultivating food, while the majority is engaged in
warehousing it, processing it, and distributing it. So the city has to create a food distribution system. Again,
without putting too fine a point on it, the people who eat the food but never go outside the city into the field still
have to eliminate waste. They cannot do this just anywhere, so the city also has to create a sanitation system.

As the city gets even bigger, people must be able to move around in order to carry out their assigned functions,
so the city has to create a road and transportation system. And so on.

In short, most of the organization of a city is devoted to providing solutions to the needs of each individual
inhabitant, most of whom are too far removed from the source of those solutions to do the job themselves.

The same thing is true of the human body. However, the body would seem to have a considerably harder job on
its hands than a city. After all, Tokyo-Yokohama, the world's largest city, has a population of only 33 million. The
population of cells in the human body is about 100 trillion; this means that the body has 3 million times more
"inhabitants" than does Tokyo.

To put this comparison on a global basis, the total population of the world recently passed 7 billion
(7,000,000,000). Although an enormous figure, you would still have to multiply it by 14,000 to achieve the
population of cells in just a single human body!

No wonder the structures and functions of the body at first glance may seem to be frustratingly complicated.
However, let's keep in mind the fundamental principle: Most of what goes on in the body is to serve the
needs of each individual cell rather than the body itself. If we never forget this, many features of the body
suddenly become much simpler.

Six essential systems

The bodily systems that most clearly reflect this principle are:
1. Respiratory System. This system takes oxygen out of the air needed by each individual cell to convert
nutrients (food) into energy so that it can properly function. It also expels back into the air waste gases generated
by each cell when converting nutrients into energy so that it can function.

2. Digestive System. This system takes in food (the system begins with the mouth) and transforms it into the
nutrients needed by each individual cell to convert into energy so that it can properly function.

3. Circulatory System. This system carries the oxygen and nutrients needed by each individual cell so that it
can properly function. It also carries away waste materials generated by each cell as it uses the oxygen and
nutrients so that they can be excreted from the body.

4. Urinary System. This system concentrates soluble waste materials so that when they are expelled, the body
retains as much water as possible. Remember: each cell must live in an aqueous environment, so it is vitally
important for the body to conserve as much water as possible and regularly replenish what is lost.

5. Nervous System. This system, which includes the brain and countless nerves running everywhere in the
body, coordinates the other systems to ensure that they correctly do their jobs of supplying each individual cell
with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to live and function, and carry away and eliminate the waste products
produced by each cell.

6. Defense System. This system protects the body from the constant attacks of potentially harmful microbes
(microscopic, often single-cell microorganisms). It consists of two essential branches: 1) the skin and other
physical barriers to keep pathogens from getting inside the body in the first place, 2) biological barriers that
neutralize and destroy pathogens that get past the physical barriers before they can do serious harm.

Others systems, such as the endocrine system, the muscular system, the reproductive system, and the skeletal
system have an impact on ensuring that each individual cell survives and prospers, but their contributions are
less direct.

There is no question that at first glance, the structure and functions of the human body appear to be supremely
complex. But remember:

         · The body is a city, not a machine.
         · Most of what the body does is to provide the services (food delivery and waste disposal) needed by
          each cell to survive and function.

If we keep these two fundamental ideas clearly in mind, then the body's essential functions become almost self-
evident and much of the apparent complications rapidly disappear.

Long-Necked Dinosaur Fossils Found
In New Zealand
More Evidence of Sauropods Once Having Roamed New Zealand

The fossil record for dinosaurs in New Zealand is particularly poor. Dinosaur remains are few and far between in this country, although a

number of marine reptile fossils have been discovered in recent years. Some fossils of marine reptiles, are much more complete and
have enabled scientists to classify them as a separate and distinct genus unique to New Zealand, to date a Mosasaur and a Plesiosaur

have been named and described.

Marine Animals Have a Better Chance of Preservation

Animals that die in a marine environment have a higher chance of fossil preservation, when compared to terrestrial creatures. The

conditions permit fossilisation to take place (presence of conditions to allow the rapid deposition of sediments and such like). With New

Zealand's dinosaurs, what fossils that have been found are usually isolated bones, often in a poor state of preservation, so at best only

classification to a Family level can be made. For much of New Zealand's history it was attached to the continent of Australia, which itself

formed part of a much larger southern super-continent called Gondwanaland. Dinosaurs were theoretically able to roam from the

western coast of South America right across to the east coast of New Zealand. Some fragmentary fossils of dinosaurs (dating from the

Cretaceous), have been found, scientists are confident that there were Carnosaurs (meat-eaters), probably members of the

Allosauridae, as well as plant-eaters such as Ankylosaurs and Hypsilophodontids.

New Zealand a Prehistoric Paradise

The presence of coal seams, formed in the Mesozoic in New Zealand indicate that the country was relatively tropical for much of the

Age of Reptiles, even though the land mass that was to become New Zealand was much closer to the South Pole at this time in the

Earth's history.

Thanks to the devotion and dedication of a fossil hunter, a new type of dinosaur can be added to the fauna of New Zealand, evidence of

giant Titanosaurs roaming the region has been unearthed. Dr Joan Wiffen, a scientist and fossil collector has been studying the

dinosaurs of this particular part of the world for many years. Now into her eighties, she shows no signs of slowing down and has not lost

any of her enthusiasm for the subject. With her colleagues, Dr Wiffen has been responsible for identifying six different kinds of

dinosaurs indigenous to New Zealand.

Veteran Collector Finds Titanosaur

The Titanosaur fossil (believed to be part of the caudal vertebrae) consists of a single, heavily eroded bone that was found in a stream

bed in the Hawke's Bay region in 1999. Hawke's Bay is situated on the eastern coast of the North Island, the paper on this particular

fossil has only just been published after a period of research and peer review, but this is the first evidence of Titanosaurs inhabiting the


Huge Members of the Dinosauria

Titanosaurs, were a branch of the Sauropods, the large, long-necked herbivorous dinosaurs. Although the Ornithopods dominated eco-

systems in the northern hemisphere and Sauropods became increasingly rare in the Cretaceous, in the southern latitudes the

Sauropods, in the form of Titanosaurs continued to flourish. Titanosaurs were the last Sauropods to evolve, appearing some time in the

late Jurassic and surviving right until the end of the Cretaceous 65 million years ago. Some Titanosaurs can stake a claim to being the

largest creatures ever to walk on land, Argentinosaurus (from Argentina), is estimated to have been 30 metres in length and weighed

100 tonnes. Not only are these animals famous for their sheer size, but they are the only group of Sauropods known for definite to have
dermal body armour. The body armour consisted of hard plates (called scutes) that in many species was scattered over their backs and


Saltasaurus (from the Salta Province in Argentina) is typical of the Titanosaurs, with its dermal armour and typical Titanosaur body

shape of a long-neck and long-tail. At 12 metres and weighing perhaps as much as 8 tonnes this was no small dinosaur, but it would

have been small in comparison to the giant Titanosaurs such as Argentinosaurus, Alamosaurus, Andesaurus and Paralititan, all of

which could have exceeded 30 metres in length.

Analysing the Evidence

There is not much more that can be deduced from the fossil, other than to confirm that it is from a Titanosaur, scientists cannot be

certain how big this dinosaur was as the bone could have come from a juvenile.

Dr Wiffen described how she found the specimen, stating that she saw a partly exposed concretion (nodule of sedimentary rock) about

the size of a rugby ball in a stream bank. She dug it out and asked a colleague who had accompanied her on her fossil hunting trip to

break it open with a geological hammer. The inside of a nodule revealed tell-tale evidence of fossil bone. The bone did not look like the

bones from a marine reptile and it has been described as belonging to a dinosaur.

The fossil bone has been described as difficult to place within the skeleton, it is to badly eroded but it has been identified as

Dinosaurian, The palaeontologists who have been studying the New Zealand fossil state that the heavily eroded state of the bone

suggests that it had been transported a long way before it was buried in the side of the river bank.

Queensland Scientists Study Find

With fossil carefully wrapped, Dr Wiffen took it home and began to work on it in her garage which also serves as a fossil preparation

laboratory. Using fine chisels and small picks she carefully removed the surrounding stone to expose the fossil. She even used dilute

acetic acid to help dissolve away the rock to allow more of the fossil to come to light. Once prepared she took the bone to the

Queensland Museum in Australia for examination by Dr Ralph Molnar, an authority on dinosaurs from Gondwanaland. It was Dr Molnar

who confirmed that this fossil was of a tail bone from a Titanosaurid.

Did really Woolly Mammoths Make
Good Mothers?
How Maternal were Woolly Mammoths?

With the many fossils of Woolly Mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) and the ancestral type Mammuthus meridionalis, plus the

opportunity to observe modern elephant species, scientists have built up a detailed picture of the lives of Woolly Mammoths. Well-

preserved frozen carcases from Siberia (northern Russia)and other remarkable finds have enabled researchers to piece together a

picture of what it must have been like to be a Mammoth in the Pleistocene, wandering the extensive, grassy plains of northern Europe.

Learning from the Tusks of Prehistoric Elephants
A team of researchers from a faculty of Michigan University has pioneered a method of determining the age of Mammoths at death by

analysing cross sections of the tusk. The tusks of elephants once they have been cut in half can reveal the life story of the animal that

the tusk belonged to. Growth rings show seasonal differences and the number of rings determines the age of the animal. It seems that

Mammoths could live to about the age of sixty, a lifespan slightly shorter than the African and Asian elephants. Like modern elephant

species they lived in a sophisticated, highly structured social hierarchy. The females and young animals lived in herds together, with

perhaps a matriarch figure, the oldest female in the group acting as leader. Mature bulls lived a solitary existence, coming into contact

with females only to mate. Younger males may have formed small herds, gathering together for protection from predators such as Dire

wolves and Sabre-tooth cats that shared the environment with these large plant-eaters.

Male Mammoths Died in Combat

Competition for mates was probably a common site when the females came into season. One Mammoth fossil found in Nebraska

comprises two skulls locked together by their curling tusks, the combatants, probably males must have become entangled during a fight

and then unable to separate themselves. They must have died a slow and lingering death from starvation.

As with most mammal species adapted to northern climates, mating probably occurred in the Summer months. With a twenty-two month

gestation period, a female Mammoth that conceived in July would give birth in the next May but one, allowing the calves to have a few

months of warm, mild weather before the winter and any migration that was undertaken. Having a calf in the Spring would also benefit

the Mammoth mothers as they would have plenty of new grazing to help them produce the milk required for their offspring. A single calf

would be born, and this calf would probably depend on it's mother's milk for at least two years. The calf being dependent on the mother

coupled with the long gestation period would have meant that mature females would only have been able to breed once every four


Slow Breeding Large Mammals

Many large mammals produce just a single calf and dedicate a lot of resources into nurturing their offspring. This strategy is effective so

long as the adult population does not decline. As has been seen with African elephants, if there is much predation of adult animals, as

with poaching for example, then the population can crash dramatically.

Some researchers have claimed that Mammoths would look after each other and orphaned calves would be fostered. There is also

some fossil evidence to suggest that Mammoths like modern elephants were reluctant to abandon a dead or dying member of their

group. Offspring off both sexes probably stayed in the female herd until about 10-12 years of age, before the males moved on to form

bachelor groups or gangs.

Slow Breeding and Long Gestation Period - Extinction Theory

The slow breeding cycle of these prehistoric creatures could have been one of the reasons for their extinction. A number of

palaeontologists have proposed a theory that after a population crash due to over hunting by early humans or after extremes of bad

weather, a resident population of Woolly Mammoths would have not been able to breed quickly enough to replace those animals that

had been lost. This would lead to a terminal decline in the numbers of Mammoths in an area and their eventual extinction as the

population would not be viable to ensure a healthy gene pool to produce offspring.
New Evidence for the Extinction of
the Dinosaurs

New Evidence to Explain Cretaceous Mass Extinction Event

Research published in the very well-respected and admired scientific journal "Geology", puts a different interpretation on evidence from

the famous K-T boundary. This new research which has involved an international team of geologists studying a number of marine and

non-marine sites on the Mesozoic/Cenozoic boundary sheds new light on the cause of the forest fires resulting from the asteroid impact

on the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. This research challenges some of the established theories on the extinction of the dinosaurs.

Cretaceous Global Catastrophe

Around 65 million years ago, a huge extraterrestrial object crashed into the Earth, blasting a crater over 200 kilometres across and

throwing huge quantities of material up into the atmosphere.

The research team, headed by New Zealand geologist Mark Harvey has contradicted conventional theory concerning the Chicxulub

impact that is believed to have hastened the demise of the dinosaurs.

According to Mr Harvey, the impact itself did cause extensive forest fires that destroyed the planet's ecosystems. This new work blames

the large carbon deposits in the sediments that were struck. In this newly published academic paper it is claimed that the extraterrestrial

object smashed into oil or coal deposits with such force that the carbon was liquefied and projected upwards, only to return to Earth and

cover everything in a thick layer of fine soot.

A Sooty End to the Dinosauria

Up until now, many scientists believed that the carbon resulting from the impact was ash resulting from global forest fires. The

international team, consisting of researchers from the USA, New Zealand, Italy and Britain, found some particles among the soot had

formed carbon "cenospheres", tiny beads similar to ones produced in modern times by intense industrial combustion.

These "cenospheres" are strong indicators of human, industrial activity claim the researchers. The very first appearance of these

deposits noted by archaeologists define the start of the industrial revolution.

Some burnt vegetation has been found in the layer close to the impact site, but scientists think these fires broke out as molten rock and

super-hot ash fell from the sky and on to forests.

Global Forest Fires

Researchers had suggested mass extinctions occurred, resulting in the loss of about sixty-five percent of all life on land, as global forest

fires pumped enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to cause a period of runaway global warming, or they spewed enough soot to

block out the sun and kill off the plants that disrupted and destroyed global food chains.
Mr Harvey's team found cenospheres were smaller the further the sample site was from the Chicxulub Crater - consistent with heavier

particles produced by the impact falling to earth sooner than lighter particles. It is estimated that nine hundred billion tonnes of carbon

cenospheres were ejected by the collision.

Conventional Theory Challenged

Conventional theory had speculated that soot in the form of charcoal particles found in the strata at the K-T boundary was thought to be

evidence for fires that initially ravaged the western hemisphere, including the United States. These fires then extended on a world-wide

basis, set off by electric storms setting alight to the massive amounts of dead or dying plant material.

Incidentally, the layer, rich in the rare Earth element Iridium called the K-T boundary is so called because the "K" is short for kreide, the

German word for chalk vast amounts of chalk were formed during the end of the Cretaceous. The "T" is short for Tertiary.

The debate as to what did kill off the dinosaurs and other types of prehistoric creature is set to continue as more researchers study the

geology which resulted from a global catastrophe some sixty-five million years ago.

Deinonychus A New Interpretation of
This Dinosaur
Terrible Claw - Fearsome Member of the Dinosauria

In 1931, the great American fossil hunter Barnum Brown discovered the bones of a small, agile predatory dinosaur in Wyoming

(Western USA). The animal was named Daptosaurus, it means "active lizard". Unfortunately, despite being aware that this was a new

genus of dinosaur, Barnum Brown never actually got round to describing this new dinosaur, and as a result Daptosaurus was not

recognised by the wider scientific community.

John Ostrom, another American palaeontologist, uncovered more fossilised bones of Daptosaurus in 1964 and he went onto name and

describe the animal as Deinonychus in 1969, on year after Barnum Brown had sadly passed away. So far, something approaching a

dozen specimens have been found, including the remains of Deinonychus individuals next to a Tenontosaurus (a large
Hypsilophodontid herbivore), a rare example of predator and prey being found together. The work of John Ostrom and other

researchers led many scientists to see dinosaurs in a different light. Instead of being depicted as slow, lethargic cold-blooded reptiles

many began to be interpreted as active, agile and bird-like.

Deinonychus remains have been found in Mid Cretaceous strata of Montana, Oklahoma and Wyoming. The animal grew to a length of

approximately 3 metres and might have weighed as much as 80 kilogrammes. The head was 2.5 metres off the ground. From the group

of Deinonychus fossils (and recent trackway evidence), it has been suggested that this animal, a member of the Dromaeosauridae, lived

and hunted in packs.

Active, Agile Predators not Sluggish Giants

The second toe of the four on the hind foot did not touch the ground. Instead it was held aloft as it had the large sickle-shaped claw on

the end. Scientists like Ostrom speculated that this was probably the primary weapon used by this fierce little hunter. The claw could

have been swung forward and used to slash its victims. This suggests that dinosaurs like Deinonychus would have been powerful,

active hunters.

However, recent studies by a team from the University of Manchester and other groups has cast some doubt over this hypothesis

regarding the purpose of the toe claw. Although the point of the claw was relatively sharp, the curved surface of the claw was not so

sharp. The force needed to slash away at the tough hide of a dinosaur would have been immense. It now seems that this claw may

have served more as a grappling hook, allowing a pack of Deinonychus to mob a larger dinosaur, jumping on it using their claws to get

a purchase and to help bring the animal down.

Jaws that Opened Wide - Lined with Sharp Teeth

Close analysis of the jaws of Dromaeosaurs including Deinonychus indicate that they were very strong. Large muscles positioned

towards the rear of the skull indicates that they could be opened very wide (wider than the 70 degrees permitted by the jaws of a lion).

Perhaps the jaws could have opened wide enough to bite down onto the windpipe and suffocate large prey animals - a form of predation

favoured by many big cats today.

Thanks to the work of famous American palaeontologists such as John Ostrom, scientists now perceive meat-eating dinosaurs as fast-

running, active predators and not as sluggish giant lizards.

New Giant Meat-Eating Dinosaur
From Africa
New Species of Carcharodontosaurus Discovered in Niger
Dinosaur fans, especially collectors of dinosaur models can look forward to a number of new meat-eating dinosaurs being made after it

was confirmed that a new type of huge predatory dinosaur has been found in Africa. Fossils found many years ago by a student have

formally been described and a new meat-eating dinosaur discovery announced.

For graduate Steve Brusatte, a palaeobiologist at the University of Bristol, England, the long wait for the naming and describing of his

1997 fossil find is finally over. Elements of the skull, including the premaxilla (part of the upper jaw) and cervical vertebrae (back bones)

discovered in an expedition to Niger (Africa) have been described in the scientific publication "The Journal of Vertebrate

Paleontology" out this week.

Although only fragments of the skeleton have been found the skull material and teeth have enabled scientists to identify this animal as

belonging to the Carcharodontosaurus genus. The animal has been named C. iguidensis and it would have been one of the top

predators in the area around 95 million years ago (Cenomanian faunal stage). This dinosaur therefore lived during the geological period

known as the Cretaceous. It lived approximately thirty million years before the likes of Tyrannosaurus rex evolved. Dinosaur model

collectors can look forward to receiving new dinosaur models reflecting this discovery from the mainstream model and replica


Shark Toothed Dinosaurs - Carcharodontosaurids

The Carcharodontosaurids are named after the Great White Shark (C. carcharias), these fierce meat-eaters (the name means shark

toothed lizards), roamed North Africa in the mid to late Cretaceous and one species C. saharicus is estimated to have rivalled

Tyrannosaurus rex and Giganotosaurus as being the biggest theropod discovered so far. The Carcharodontosaurids are members of

the Allosaur family. Size estimates for this new species put this animal at around 14 metres in length, but considerably lighter than the

likes of T. rex, Giganotosaurus and its close relative from Morocco C. saharicus. It weighed approximately 3.2 tonnes.

There were a number of large theropods roaming this part of the Gondwanaland during this stage of the Cretaceous, as well as the

Carcharodontosaurids, there were the likes of the Spinosaurus and the Abelisaurs. However, it seems likely that these massive

carnivores did not necessarily compete with each other over food sources. Studies of jaw material indicates that the Spinosaurs may

have been mainly fish eaters, whilst the Abelisaurs had much more slender and narrow jaws perhaps indicating a different prey than the

broader and sturdier jawed Carcharodontids.

Huge, Carnivores of the Mesozoic

The Carcharodontid family are still little known, the original fossils were described by the famous German palaeontologist Ernst Stromer

von Reichenbach. Several expeditions were sent to North Africa between 1911 and 1914. At first the fossils of Carcharodontosaurs

were classified as belonging to a Megalosaur, the Megalosaurus genus has been used as a dumping ground for unknown theropod

remains for many years. The original fossil bones and teeth were destroyed by bombing in WWII, only later did these fossils get

ascribed to their own separate genus. Megalosaurs have been used to place various indeterminate fossils of meat-eaters, classified as

a taxonomic "waste basket" by palaeontologists.
Why Is the Sky Blue?
This is often one of the initial questions that youngsters frequently ask their mother and father. What makes the sky blue? Why is it not

red, pink, or green? The response to this kind of query can be obtained by looking at the particles floating in the atmosphere. The

Earth's atmosphere is filled together with trillions of tiny airborne debris particles. Most of these particles, or particulates, are way too

small to be observed by the human eye. The tiniest particles are generally by coincidence the exact size as the wavelength of blue light.

Dust particles and water droplets tend to be very much larger than the wavelength of visible light. When light reaches these kinds of

large particles, it will get returned, or even rebounded, in various directions. The many hues of light are all reflected by the particle in a

similar manner. The reflected light seems white because it still holds each of the very same colors.

The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh dispersing. As light goes through the atmosphere, almost all the lengthier wavelengths pass

right through. Little of the red, orange and yellow light is affected by the oxygen.

As the light from our Sun shines through the atmosphere, the majority of the colors are able to get to the Earth's surface uninterrupted.

However, due to the fact blue light has a wavelength which is the same size as the particles in the atmosphere, this light is dispersed in

each and every direction. This blue light bounces from air particle to air particle until it ultimately reaches your eyes. For that reason, no

matter what direction you look above, it appears to be blue. This blue light originated with the Sunshine, was bounced around in the sky

many times, and then eventually reached your eyes.

One eay way to understand this is to imagine the way water travels. A stream of water falling downward is easy to avoid, even if it's

strong. Now try and imagine it hiting something on the way down, like a boulder or a piece of rock. The stream splits up, splashing a

little to either side. If both those streams hit two more objects, the streams will splatter again. If you keep putting more of these objects

into the path of the water, what was initially a focused stream of water will become a downpour from all directions. A person standing

below will look up and see water coming from everywhere.

An Overview of the Defense
Applications of Lasers
There are a myriad of laser applications that actually contribute positive effects contrary to the greater notion that laser is only used to

build destructive weapons. Lasers are utilized in a number of sectors including industrial processing and manufacturing, medical

procedure like eye surgery, scientific research and military defense. Laser properties like; increased monochromaticity, coherency and

the ability to achieve tremendously high-power levels, makes it appropriate in a number of industries.

One of the defensive uses of laser includes the application of microwave laser and electrolaser technologies to thwart any attempts of

attack from rivals. Essentially, weapons built using this technology are often used to stun the targets and also disable the electronic

system used by the attackers. This renders the opponent defenseless, therefore easily stopping them from attacking. The technology is
also used for detonating roadside bombs. This, comes in handy as a military defense tactic, reducing the number of casualties being

targeted by the opponent.

For personal self-defense, laser tasers are used to subdue the attacker. The taser is a non-lethal weapon that causes minor injuries if

any injuries at all to the person you use the device on. The device basically contains high-voltage power that causes an electric shock to

the person you use it on. In situations where you feel insecure, the taser is the device to go for. It is designed to be very portable, thus

allowing you to carry it around in your pocket. It comes in handy when bailing you out of dangerous situations, without causing any

adverse damages to the attacker.

The other defensive use of laser is the use of laser dazzlers to disorient rivals. This can significantly reduce the number of casualties in

a combat situation. The dazzler is also a non-lethal weapon that generally causes temporary vision impairment as well as disorientation

on the opponent. The device is effective at night as well as during the day and is used to destruct the opponent without causing any

permanent physical damage to the person.

In riot situations, for example, where law enforcers need to disperse crowds without actually causing any detrimental damages or death,

laser dazzlers are used for such cases. Temporary blankness effect caused by the laser basically prevents the rioters from vandalizing

people's property and temporally disorients them giving law enforcers the time to restore peace.

The military also use lasers in their defensive operations by countering their opponents' efforts at detecting and destroying them. One of

the counter measures is known as target designation. Simply put, infrared lasers are used by the military to precisely and furtively target

their opponents, in a bid to successfully take them down before they cause any damage. Fighter jets have inbuilt infrared lasers that are

used defensively to aim at missiles and other weapons meant for destruction.

On the same token, laser pointers are used as a counter measure on opponents for precision in targeting rivals over long distances as

well as for visibility purposes. Military firearms are integrated with laser pointers for accuracy in aiming at the opponents and lighting

dark places in the event of a search and rescuing mission.

Medical Fields Uses for Titanium
Titanium is a widely used material in not only the industrial industry, but also in the medical field. Titanium's many properties make it an

ideal material for varied medical uses, so surplus titanium is often used within the medical field. Titanium's features and benefits include

the following highlights.
- Strength and versatility: Titanium is an extremely strong and versatile metal, so it can be used for a variety of medical uses and

withstand a lot of pressure and wear.

- Corrosion resistant: Titanium does not suffer from corrosion, which makes it an ideal material for dealing with corrosive fluids within the

human body. Titanium is often used in dental work, as saliva can easily corrode other materials. Saliva is intended to moisten and

corrode what we eat, but does not corrode titanium dental materials.

- Low electrical and thermal conductivity: Titanium does not negatively react and lead to complications with such medical procedures as


- Flexibility: Titanium is extremely flexible, so it is often used for joint replacement. Titanium can be bent and formed easily, much like

plastic, and will not fracture when molded.

- Durability: Titanium is a material that will last a long time and be able to put up with a lot of wear, making it ideal for a variety of

medical uses.

- Favorable relationship with the human body: The human body rejects materials that do not agree with it, and titanium does not have a

negative effect on the human body. Therefore, titanium is a fantastic material for orthopedic and dental uses.

Thanks to titanium's strength, versatility, corrosion resistance, low electrical and thermal conductivity, flexibility, durability, and favorable

relationship with the human body, it is an ideal and practical material for medical use. Titanium is often used in dental and orthopedic

work, including joint replacement. Doctors use titanium because they know the body will not reject the material or lead to complications.

What's more, many doctors use titanium tools, since they are so lightweight, durable, and do not have a negative impact on the human


While many assume that titanium is only used in the construction industry, it is also a superstar in the medical field. Titanium has been

used for a variety of medical purposes, ranging from joint replacement to dental work to actual medical tools. Surplus titanium has

allowed for a number of medical advances, and will continue to allow for even more breakthroughs in the future.

What Is Potential Energy?
Potential energy is energy stored in a body by the virtue of its position or configuration. An apple hanging on a tree, water stored in a

reservoir, a loaded bow, stone at the hill top -- they all possess stored energy which is the result of their position. In physics, energy is

the tendency to do work and an object can have the capacity to do so as the outcome of its position under external force fields like

gravitational field, magnetic field and electric field. Elastic potential power is stored in a stretched spring or in any body due to elastic

deformation. Even the molecules possess chemical potential energy, due to their chemical bonds, which is converted into other forms

like heat when these bonds are broken.

The reason why this form of energy is termed as potential power lies in the fact that it is not performing any work or leading to any

change in surroundings in its present form. However, it does have the potential to be changed over into other form of energy like kinetic

energy. Kinetic energy actually is the power that an object possesses due to its motion and it is a scalar dimension. In terms of overall
energy of the system, there is no gain or loss of the same. A datum or zero potential level is taken arbitrarily for calculating the potential

power stored in an object when either it is elevated or deformed from its original state. It is a non-real state in relation to which potential

power function for a body can be determined.

If the starting and end point of a body coincides then the work done is zero and force is termed as conservative force. The potential

power can be derived by taking integral function of the product of conservative force and derivative of its position. If we see the integral

formula of potential power, whether it is gravitational potential energy, elastic potential power or electric potential energy, there is a

negative sign which indicates that potential energy is equated to the work which is performed against the force which has moved the

object from reference point to any position. The force by external influence tends to reduce the potential energy. So if the distance of a

body from the reference point increases, potential energy increases but the force will push it towards the datum point (decreasing

distance), thus decreasing the potential energy.

Did the Dinosaurs Die Out From
Did Gamma Rays from Outer Space Wipe out the Dinosaurs?

Dinosaur model fans and fossil collectors have the opportunity to browse through a new research paper, in which a team of American

scientists have dismissed the theory that intense radiation wiped out the dinosaurs. Research from astrobiologists at the University of

Kansas has concluded that bursts of intense gamma radiation or other cosmic rays are unlikely to have led to the mass extinction event

at the end of the Cretaceous.

The mass extinction event sixty-five million years ago, wiped out approximately seventy percent of all terrestrial life on Earth. The

dinosaurs died out along with a number of marine invertebrate families, types of plant, marine reptiles and the Pterosaurs.

Although, many palaeontologists accept that the Earth was hit by a giant extra terrestrial object that led to the end of the Mesozoic, a

theory first put forward by physicist Luis Alvarez and his son (a geologist) in 1980 and corroborated to a considerable extent with the

discovery ten years later of the Chicxulub impact crater. Debate still rages amongst the scientific community over the evidence of an

asteroid impact actually leading to the mass extinction. A number of other extinction theories have been postulated, many of them linked

to other dangers in outer space. Intense solar flare activity from the sun could have affected the Earth's climate and bombarded the

planet with harmful rays. The explosion of a super-nova could have led to a dramatic increase in gamma radiation, these if they did

happen, would have had devastating consequences for life on Earth.

Earth subjected to Cosmic Rays
If the Earth had been subjected to intense cosmic rays, this would have had a number of serious consequences for life, food chains

would have collapsed and animals would have suffered from birth deformities, sterility, mutations and cancers caused by the radiation.

Evidence of heavy doses of radiation in pre-history is difficult to identify but cancers and other abnormalities caused by the increased

radiation could be detected in the fossil record. Dr Adrian Melott assisted by his colleague Bruce Rothschild carried out a study of 708

fossilised dinosaur bones from late Maastrichtian stage sediments (70-65 million years ago) to see if they could find evidence of

increased bone cancers amongst the last dinosaurs.

When they compared the incidence of bone cancer with living, close relatives of dinosaurs (birds and reptiles), the team found no

evidence for elevated cancer rates in dinosaurs.

However, Dr Melott is going to keep looking, his work is on-going. The results for hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs such as

Edmontosaurus and Anatotitan), which lived during the final five million years of the dinosaurs' reign, are intriguing. Hadrosaurs had the

only case of bone cancer and the only cases of benign abnormalities called haemangiomas.

Looking for Fossil Evidence

Haemangiomas are an abnormal build up of blood vessels on the skin or internal organs - sometimes called "strawberry marks", they

are found frequently in Caucasian races and are more prevalent amongst females. Evidence from hadrosaur bones show signs of

haemangiomas, could this be evidence of cosmic rays or are the results of this initial stud not statistically valid. Perhaps the migratory

lifestyle of these animals made them more susceptible to such conditions, or could it simple be that there are so much more hadrosaur

fossils to study that it was practically guaranteed to find bone cancer and other abnormalities in this group as they represent such a

large proportion of the late Cretaceous fossil record.

Scientists still remain uncertain as to exact causes of the mass extinction event, dinosaur model fans often construct prehistoric scenes

featuring dinosaurs that lived at the end of the Cretaceous - Triceratops, T. rex and Ankylosaurus.

How Does Energy Work ?
Energy is just an indirectly observed quantity. Energy is more often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other

physical systems in particular. Since work is defined as a force to acting through a distance, so force is almost equivalent to the ability to

exert pulls or pushes against any basic forces of nature.

The total energy contained in an object is usually identified with its mass, so force cannot be created or destroyed. Just like mass,

energy is a scalar physical quantity. In some systems of units, exertion is measured in joules, but in other fields other units like kilowatt

and kilocalories are customary. All this units translate to units of work, which is therefore defined in terms of forces and distances that

the force act through.

One system can transfer energy to another system by only transferring the matter to it. However exertion is transferred by means other

than matter transfer. This transfer produces changes in the second system, as the result of the work done. This work will therefore
manifest itself as an effect of force applied through a distance within the target system. Heat can be transferred by electromagnetic

radiation or by just physical contact in which particle to particle impacts transfer kinetic energy.

Exertion may even be stored in systems without necessarily being present as matter, or as kinetic or electromagnetic exertion.

Therefore, stored energy is created when a particle is moved through a field it actually interacts with, but the energy to accomplish this

is stored as a new position of the particles in the field, this is a configuration that has to be held or fixed by a different type of force. This

type of energy stored by force fields and particles that have been forced into a new physical configuration in the field by doing work on

them, using another system is called potential energy. Each of the basic forces of nature is associated with some different types of

potential energy, so all types of potential energy appears as system mass when present. Whenever exertion is transferred between

systems by any mechanism, an associate mass is therefore transferred with it.

Any kind or form of energy can be transformed into another form. All types of potential energy are converted into kinetic energy when

the objects are moved to different positions. When energy is in another form other than the thermal energy, it can be transferred with

perfect efficiency to any other type of energy.

In all such energy transformation processes, the total exertion usually remains the same and a transfer of exertion from one system to

another may result to a loss to compensate for any particular gain. The conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the

laws of physics seem not to change over time. Even though the total energy of a system does not change with time, its value depends

on the frame of reference.

Different contexts

The concept of energy and its transformations is very useful in explaining and even predicting most of the natural phenomena. The

transformation in energy is mostly described by entropy(equal energy spread among all available degrees of freedom) considerations,

all energy transformations are permitted on a small scale, but large transformations are not permitted because it is unlikely that energy

or matter in this case will randomly move into more concentrated forms or other smaller spaces. Therefore, the concept of energy is

really widespread in all sciences.

The distinction between energy and power

Even though in everyday use, the terms energy and power are essentially synonyms, scientists and engineers usually distinguish

between them. In the real technical sense, power is not at all the same as energy, but it's the rate at which exertion is normally

converted or the equivalent at which work is done or performed. Thus a hydroelectric plant, by allowing the water above the dam to

actually pass through turbines, it converts the waters potential energy into kinetic energy and ultimately into electric energy, whereas the

amount of electric energy that is indeed generated per unit of time is the actual electric power generated. Therefore, the same amount

of energy converted through a short period of time is more power over the short time.


Energy is usually subject to the laws of conservation of energy. Exertion can neither be created nor destroyed by itself. In reality it can

only be transformed.
Most types of energy are subject to the strict local conservation laws. In this regard, energy can only be exchanged between adjacent

regions of the space; we also have a global law of conservation of energy, which state that the total energy of the universe cannot be

changed; conservation of energy is therefore the mathematical consequence of transitional symmetry of the time, that is; the

indistinguishability of time intervals taken at different times.

The total inflow of energy into a system must equal the total outflow of exertion from the system, including the change in the energy

contained within the system. This is according to the law of conservation of energy.

This is a fundamental law principle of physics. It follows from the transitional symmetry of time, a property of most phenomena below a

cosmic scale that will make them independent of their locations on the actual time coordinate.

This is because energy is the quantity which is canonical conjugate on to time. This entanglement of energy and time also results into

the uncertainty of principle. It is impossible to define the exact amount of energy during any different time intervals. This uncertainty time

principle should not be confused with either energy conservation as it provides the mathematical limits to which energy can in principle

be defined and even measured.

Can God Create a Stone That He
Cannot Lift?
This question is more than 800 years old. In asking this question, the questioner had already assumed the existence of gravity because

of the word "lift" in the question. What is "lift?" My definition for "lift" is: Moving an object to the opposite direction of gravity. By definition,

God created everything. Hence, God created gravity. Since God can create gravity, he can certainly make it disappear. So God can "lift"

any stone. Put another way, this question could become: if God were to have an arm wrestling match between his left arm gravity and

right arm (to "lift" the stone), which one would win? Both arms belong to God. This is not a contest; there is no winning or losing.

Therefore this is a stupid question.

If God is omnipotent, God must be everything, everything must be God. There is nothing outside God, not even empty space, because

God created space and time. The fact is, "Outside God" is an oxymoron: if there is God, then there will be no "outside"; if there is an

"outside", then there will be no God. There is no gravity "outside" God. God doesn't live in a gravitational field. For an omnipotent God,

there is no such concept as "lift". "Lift" only exists in human experience. Gravity, like everything else, exists inside God. For an

omnipotent God, there is no such concept as "stand" either, because there is no ground "outside" God. By the same token, for an

omnipotent God, there are no such concepts as, "breathe," "eat," "drink," "excrete," "wear clothes," "walk," "sit," "lie down." God doesn't

have a body. All bodies have skin, skin is the boundary of the body. God doesn't have boundary. Therefore, God doesn't have a face

nor shape. An ant looks at you while you are talking, it could see your lips and tongue moving. The ant asks you: "How do you lift your

lips and tongue?" You reply: "It's a stupid question." A man sees that the Moon is moving, he asks God: "How do you lift the Moon?"

God says: "It's a stupid question."

The Initial Conditions of Human Society
If I were God, I would set a few initial conditions: (1) Humans and other living things would have needs. They would need to breathe;

they would need food, water and adequate warmth. When these needs could not be satisfied, they would die. Happiness is the state in

which humans are satisfied; suffering is the state in which they are not. Were humans able to survive without needs, there would neither

be suffering nor happiness. (2) Human lifespan would be finite. I would not let humans be immortals. I like changes, and I would not

want the Earth to be inhabited by always the same people. (3) I would create bisexual reproduction. Genes from both sexes would form

new combinations through sexual intercourse. This would entail in one generation's being different from the next. I like diversity, and I

dislike uniformity. (4) I would create carnivores such as lions and tigers. They would be natural enemies of primitive humans. This would

necessitate human ancestors and herbivores as well as certain small carnivores to live in groups for their own protection. I would create

fear, fear leads to love. Were it not for these large carnivores, there would not be human society on Earth. (5) I would provide humans

with limited natural resources. (Given the existing level of human intelligence, the Earth's resources are finite.)

With these initial conditions, the world as we know it today was created. In the beginning, there were all kinds of humans: some with a

will to survive, but not others; some with sexual desires, but not others; some were curious, but not others; some were selfish, others

altruistic. With the passage of time, those without the will to survive, sexual desires, and curiosity and those who were extremely selfish

or altruistic to the utmost had been eliminated. Their genes could not pass on to the next generation. Those who remained were the

ones with the will to survive, sexual desires and curiosity, desire to know, and who were both selfish and altruistic. The fact is, humans

do not have much free will. All human desires are results of natural selection. Desires determine values; values determine morality and

law. All the intricacies of social phenomena are rooted in these five initial conditions.

Six Impossible Physics (new)
The public's perception of physics is that everything is pretty cut-and-dried; all the basics are known and it's now just a routine matter of

getting to that next decimal place in accuracy as well as dotting a few more of this and crossing a few more of that. The days of

revolutionary physics that we saw in the early 20th Century with quantum mechanics and relativity are long gone now. Well, all that's not

quite the case. There's a lot that's proposed, even accepted by most physicists, that's not really set in concrete. I think some

mainstream physics, even some proposed challenges to the mainstream, are so far off the beaten track, way down south in La-La Land,

as to be, for all practical purposes, as near to impossible as makes no odds. I think physics is in for a few more revolutions yet.
1) String Theory is one of those proposed challenges to the mainstream and replaces the standard model of particle physics by

substituting tiny vibrating strings for all those particles, like electrons and quarks and neutrinos, etc. that we know so well. Different

vibration rates determine whether something is an electron or an up-quark or a down-quark or a neutrino, etc. That in itself isn't too bad

an alteration. Where string theory falls off the rails IMHO is that in order to work, the Universe has got to be comprised of not the

standard three special dimensions and the one dimension in time we're used to existing in, but a total of ten, even eleven dimensions.

Sorry, it's those extra dimensions that tip the weirdness quotient off the scales. String Theory wouldn't be too bad were there the

slightest tad of experimental evidence for string 'particles' and those additional dimensions. There isn't. That wouldn't be all that unusual

if String Theory were something that was brand new. Alas, the theory has been around for way over three decades now, and it still just

resides as pure hypothetical, albeit elegant (and extremely difficult to understand), mathematics. String Theory just is not going

anywhere. It's a dead end. As far as I'm concerned, String Theory is impossible physics until such time as even the tiniest shred of

experimental evidence is on the board. I'm not holding my breath.

2) The standard model of particle physics often states that elementary particles are 'Point Particles'. So what are 'Point Particles'?

These are the fundamental particles that are in existence not as little billiard balls but as geometric points, points that are without

extension (volume). In other words, a point has zero dimensions - no length, no width, no height, no area and no volume. There's really

something screwy somewhere if that is to be believable! The fundamental flaw is that particles, like the electron, have mass. You cannot

cram mass, however tiny, into zero volume! So, an electron must have a volume, therefore an electron cannot be a 'Point Particle". So

what's the rational? Though never explicitly stated, I suspect it has an awful lot to do with keeping the maths simple! It's easier to deal

with a 'Point Particle' when crunching the numbers than adding in all sorts of other variables and complications like mass and volume.

Unfortunately, I've read way too many physics tomes where the concept of zero volume seems to be taken literally - at face value. If

that's the case, then those who apparently advocate such a position are akin to the White Queen.

3) Lack of causality in a process really bothers me. It's akin to getting something from nothing - a free lunch. There are two such 'free

lunches' advocated. One is the Big Bang scenario that kick-started our Universe off. After a lot of physics and chemistry, that ultimately

led to biological entities - you and me. I'll have more, much more to say about the Big Bang's free lunch later on.

Meantime, free lunch number two - radioactive decay. The standard scenario goes that one has an unstable atom, or unstable atomic

nucleus actually. To achieve greater stability, the atomic nucleus spits out various bits and pieces - alpha particles, beta particles and/or

gamma rays. The problem is, there is no rhyme or reason to exactly why and when, especially when, those bits and pieces get spat out.

You can take two identical radioactive atomic nuclei. One might go 'poof' after a few seconds; the other 'decides' to hang tight for

several millions of years before undertaking that change of pace. Physicists argue that if there is no rhyme or reason why both don't

behave in identical fashions, seeing as how they are identical atomic nuclei, then causality doesn't operate. There is no external trigger.

There is no overriding cause-and-effect in operation.

Nuts to that! If an atomic nucleus goes 'poof', there is a cause-and-effect reason. If two go 'poof' at different times, there is a cause-and-

effect reason for this too. While the two atomic nuclei might be identical, their surrounding environment isn't, IMHO. That's the hidden

variable. Take two identical human twins; one stays at home safe and sound while the other goes off to war, bullets flying around him.

Though identical, one goes 'poof' before the other. There is cause-and-effect in operation. And so it is with unstable atomic nuclei. A

'bullet' hits one; no 'bullet' hits the other until much, much later on down the track. What that 'bullet' is, is open to question, but there's a
'bullet' out there somewhere. Unstable atomic nuclei don't decay or go 'poof' for absolutely no logical reason at all. There is a trigger.

Radioactive decay, with no causality attached, as a free lunch, is IMHO an impossibility of physics.

4) Quantum Gravity (the Theory of Everything) is the Holy Grail of all things physics. Why? Well, there are two types of physics. There is

classical physics, the physics you have to deal with in your day-to-day macro world. Then there is quantum physics, the physics of the

very, very tiny; the micro worlds which for all practical purposes are, if not irrelevant, at least unnoticed in your day-to-day existence.

Another distinction is that macro or classical physics is a continuum, like a ruler. Quantum or micro physics are bits and pieces; discrete

units, like money. You can have one and three quarter inches; you can't have one and three quarter cents. So what's the problem?

Well, there are four fundamental forces that control life, the Universe and everything. Three of these are quantum forces or operate from

or within the realm of the micro-micro-microscopic. This trilogy is comprised of the strong nuclear force (which hold atomic nuclei

together); the weak nuclear force (which allows atomic nuclei to break apart - radioactivity) and electromagnetism. The other and final

force however is a continuum - gravity. It's like there being three brothers and one sister! As in the sibling's case, physicists suspect that

all four are born of one parentage. Alas, the DNA doesn't match up! Gravity apparently has different parents! Now that just won't do.

One Universe should allow for, indeed require, one ultimate parentage. Alas, despite all the best efforts of all the finest physics in the

world over many generations, the three brothers just don't share a common DNA with their alleged sister. My resolution is that perhaps

that really is the case. The idea that there is quantum gravity is just a straightforward impossibility. There are indeed two sets of parents

- one resulting in quantum triplets; the other producing an only child - gravity. The two are unrelated.

5) The Big Bang event is the proposed theory for the origin of our Universe some 13.7 billion years ago. It is supported by various

observations: so far so good. Where it falls off the rails is that it also apparently requires, according to the standard Big Bang model, that

the creation of our Universe wasn't from something, but from nothing. That nothing not only spawned matter and energy (two sides of

the same coin), but also created both time and space. Oh, and all of this happened in a created space way less than the volume of your

standard atom. Now that's small!

Now number one, IMHO it's impossible to create from scratch matter and energy. It's a violation of the basic physics drummed into

every high school science student - "matter (and energy) can neither be created nor destroyed but only changed in form".

Number two is that causality demands that a cause creates an effect - the Big Bang was an effect, something caused it, and that

something could only have preceded it in time. Therefore the Big Bang did not, could not, create time. The Big Bang happened while the

clock was already ticking.

Number three is that you cannot create a something within a zero volume. Therefore the Big Bang did not create space. It happened in

existing space.

Lastly, it's absurd in the extreme to believe that our entire Universe - everything - could be squeezed into a volume of atomic

dimensions. So, yes there was a Big Bang, but there is a lot of associated baggage which is totally impossible by anything approaching

what's taught in Logic 101.

6) Your own reality probably isn't what you think it is. Take your favourite character from your favourite video game or simulation. That

character would be blissfully unaware that they 'lived' in a virtual reality. They would be blissfully unaware that there were thousands of
copies (or clones) of them (since presumably more than one copy of the game or simulation exists). They would be blissfully unaware

that there were thousands of other video games and simulations (universes) in existence.

Now the 64 cent question is, how can you be sure that you too aren't someone else's simulated video game or virtual reality character?

You can't be - you're blissfully unaware or ignorant one way or the other. Maybe you are; maybe you aren't.

But if your favourite character had to calculate the odds that they and their universe were unique, they would, at gut-level, say they were

a one-off. Their universe was a one-off too. But you know better. You know there are thousands of clones of your character and

thousands of universes - one universe per unique video game title or simulation.

So is there just one you and one Universe - our Universe - or, one step on up the line are you someone else's (or something else's)

favourite character; their puppet who's pulling your reality strings? The odds are vast indeed in favour of what you think is physical

reality is actually, while not impossible, highly improbable. That's because there are many, many, many scenarios that could create a

virtual you; only one scenario that would create a really real you. The upshot is that you probably don't exist in the manner you think you


Top 10 Hottest Topics in Science
Research 2012-2013
1. Search for the "God Particle" - the Higgs Boson

OK, so we've all seen Brian Cox captivating spellbound audiences with his silver tongue on the BBC, and alluding to the search for the

God particle - a.k.a. the Higgs boson. So what exactly is this 'God particle' and if it finally is discovered what will change?

The Higgs boson is a hypothetical elementary particle that is predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics and its

existence, in simple terms, will explain why fundamental particles such as quarks and electrons have mass. The particle was nicknamed

the 'The God Particle' by Leon Lederman, an American experimental physicist and Nobel Prize laureate because of the particle's crucial

role in the fundamental workings of physics in the 21st century, combined with its amazing elusiveness.

Physicists have spent years yearning to catch a glimpse of the particle, so much so that they spent $10 billion on the Large Hadron

Collider at CERN, a particle accelerator just outside Geneva in Switzerland. After years of toil, it looks like they are finally close to

finding the "god-damn-it" particle (nicknamed so by some physicists as they tend to pull their hair out in frustration in attempts to capture

it), and in December 2011 there was a flurry of activity in CERN as data resembling the Higgs Boson was captured. If future data

planned to be gathered later this year corroborates the finding of last December, capturing the Higgs will likely be regarded as one of

the 21st century's great discoveries.

2. The Ultimate Anti-Aging Cream
The holy grail of cosmetics; the mythical fountain of youth - well it now seems likely that we are close to discovering the ultimate anti-

aging formula. Well, maybe not; but at least there is a theoretical basis for gene therapy in medicine now aimed at slowing and

reversing the aging process as well as impacting on the processes of diseases such as Cancer.

Scientists in Harvard Medical School have discovered a genetic mechanism which allows them to artificially age, and then rejuvenate

laboratory mice. Thus, it is theoretically possible to reverse some of the effects of the aging process in mammals. They achieved this by

creating a genetic switch on the gene that controls the expression of telomerase, an enzyme that controls the repair of Telomeres

(repetitive strands of DNA that protect the ends of chromosomes), which are critical in the aging process, as well as being implicated in

Cancer. This research has the potential to yield significant advances in the treatment of diseases such as malignancies and age-related

illnesses in the future.

3. So Time Travel is Possible?

Well maybe, but unlikely, according to the majority of the physics community. In September 2011, researchers from the OPERA

collaboration caused a stir in the scientific community when they announced that they had measured neutrinos (small sub-atomic

particles) that appeared to travel faster than the speed of light. Poor Einstein would be turning in his grave at the news; this would not

only violate his theory of special relativity, but also it would rock the fundamental foundations of theoretical physics.

However, the majority of the scientific community view the results dubiously and indicate that there must be some anomaly in the

findings. Physicists are now scrambling to independently replicate the experiment later this year; which involves firing neutrinos at a

detector hundreds of miles away and measuring the time taken for the journey. Once replicated and depending on the results, physicists

will either breathe a sigh of relief or will enter a phase of mass group hysteria; adding a new meaning to the term 'uncertainty' in


4. Search for Extrasolar Planets in the Goldilocks zone

Everyone is talking about it - in the press, in the media and all over the TV at any opportunity - 'are we alone?' Well the hunt for planets

outside our solar system that may be able to support life took a leap forward last December when astronomers at NASA's Ames

Research Center announced that they had found the best candidate yet for a planet outside our solar system which could potentially

support life.

The planet, affectionately named Kepler-22b after the telescope it was first spotted by, is right bang in the middle of the proposed

habitable zone of its star - the 'Goldilocks Zone'. Although not much is known about the composition of the planet (its 600 light-years

away, that's 3.5 x 1015 miles), it is 2.4 times the size of the earth and orbits its sun every 290 days. If it has a surface, scientists think

the surface temperature would be somewhere around 210C - perfect for life.

The search continues and one day we may indeed find the perfect extrasolar planet - one which has life on it (detected by the presence

of oxygen and other by-products of life in the atmosphere); the problem is getting there or even saying hello.

5. Human Stem Cell Research

Major controversy still surrounds the use of human embryos as a source of stem cells, however in recent years scientists have finally

cracked the problem and are now able to manufacture an almost limitless supply of stem cells in the lab without destroying embryos.
This limitless supply has opened the flood gates for stem cell research, allowing researchers to develop novel therapies for conditions

such as blindness and Parkinson's disease to effective treatments for spinal cord damage.

Stem cells are found in all multicellular organisms, and they can divide and differentiate into many different specialized cell types,

effectively they are a 'wildcard' cell. If inserted into the human body, they tend to change into the cells that surround them. This has wide

reaching implications for medicine and research is now underway across the globe to find effective treatments for conditions such as

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (which has special significance here in Ireland as Prof. Orla Hardiman in Beaumont Hospital is regarded

as one of the world's leading researchers in the field), damage to the heart after a heart attack, blindness, deafness, skin disorders,

arthritis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's to name but a few. Watch this space; it is the future of medicine.

6. Quantum Computing

The revolution of quantum physics may soon be about to pay off with the advent of quantum computers, a term that has been bandied

about for some years now. The promise of super fast computers, performing certain calculations billions of times faster than any silicon-

based computer and which that may even surpass the human brain in raw computing power, may not be too far away. Late last year

another milestone in the race to develop the first practical quantum computer was made when a team at the University of Bristol's

Centre for Quantum Photonics developed a microchip which manipulates and measures entanglement and mixture, two quantum

phenomena which are fundamental principles in quantum computing.

The major potential applications of quantum computing are in cryptography and communications; however the potential for developing

the first artificial intelligence is now within the grasp of reality.

7. Can Arsenic really be a Building Block of Life?

The element Arsenic, historically labelled the Poison of Kings due to its popularity as a poison of the ruling classes in disposing of each

other, is highly toxic to all known life on Earth, or at least that's what we thought up to a couple of years ago.

NASA scientists have discovered a new microbe in the hostile Mono Lake in the USA that uses the deadly poison Arsenic as a

component in its biochemical machinery instead of Phosphorus causing a shake up in the way scientists have traditionally thought

about the biochemistry of life.

Traditionally, the six basic building blocks of all life on Earth were Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur and Phosphorus, with

a dusting of trace elements thrown into the mix. The new discovery sees Arsenic replace Phosphorus as an element of the structural

backbone of DNA in the microbe, paving the way for a change in how scientists view the possibility of life in once-thought hostile

environments. If a microbe can build a deadly poison into its biochemical processes, who is to say that other organisms don't exist in the

most hostile parts of the solar system, using elements we regard as toxic in their fundamental biochemistry.

8. What's up with the Weather these Days?

It's hard for any of us to dismiss noticing the subtle changes in the weather patterns of the last twenty years or so (well, for anyone over

thirty, that is). However on a more serious note, recent evidence from climatology researchers has shown a disturbing trend - the
Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are melting at an ever faster rate than once thought, making them the greatest single contributor to

rising sea levels.

The study, performed over a period of nearly twenty years showed that in 2006 the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets lost a combined

mass of 475 gigatonnes (one billion tonnes) a year on average and that the pace of loss was found to be accelerating rapidly over the

period of the study. They predict that at the current rate of melting, the global sea level could rise by 32 cm (over 1 foot) by 2050. With

the ever increasing power of supercomputers, climatologists and meteorologists are busy modelling the changing weather patterns in an

attempt to see how the reality of global warming will impact the environment of the future, the near future that is.

9. So now we become the Grand Architect

One of the spin offs of the multiple genome projects over the last ten years has been an intimate knowledge of how the base pairs on

DNA combines in sequence to form life. This challenged geneticist J. Craig Venter, one of the main players in the human genome

project, to put his architectural skills to task in an attempt to create synthetic life. In 2010, he succeeded in creating life in the lab by

combining the 582,000 base pairs required for the complete genome of the new bacteria, proposed to be called Mycoplasma

laboratorium. This paves the way for the genetic engineering of bacteria to perform tasks such as the manufacture of

biopharmaceuticals and bio-fuels. Who knows we may even be able to create bacteria designed to kill other bacteria.

10. Medicines made just for You

Personalised medicine, or pharmacogenomics to the geeks among us, is fast becoming one of the hottest areas of research in

therapeutic medicine, with the promise of more effective therapies for a range of debilitating and terminal conditions. Personalised

medicine is based upon the premise that drugs acts differently in different people due to genetic variation. With the advent of the human

genome project, and the revolution in diagnostic testing, researchers can now tailor drug regimens for individuals with a high degree of

accuracy, leading to a significant increase in therapeutic effectiveness.

The most notable application of personalised medicine will be in the treatment of Cancer - instead of treating Cancer with an 'one size,

fits all' approach as with chemotherapy, clinicians will be able to identify the genetic basis of the tumour and design a treatment regimen

based upon this. The costs of diagnostic testing and the lack of current available drugs prohibit the widespread use of personalised

medicine at the moment, however in the coming years a raft of new biopharmaceutical therapies will be coming onto the market, the

culmination of over thirty years of research, heralding the field of pharmacogenomics into mainstream medicine.

You're 13.7 Billion Years Old:
How old are you? Well that's obviously an easy question. You were born on such-an-such a date; today's date is such-an-such;
therefore you are such-an-such old. Or are you really? While both the physical you - your body, and the 'inner you' - your mind, have a

time frame that dates from your conception, there's a few twists in the tale to be considered.

Firstly, 99.999% of the fundamental constituents (elementary particles and simple atoms) of everything that now comprises you, all

those now currently complex and not so complex organic bio-molecules (proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.), as well as the simpler

inorganic molecules and atoms (like water, salt and oxygen say) were originally part and parcel of an immense gas and dust cloud that

slowly, under gravity, contracted and contracted and ultimately became incorporated into the Sun and associated solar system we see

today. That happened some 4.5 billion years ago. All the fundamental bits and pieces that now comprise you have been around doing

their thing for all that time. Since all those carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, etc. atoms that now make you, you are 4.5 billion

years old, and so in a way that makes you 4.5 billion years old. But wait, that vast interstellar dust and gas cloud that came together 4.5

billion years ago didn't just pop into existence then. They had an earlier history.

The late Carl Sagan noted that we are all ultimately made however of 'star stuff'. That is, with the exception of hydrogen, all the higher

chemical elements, which ultimately comprise us (carbon, oxygen, iron, sodium, etc), were cooked and manufactured in the heart of

stellar interiors, at extreme temperatures and pressures. When stars explode (nova and supernova) those elements get spewed out into

the cosmos as interstellar gas and dust, ultimately to clump as the stuff from which new solar systems, planets, and life are formed. In

addition, the even greater extremes of temperature and pressures experienced when stars go ka-boom assist in the creation of even

more complex atoms, like silver and gold and uranium. These elements too get incorporated into the next generation of stars and

planets, and if biologically useful, into any life forms that may develop - like you.

So the bits and pieces that clumped together 4.5 billion years ago to make up our Sun and our solar system and our Earth - and you 4.5

billion years later - came from stuff comprising a myriad of earlier stars and solar systems that died natural deaths in the stellar

cataclysms that are the fate of stellar objects over a certain mass. Some of that earlier generational 'star stuff' has found its way to be a

part of the current you.

Since all of that earlier generational stuff came from objects that existed as part and parcel of that mass of stellar objects we call the

Milky Way Galaxy, and since our galaxy has existed with its quota of stuff for roughly 10 billion years, well in a manner of speaking, the

bits and pieces that make up you can trace their history back 10 billion years. But the stuff comprising the Milky Way Galaxy didn't pop

into existence 10 billion years ago. Their history goes back even further, back before our galaxy existed.

However, we can go one step beyond that since, on the other hand, you are ultimately comprised of fundamental particles like electrons

and quarks which in turn make up those chemical elements (atoms) which can combine to form molecules, even the complex

biochemical molecules which make you, you. 100% of you ultimately consist of these particles, all of which were created when the

Universe was created. That's also the event that created the universal supply of hydrogen and helium. The Universe, as best we can tell

came into existence in the Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago. In other words, you are ultimately the same age as the

Universe, some 13.7 billion years old!

Of course the next step backwards is, was there a 'before the Big Bang'? The answer to that is nobody knows. Many postulate that the

Big Bang was the first cause; others argue that the Big Bang itself had a cause - say the Big Crunch of a previous universe, in itself

comprised of stuff. So, in theory, if you keep going back and back and back ever endlessly back, you might be infinitely old! In makes a
sort of satisfying sense - one universe dies and gives rise to the next generation universe, just like some of our earlier stars die but

ultimately their 'star stuff' gives rise to the next generation of stars, planets and life - like you.

So, get in contact with your inner self, meditate with your inner quarks, hadrons, fermions, leptons, bosons and baryons, and discover

the history of the Universe, for they were there!

The Death of of Free Energy
Nicola Tesla envisioned generating electricity from energy sources around us, free of cost, Tesla's ideals date

back to the day's most of us don't remember. Tesla was the driving source behind this type of research, in fact

Tesla held over 300 patents worldwide, patents developed specifically for Tesla ideas that far exceeded most

ideals of the time. Nearly a 100 years ago Tesla built a device which proved his radical concepts that electricity

could be pulled from the air itself, and provide millions of people around the world a cheap or almost free energy


So how do large sums of money still go to electric companies, and why are people still paying out large sums to

meet their everyday energy requirements? The answer lies in the power of some of largest companies today.

Money provided by large companies many of which still exists today applied unbelievable amounts of political

pressure, deceit, and treachery in order to suppress Tesla's ideal's and keep them from the public. Energy

companies earn billions of dollars a year in terms of profit, not to mention tax breaks, and these companies will

not give up this revenue stream easily. And the ideal of the public learning of a concept that would give the public

free energy simply could not be allowed to go forward. Millions of dollars are spent every year to suppress ideals

of this kind including similar technology, and many other progressive energy saving ideals. Often companies

result to purchasing patents to destroy the ideals, law suits that tie the inventors up in court for so many years

that the ideal just dies, but many times these acts of passive terrorism are not enough and companies result to

acts of violence. Tesla himself died in poverty not realizing his dream of bringing free power to the world.

Nicola Tesla himself was subjected to severe difficulties; the methods used to stop Tesla from completing his

inventions would eventually ruin him. Tesla's inventions would be stopped cold by the giants of the energy
industry; he would become victim to what we would know today as passive terrorism. His investors would

withhold crucial financial support after promising to invest in his ideals, eventually blacklisted and as the victim of

more aggressive and sometime violent attacks, Tesla would fail to get his ideal out to the public. If there had ever

been a conspiracy this would certainly qualify as one. This same kind of passive terrorism is used today to stop
many popular or revolutionary ideal's that would change the world as we know it.

Human beings are often the victims of their own limitations, and we tend to destroy those who reach beyond that

box that would make the impossible reality. If only Tesla had managed to achieve some of the fame that was

bestowed on Einstein with his radical theories and ideals we would probably have inherited a different world.

Tesla eventually died in poverty with his ideals never being known to the general public, but they were seized by
a government agency immediately after his death. His nephew upon hearing of his uncle's death rushed to his

small apartment to procure certain research, and specifically a little black book that he was known to keep ideals

in only to discover it missing along with several other key research documents.

Although Tesla would not live to see his dreams come true a 100 years later his ideals would resurface. Giving

many scientists the chance to examine his work Tesla's Secret Device would finally be made. Many millions of

people would finally have the ability to receive free power from one of the greatest inventions ever conceived by

man. I believe that now in these last days with the growth and power of the internet Tesla will finally be

vindicated, and take his place among such great minds as Einstein, and George Washington.

Benefits And Uses Of Silicon
Silicon (chemical symbol Si) is the main elementary component of the earth's crust after Oxygen. Si is universally

acknowledged as the symbol for Silicon; it is actually a nonmetallic, tetravalent element with atomic number 14

and atomic mass being 28.086. It's grey in color and brittle. It is commonly found in various compounds as part of

nature and industry. In nature, it is found in flint, quartz, agate, common beach sand, jasper, sandstone and a lot

of other common rocks. Industrially, it can be found in building materials like cement, glass, brick and others. It is

a part of many polymers like silicon rubber. It has thousands of other uses as well as heat resisting resins,

lubricants, water resistant films etc.

Silicon finds its way most commonly in electronic equipments. Solar panels have photovoltaic sheets made from

thin silicon wafers. Electrical circuitry including computer chips; microprocessors, transistors all have silicon as a

foundation. LCD televisions as well as computer screens are composed of thin strips of hydrogenated amorphous

silicon (an alloy).

Construction materials

Silicon is used widely in building materials. Clay, brick, concrete, sand and cement have silicon dioxide as a

component. Fine piece of glass is combined between two thick parts of silicon dioxide to produce the windshields

of cars.

Automotive parts

The automotive industry uses silicon as a casting material. Aluminum silicon alloy is mixed with liquid iron to be

casted in parts of car for a tougher body. This also reduces the production of iron carbide which is weak and

brittle and can compromise the solidarity of car body parts.

Silicon uses
Silicon becomes a polymer mixture with oxygen and carbon and then lends a variety of uses to different

applications as this mixture becomes malleable, flexible and water proof. These properties become very useful in

making silicon a versatile material when used in wax, caulk, grease and even certain explosives requiring putty

packaging. Cosmetic surgery saw its upgrading with silicon for implants injected into different body parts to make

it attractive. The reason why silicone implants are preferred is that it becomes supple with a formed shape

appearing natural under the skin.

Silicon benefits for the body

It's amazing to know that silicon is important to make nervous cells and body tissues function properly. It

synthesizes vitamin B1 and thiamine present in the human body. Nervous impulses are transmitted and bones

are strengthened by body silicon. Not only internally but externally also silicon makes its presence felt through the

growth of teeth, nails and hair - hence it's known as the 'beauty mineral'. Eye brightness and skin firmness are

additional benefits. Healing processes and body immune system is guarded with body silicon thus preventing

diseases like tuberculosis, mucous membrane irritation, and skin infections.

Food resources

If you have become totally attracted to silicon body benefits then go for apples, nuts, raw cabbage, carrots, red

beets, celery, fish, honey, orange and corn in your diet throughout the year.

Toy products

All above mentioned uses seemed for grown up men and women to understand, but silicon is used for children's

toys as well. Silicon mixtures with small quantity of boric acid can be formed into different shapes and then cast

into toys. Silly Putty, Gumby dolls, bouncing and stress balls all have silicon as their ingredie

Famous Scientists around the
It is pretty difficult to even think of the state of early man of earth when he had no house, no instruments or guns,

and no clothing. Man, unlike other living beings, has a more active and functional brain. However, his brain is not

the sole factor which has made him far more progressive, advanced and developed than any other animal.

The first invention of man is said to be a primitive tool which consisted of a split stone and served a wide range of

purposes. After this basic tool, man prepared the hand axe, knife, and many other tools and instruments. All
these discoveries and inventions led to the evolution of human civilization.
The word "Science" is derivative of the Latin word "Scientia" which means knowledge. Science is probably the

most important and helpful subject of study for human race.

Most Famous Scientists and Inventors in History

Inventions and discoveries are generally the direct result of a systematic research work. On certain occasions,

however, inventions are a chance event. Thefamous antibiotic Penicillin was accidentally discovered by Sir

Alexander Fleming when he was attempting to study staphylococci bacteria. Sometimes necessity makes the

scientists discover new things. For instance, guided missiles had to be developed by German scientists during

the World War II in order to destroy and defeat England.

The Flemish physician Andreas Vesahus (also Andreas Vesal, André Vesalio or Andre Vesale) is widely

considered to be the founder of the modern science of anatomy. He was a major figure of the Scientific

Revolution. Vesahus's book "De Humani Commis Fabrica" (On the Structure of the Human Body) is one of the

most important works about human anatomy.

Andreas Vesalius was appointed as a court physician to Charles V of Spain and his family. Vesalius's bravery

and intelligence, however, made many conservative physicians and Catholic clergy his worst enemies. They

charged him of being involved in body snatching.

He was accused of murder in 1564 for the dissection of a Spanish noble who, his disputants said, was still alive.

Vesalius was also accused of atheism. King Philip II, however, reduced his sentence to a pilgrimage of penitence

to the Holy Land. Regrettably on his way back, his vessel was badly harmed by a storm. Vesalius was rescued

from the sea, but he died shortly thereafter.

The classic theories put forward by Pythagoras, Aristotle, Archimedes, Socrates, Plato, Jabir Ibn Hayyan, etc. are
still relevant today, and have made crucial contributions to scientific developments.

The Era of Modern Science

The age of science really led off in the middle of the 17th century. Robert Boyle was the first scientist to introduce

the method of experiments and its importance in the field of science. In this period, various institutions of science

and inventors started working in different countries of Europe such as England, France and Germany.

Many famous scientists of ancient and medieval era like Galileo, Newton, etc. put forward many principles and

theories in the different fields and areas of science. Since then modern science has utilized and built upon those

methods and techniques to discover many of the things we take for granted in our world.
The Meaning of Anthropology
What is Anthropology?

Anthropology is one of many sciences studied today. It is actually considered a social science and it deals mainly with origins, social

customs, and beliefs of human beings. However, it has been said to have origins in the humanities and natural sciences departments.

The term "anthropology" is derived from anthropos, a Greek work, which means "man." Like all sciences, it ends with ology, which

comes of the Greek word logiawhich means "study." Basically, anthropology deals with the definition of human life and the origin.

How did humans come about? Who are our true ancestors? How did they survive? These are some of the many questions

anthropologists face today as they continue to dig deeper into the past. They are dedicated to answering the question of so many who

are curious as to how human beings are alive today.

Anthropology sub-fields.

There are 4 sub-fields of Anthropology. The first one is cultural anthropology, which studies different cultures and their ethnography.

Ethnography is a method of studying or doing research which can include using a monograph or a book. It relies, however, heavily on

participant observation.

The second sub-field is archaeology which is the study of human, material culture by the use of artifacts. Archaeologists work closely

alongside with anthropologists and are primarily called upon, to conduct excavations of historical sites like ancient cities or ruins. The

third sub-field is linguistic anthropology, which deals with the languages that were spoken, verbal or non-verbal. Researchers know that

no one back then spoke the same language, but were able to communicate in some way by the use of non-verbal signals.

Every culture that developed and grew had their own specific language, and those who study linguistic anthropology seek to understand

the process of these communications and how different cultures interacted with one another. The fourth and final sub-field is called

physical or biological anthropology. This field deals with the behaviors, concepts, and ideas of different cultures and if they shared them

with each other. It is particularly essential to note that all this field relates with one another is some way given how people developed

over periods of time, and what researchers have discovered.

Important figures

This study has had a number of famous people throughout its history. The term first appeared in 1593 though it is unknown as to who

first used the word. In 1772, philosopher Immanuel Kant, began teaching an annual anthropology course and was the first person to

write an anthropology book. Marco Polo's studies and observations of many things like anthropology and nature have led some to refer

to him as the "father of anthropology."
Global Warming Will Kill Human
Agriculture - Everyone Will Starve?
As the founder for a think tank which operates online, I am always blown away, and completely amazed that everything that happens

around our planet if it has a negative consequence is blamed on global warming. Now mind you, global warming is defined as the

atmospheric ambient temperatures of our planet heating up due to mankind's emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. First of

all, global warming is false, so you don't have to worry, no one is going to die, just like no one died during Y2K, and no one will die

because the Mayan calendar ends. Okay so, let's talk about this for second shall we?

In the 1970s there were some Russian scientists who came up with the theory that our planet was cooling and we were drifting into an

Ice Age. Of course, that set off alarm bells for everyone, can you imagine going into an Ice Age, and the whole planet freezing over with

only various few small places near the equator where it was warm enough to survive? How could human civilizations pack themselves

into such a small area? Well, if that did happen, there would be quite a few people who could not migrate towards the equator, and it's

true they could die. However it wouldn't be the end of mankind. It would be more like trimming the hedges on your bushes in your yard.

You see, a global cooling period or Ice Age would be very terrible, but a global period of warming would actually increase life on earth

not decrease it. In fact, there might be incredible crop yields, more agriculture, more insects, and an abundance of life well beyond what

we currently have now. Currently, the polar bears are doing quite nicely, as generally a female polar bear has two offspring per litter and

they usually eat one of them just to survive. However it's been so warm lately there's been plenty of food, so now they are having two

offspring and both of them are surviving, which increases each generation exponentially - end result more polar bears not fewer.

There was an interesting piece in Reuters on March 30, 2012 titled; "U.S. farmers to plant the most corn in 75 years," by Tom Polansek

and Charles Abbott which stated; "U.S. farmers will plant the most corn in 75 years to cash in on higher prices, topping expectations at

the expense of soybean and spring wheat sowings, according to a U.S. government report."

Why you ask, because the demand is high for biofuels and the weather has been more than accommodating with higher temperatures

in the Winter of 2012. You see, it was a little hotter than normal this year in the Midwest, and it is helping the farmers, not hurting them.

A little warming throughout the globe will be a good thing, so if mankind's CO2 emissions are causing it, let's pump a little extra into the

atmosphere so we can all live in an abundant period. Please consider all this and think on it.
Glass-Making Basic Facts
What is Glass? - a question I've been asked many times during my lectures. The principal ingredient of glass is SILICA, which occurs

naturally in great abundance. The main varieties are SAND, FLINT AND QUARTZ. When heated to a high enough temperature, they

melt to form glass.

The heat from the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos, New Mexico, turned much of the surface of the desert around the blast site into

glass. Volcanic eruptions where silica is present, can also form a dark natural glass known as OBSIDIAN.

Early glassmaking - The temperature required to melt silica (about 1800 degrees C) is higher than could be obtained in the primitive

wood-burning furnaces. Man-made glass only became possible by the discovery that soda ash or potash (obtained from burnt vegetable

material) caused the silica to melt at 900-1100 degrees C.

The Mediterranean area favoured soda ash and European countries potash. Natural tints in the glass are removed by the addition of

nitre, manganese or arsenic. This was not a precise thing because the additions produced tints of their own, explaining why there was a

wide range of colours in early glass. Modern pure additives mean that a consistently clear and colourless glass can be produced.

Molten glass is usually referred to as the METAL.

Additions of COPPER, COBALT, IRON, TIN and other materials produce BLUE, RED, GREEN, AMBER, WHITE OR PURPLE GLASS.

Methods of manufacture - Today, even the lowliest household has items of glass. It has become almost universal in its use and the

price range is enormous, from a less than a pound per glass, to many hundreds, or even thousands of pounds, for one glass.

So how is it made? - Early glassmakers used MOULDING techniques. This lasted from about the 15th Century BC - 1St Century BC.

Blowing was discovered during the 1st Century BC and by the 1st Century AD virtually every technique of manipulating and decorating

glass had been discovered - moulding, free blowing, blowing into a mould, cutting, engraving, enameling, gilding, overlaying with layers

of coloured glass, enclosing the decoration between layers of glass, millefiori and glass made to look like natural stone. All these were

practiced 2000 years ago and have reappeared at various times down to the present.

Tools - The tools used in glassmaking have remained almost unchanged for many centuries, mainly because they are so simple.

The main tools are as follows:

BLOWPIPE - glass is gathered on the bulbous end and by blowing down the pipe a shape is produced.
CHAIR - the glass-blowers workplace - a bench with flat arms along which the blowpipe can be rolled to shape the vessel. Confusingly,

in a glass-works making hand-blown glass, it also refers to a team of three or four men. Thus the size of the factory is reckoned by the

number of chairs.

CLAPPERS - made of wood and shaped rather like butter 'pats' - used to flatten a blob of molten glass into a foot for a wine glass.

GADGET - a spring clip attached to an iron rod. Replaced the pontil iron in the 18th century and does not produce a pontil mark.

MARVER - a flat iron plate, about 2-3 feet square, with a smooth, highly polished surface. Molten glass has a plastic consistency and

can be rolled on the marver during the blowing process to smooth and shape the glass.

PONTIL IRON - a solid metal rod. The end is heated and applied to the base of the vessel being blown, to support it when the blowing

pipe is cut away.(when the pontil is removed, it produces a characteristic mark known as the PONTIL MARK on the base)

PUCELLAS - are spring tongs, similar in shape to a large pair of sugar tongs.

Krypton - Properties And Uses
In 1898, Sir William Ramsey and Morris Travers discovered Krypton along with 2 other noble gases. Krypton is called noble as it does

not react with other gases under normal circumstances. After its discovery, Krypton has ran ahead to become a very in-demand

chemical elements of various sectors starting from electronics to health. The functional properties of Krypton play an important role in

enabling its very many uses for humans. However, in order to understand its uses the basis properties need to be understood.

Krypton Properties

Krypton is a noble gas with no color, odor, or taste. In the earth's atmosphere, it is found in minute quantities which is proven by its

presence of 1 part per million (PPM) in the air around us.

      It's denoted by the symbol Kr with 36 as its atomic number in the periodic table of elements.

      Its melting point is 251.25 F and boiling point is -241.12 F.

      Krypton has atypical green and orange color from the spectral lines being emitted from it.

      Its structure is crystalline with face-centered cubic design like all other noble gases and has same constituents.

      In the beginning it was thought that Krypton is fully inert. However, Fluorine, which is in the list of the most reactive elements,

       was combined with Krypton to produce compounds like Krypton difluoride and Krypton tetrafluoride in 1963 shedding more light

       on the latter's chemical behavior.

      Krypton is non-toxic asphyxiate and can harm humans with its potential to trigger narcosis.

Uses of Krypton

      Krypton has interesting uses in lighting systems. In everyday life, Krypton is used in lamps, advertising signs, billboards etc.

       Power consumption can be reduced by using fluorescent light in street lamps.

      Filament evaporation in incandescent light bulbs can also be curbed by using Krypton.

      MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, makes use of Krypton to get an image of airways.
       It's very useful in foggy days to light the streets as its electrical generation capacity throws light to 1000 ft at least. The crucial

        task of aircraft navigation on runways is achieved by using the light of Krypton in deep fog.

       High speed professional or scientific photography uses it in the camera flash. Commonly, it is used in slides and movie


       In order to measure thermal capacity or quantity of heat in a substance, Krypton is used to develop 'quasi-homogeneous

        electromagnetic calorimeters'.

       The most specific scientific, but common use of Krypton comes in defining a meter. This is done by heating Krypton-86 till it

        gives off a clear, bright reddish-orange line. A meter is measured by scientists as 1,650,763.73 times the exact width of this

        Kryptonic line.

The above properties and uses of Krypton make it a very important gas or chemical element. It is actually obtained by liquefying air

through fractional distillation at a very high cost. The exorbitant cost deters various sectors from using it widely. New methods are being

developed to obtain this gas in affordable ways for various purposes.

Six Great Men Of Electricity
Electrical energy is an accepted fact of life, but little thought is given to the time and effort put in by the scientists of yesteryear who

developed the standard we accept today.

Electrical energy has been a subject of experimentation and perseverance for centuries.

While some names have been recognised and given huge amounts of credit for either discoveries or developments, many others have

either been ignored or completely forgotten about.

The following names of people have given the modern world such a widely used energy source.

William Gilbert 1544-1603

William Gilbert experimented with iron ore and inherent magnetic properties. Gilbert proposed a theory that the Earth was a giant

magnet and that all materials were either 'electrics' or 'non-electrics'. Today we say all materials are either conductors or insulators.

Benjamin Franklin 1697-1790

Benjamin Franklin developed the concept of positive and negative charges. His experiments he used a kite to 'bleed off' large electrical

charges from clouds in stormy weather. His experiments led to a mechanical device being developed to produce large charges of static


Aleksandra Volta 1745-1851

Aleksandra Volta developed the concept of current flow and corrected Galvani's ideas on dynamic electricity. He produced the voltaic

cell for continuous current flow.

Andre Ampere 1775-1836
Andre Ampere showed that two parallel conductors carrying a current could attract or repel each other. Another of his creations was

introducing the solenoid to the electrical world.

Georg Ohm 1789-1854

Georg Ohm worked on the theory of resistance of conductors and how to calculate values of resistance.

Michael Faraday 1791-1867

Michael Faraday is not the father of electromagnetism as often claimed, but had considerable advanced knowledge of

electromagnetism. He discovered the concept of induction, where a conductor in moving through a magnetic field has electricity induced

in it.

Everything around us occupies space and has mass. All matter whether it is solid, liquid or gas, is built up of numbers of small and

distinct particles called molecules. These particles can be broken down into something like 100 different elementary substances.

By combining these elementary particles in various proportions, all the different materials that we know of can be formed. These are

called elements.

Electricity is formed by the flow of electrons through a conductive element such as metal.

Many of the great men of electricity discovered their unique and world changing theories by accident. Through experimentation, they

stumbled across patterns that could be measured and later on controlled. This research enabled some of the fantastic devices that we

now take for granted, all via electricity.

How Stainless Steel Is Made and
Stainless steel is a form of steel with greatly increased anti-corrosion properties compared to normal, or carbon, steel. This highly

sought-after chemical property is due to the inclusion of chromium during the production of carbon steel. Without the addition of

chromium, carbon steel, which is an alloy of iron and carbon, is highly susceptible to corrosion, as its iron content readily oxidises, or

rusts, in moist conditions.


Throughout history, since the iron age, many attempt had been made to produce metals that had the strength of iron but that wouldn't

corrode over a relatively short period of time. Some attempts were more successful than others. It was formulated in the early 19th

century and perfected in the early 20th century, is the best solution so far. In terms of strength, durability and availability, it's the obvious

choice for designers and builders of countless products and structures, worldwide.

Just like all steel, is produced by smelting, a process that involves the extraction of iron from iron ore and combining it with a small

percentage of carbon, in the case of carbon steel, and with carbon and chromium in the case of stainless steel. Other elements may

also be added to further vary the chemical properties of the steel, such as melting point and tensile strength, etc.

Rust resistant properties

By adding eleven percent chromium to normal carbon steel alloy during production, stainless steel is formed. The enhanced resistance

to corrosion is a result of the chromium in the alloy reacting with the surrounding atmosphere to form a layer of chromium oxide. This

provides a protective shield on the surface of the metal that prevents, or greatly reduces, the destructive oxidising of the iron content of

the steel.


Again like most steel it has another useful property. It's recyclable. Recycling is highly cost effective, as it's cheaper than producing new

steel from smelting and refining of iron ore. The savings are significant, and steel companies recycle steel as a matter of course. The

source material for recycled steel is plentiful, and finds its way to steelmakers, via scrap dealers and recycling centres, who supply it in

the form of scrapped cars, washing machines, refrigerators, cans, construction beams, rail tracks, and countless more discarded steel

and iron based products.


Recycled stainless steel has equally effective anti-corrosion properties, but due to residual impurities, certain applications are more

suited than others. Basic oxygen steel-making, for example, is a process that uses around thirty percent of recycled steel in its steel

production. The greater malleability of this steel finds uses in products such as cans. Recycled stainless steel with greater residual

content is less malleable, and is used in heavy construction.

Red Rocks of Mars - The Science
Behind Red Rocks
Have you ever wondered what causes red rocks? Red rocks like those on the surface of Mars, the red planet, or the canyons of Utah.

The answer to this question comes down to two common elements, iron and oxygen, which combine together to form the compound

rust. Most people have heard of or seen rust. It's that red crusty stuff that forms on the outside of nails or other bits of metal that have

been outside too long. But what is rust? The most common type of rust is formally named Iron (iii) Oxide. This iron oxide compound has

two iron atoms and three oxygen atoms all bunched together. This compound is formed in just the right way so that most colors of light

are absorbed by it, but red light is reflected. The reflected red light makes rust appear red and thus make red rocks look red.

So we now know that red rocks get their distinctive color because of rust, but how did that rust get there? Why was it formed in the first

place? To answer this question we must look deeper into the chemistry of iron and rust. Rust is caused when iron is exposed to

amounts of oxygen, such as the oxygen in air or in water. A chemical reaction takes place between the iron and the oxygen. The

oxygen oxidizes the iron and steals several of its electrons. The iron now has a positive charge and the oxygen has a negative charge
and because opposite charges attract, they are drawn together to form iron oxide or rust. Red rocks, then, are rocks that have a fairly

high concentration of iron in them and are exposed to some source of oxygen. The combination of these two things creates rust and

turns the rock red.

The reaction that forms rust is actually very interesting. It's what is called an endothermic reaction, or in simpler terms the reaction gives

off heat. In nature things rust very slowly, so that heat is also given off slowly and you can really tell. However, there are ways to speed

up reactions, which is what scientists and engineers did when they created air activated hand warmers. Iron is put in these hand

warmers and begins a very sped up reaction with oxygen when the package is opened and thus creates heat. It's pretty cool that the

same process that named Mars the red planet can also keep your hands warm on a cold day.

Energy and Its Kinds
As we know that anybody which can do work is said to posses energy.

Energy may be defined as the capability of doing work. Thus, energy and work are measured in same units i.e. joules.

There are different kinds of energies e.g. Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, Heat and Light, Nuclear and Solar, Tidal Energy etc.

Different kinds of energies are used by man for his comfort, for instance we use the chemical energy of coal, oil and gas released in the

form of heat to drive steam turbines and internal combustion engines.

In some parts of the world where sun shines uninterrupted for long periods, the solar energy is used for doing useful work like running

electric generators.

These days nuclear energy is used for the production of light and electricity.

Kinetic and Potential Energy

Different forms of energy exist in nature. A body can have two kinds of energy Kinetic and Potential. In the following we will discuss

these two forms.

Kinetic Energy

The energy due to the motion of a body is called kinetic energy.

When a bullet id fired from a gun it has very high speed. Due to its motion it has capability for doing work. When this bullet strikes a

plane of a wood or sheet of iron it pierces across. It shows that it possesses energy which appears in the form of work when it strikes an

object. Kinetic energy is represented by K.E.

Let us now calculate the kinetic energy of a body of mass m moving with velocity v using following equation:

K.E = ½ mv2
Above equation shows that kinetic energy of a body in motion is directly proportional to its mass and also to the square of its velocity.

Example 1: Calculate kinetic energy of a body mass 5 kg moving at a speed of 2m/s.


Mass of the body m = 5kg

Velocity of the body v = 2m/s

Kinetic Energy K.E = ½ mv2


K.E = ½ × 5 kg × (2m/s)2

K.E = 10 J. Answer

Potential Energy

Potential energy of a body is the energy possessed by it by virtue of its position or configuration. For Instance, if we lift a brick from the

ground to the top of a roof, work is done against the force of gravity. This work appears as potential energy of the brick. If m is the mass

of the body which is raised to a height h, the work done on it against gravity is equal to mgh. Potential energy is represented by P.E.


P.E. = mgh

While calculating the potential Energy of a body, we should be careful in determining the value of h. We can measure it either from the

ground or from any other point of reference up to the height.

Example 2: Consider a body of mass 2kg placed on a table 1m high, which is placed on a platform of height 2m. The potential energy of

the body, as calculated with respect to the platform, will be

2kg × 9.8 m/s2 × 1m = 19.6 J

While it's Potential energy with respect to the ground is

2kg × 9.8 m/s2 × 3m = 58.8 J

Therefore, we must keep in view the reference point while calculating the potential energy.
Global Warming Exposed
In the late 1970's, scientists were worried about something that we today scoff at. The idea that the earth was going to experience a

cataclysmic cold spell. It was a fact that the world had been cooling since the 1940's, which of course flies in the face of today's global

warming alarmists who are sure we will now fry. But scientists noticed that the earth started warming again. However, scientists made a

big mistake. The assumed that when the earth was cooling it was just keep doing so. When it turned around and started warming up,

they did the same thing. If it was getting warmer then it would have to keep getting warmer, right? Wrong of course, for the same reason

that kids who grow will not continue to do so until they are 80. The past only gives you a basis for the future, not the future.

This time around though, scientists assumed there must be a reason for the earth warming other than natural cycles or sunspot activity,

which are the actual causes. Instead they figured that we must be causing it because we release so many greenhouse gases. Now it is

no mystery that CO2 can create a sort of blanket and hold in warmth, but no one ever really checked to see if that was a practical

answer. The reason why is that politicians had learned from global cooling and latched onto global warming with their democrat claws.

Here's a way, they thought, to control the masses.

Now I suppose that many global warmists actually believe the rhetoric, but regardless, they have taken the opportunity to use it as a

power grab. After all, if the world is warming, and we are causing it, then only a government is big enough to fix the problem.

Presumably private enterprise will not. So if you want to save the planet, you should elect so-and-so, because he or she will make

protection of the planet a priority, and pour your tax dollars into programs to that end. This makes sense, doesn't it? If global warming is

going to eventually kill us all, then there is no price tag too large or action too small to save us from our self-destruction, right?

The problem is that it just isn't true. The fact is that increases in global carbon have always followed increases in temperature, not

caused them. The reason is that that huge ball of fusioning gas that we call the sun, the one that produced the equivalent of a million

atomic bombs every second, turns out to be a little more influential that our measly coal burning factories. The sun has cycles too, and

when it is more active, the earth warms a little causing an increase in release of CO2 from the oceans. Yes that giant mass of water that

covers more than 2/3 of the entire earth is also a bit more influential that our measly carbon output, but those in charge don't care about

that. They care, that they have power. It doesn't matter if it is global cooling or global warming, its all about the money and power.

What Is Kinetic Energy?
I have the distinct impression most science writers are English majors and not schooled in physics. Why do I think this? Because kinetic

energy is bandied about as though it were a force. We hear that a meteor will strike with hundreds of thousands of foot pounds of

energy or a rifle bullet strikes with thousands of foot pounds of energy. It's all rubbish. Kinetic energy is a formula devised by Isaac

Newton to enable you to calculate the potential energy of an object in motion. He expressed it as ke (kinetic energy) = 1/2 m V2. Seems

simple enough until you try a simple example. We know if you drop something here on earth that gravity accelerates it at about 32.2 feet

per second toward the center of the earth. So in 1/4 of a second our object will attain a velocity of about 8 feet per second and travel

about 1 foot. In another 1/4 second it will reach about 16 feet per second and travel an additional 3 feet for a total of 4 feet. We see a

graph of velocity versus time is a straight line but the distance traveled quadruples for each doubling of time. It does this because it

accumulates velocity with time and moves further with each increment of time.
So let's try a simple example. We will drop a 1 pound mass 1 foot. The velocity it attains in one foot is the same velocity that would

enable it to rise 1 foot if it were traveling in the opposite direction. It is called symmetry. Physical processes usually exhibit symmetry.

Up and down are mirror images of each other. So, back to our 1 pound mass dropped 1 foot. We know this is a foot pound by definition.

So we multiply 1 pound by 8 squared for 64 and halve it for an answer of 32. Long way from 1 foot pound so what is the problem? The

problem is m is used in Newtonian mechanics to mean many things. In the momentum equation (momentum = mv) m is 1 pound - BUT-

in the kinetic energy formula m is expressed in what Newton termed a slug. A slug is that mass which when acted upon by a force of 1

pound accelerates at 1 foot per second. Since we know gravity would accelerate it at 32.2 feet per second but a force of 1 pound

accelerates it at 1 foot per second a slug is obviously 32.2 lbs. It is the gravitational constant, little g, over 1. So he coined a new unit of

mass with the gravitational constant neatly ensconced within it.

Why you may ask. Well because we get the correct answer if we take our original answer and divide by 32. It is 1 which is the correct

answer. Since v changes only 32 feet per second we see at high levels of v the potential energy is enormous. But remember this is

potential energy only if you can extract work by lowering it on a rope or in an elevator. That's why a .308 bullet may possess around

3000 foot pounds because in a vacuum it will rise losing only 32 feet per second in its travel. If you think it imparts 3000 foot pounds to a

deer it does not. Newton also said for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is the kick on the butt plate of the rifle. If

it were 3000 foot pounds you can be confident in the knowledge no one would fire the rifle a second time. Kinetic energy is not a force.

The impact energy is its momentum. Kinetic energy just expresses how high it can rise.

Kinetic energy is much more impressive when talking about impacts though so marketing people and English majors describe motion in

terms of kinetic energy.

Why Explore the Vastness of Space
and the Abyss of the Oceans Depths?
Not everyone wants to go be one of the first space colonies on Mars, and not everyone is genetically driven to explore, or endowed with

the innate curiosity which drives mankind to seek the unknown. Nevertheless, for those who do have those genes, and I am one of

them, I do understand, and it is such a compelling need, that you can't fight it, and perhaps this is why, at least in America, we have

such a high percentage of those genes. People have come from all over the world to build a better life, explore, and go do something

new. Okay so let's talk about this for second shall we?

Not long ago, I was reminded of a famous quote, a quip from a dedicated life-long oceanographer and explorer. Jacque Cousteau once

said about the ocean depths; "if we knew what was there, we wouldn't have to go," and that statement is quite apropos to mankind's

exploratory endeavors. In speaking of the oceans of our world, there will be a new attempt at breaking the underwater depth record very

soon. National Geographic will film it and bring our televisions to the deepest parts of the ocean as the explorer makes his way to the

bottom capturing as much as possible on film.

Indeed, the individual making the dive is also a filmmaker who produced the movie "Avatar" and I have no doubt that he will be using

some of the footage for an upcoming movie which will take place under our oceans, or at least the storyline will. It is quite fitting that he

is using this opportunity to go to the bottom of the deepest ocean where no one has tried, or at least no one has gone in the last 50
years, since the last deep sea record was broken. I find it refreshing, the human spirit, and the need to continue exploration. Whereas, I

am not one with the political notions of that filmmaker, I am intrigued by his strength of character, and conviction, and applaud his


One famous quote which seems to be very much part of the American spirit is that which was brought forth by Gene Roddenberry's Star

Trek; "to boldly go where no man has gone before." And doesn't that capture the essence of what we are talking about here, doesn't

that bring it in full perspective? I believe that Jacque Cousteau was quite correct with what he said, and since we don't know, we must

go. We must explore everything, and everywhere, because it is who we are. And that's a good enough reason for me, how about you?

Does a Mind Really Need a Brain?
Does a Mind Really Need a Brain? The Beastly Echinoderm (sea urchin) thinks, yet it doesn't have a brain!

What is a mind? In order to engage in a meaningful discussion of the applicability of the concept of mind to the brainless sea urchin, a

consensus must be reached as a general-definition of two non-synonymous terms, brain and mind. For purposes of this writing I define

'brain' as a nerve ganglia consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter that serves to control and coordinate mental

and physical actions. And further, for this writing, I define 'mind' as the res cogitans of Descartes, a mental process, presumably

generated by the brain, rather than a physical substance, i.e., the mind is a mental state of thinking. We might wonder if there is some

way to explain the business-like workaday life of that little beast, the sea urchin, that without even a semblance of the nerve ganglia that

we call a brain; lives an existence that requires cogent decisions (without a brain) to meet its perilous sea-floor environment. To explain

this paradox we might ask if there is an explanation other than in terms of grey and white physical substance. Further, how might these

two approaches, given their entirely differing ontological nature, possibly relate to the mind-body problem of that little beast, the sea

urchin, having thoughts?

I wonder, is attributing thoughts to a sea urchin being anthropomorphic? Anthropomorphism! What a word! Only a few years ago it was

a sin to attribute human characteristics to nonhuman things. Certainly, it was condemnation aplenty to even utter the words "animal

mind." Nowadays, however, people even title books with those words. What has been happening? To answer the question, only a few

years ago to ask, "What do you imagine happens inside the brains of animals?" would divide scientists into two groups. The

comparative psychologists, behaviorists, and (to a large extent) ethnologists would enthusiastically describe rigid, inflexible mechanistic

goings-on -- like the automatons of 1950s movies. The other group of scientists -- and really everybody else, scientist or not -- would

reply: "Simple thoughts, I suppose, but I don't see how we'll ever know."

How were these professionals so sure of their answers? They weren't sure, of course, but they were carefully following the rule that

science is supposed to abide by: accepting the simplest hypothesis until there is strong evidence of something more complex. Since

evidence was minimal, the automaton theory won out, thus committing the fallacy of argumentum ad ignorantiam, arguing that

something is true because no one has proved it to be false.

Donald Griffin set the ball rolling, leading to today's interest in animal minds. In 1976 he wrote a book, "Animal Minds - Beyond

Cognition to Consciousness," cataloging animal behaviors that are not rigid and inflexible, actions that look suspiciously like our own,

challenging readers to consider the possibility that not all animal behavior is mindless. Sometime later James and Carol Gould wrote,
"The Animal mind," showing cases that look as if they would be hard for an automaton to cope with -- animals acting in ways that look


In this writing I propose to take the reader a step further, suggesting that there are certain animals that can act in ways that seem to

imply some aspect of mind without the benefit of a brain. The brain being defined as physical, a part of a nerve system where the mind


Consider the sea urchin as a case in point; each one is formed from a hard shell. The shell has five narrow sections, laid out like a star,

pierced with what appears to be an infinity of channels through which pass moving organs, called "ambulacra," which act as extensions

in a system of suckers. The creature stretches them out and retracts them at will quite nimbly in order to move and roll along the sea


This nectarine shaped shell is enveloped and bristly with moving spines -- fine mauve-green daggers -- that give it protection against the

formidable and menacing jaws and pincers that wander around in the currents, hidden among the underwater shadows.

Sea urchins are potentially attractive settlement sites for barnacles and seaweeds and other sessile organisms. But surprisingly these

small beasts, the sea urchins, can clean themselves, and no doubt there are plenty of marine vermin that would be delighted to take

shelter if not sustenance from the sea urchin, however it manages a process of active antifouling that should be the envy of any

yachtsman. The body surface between the spines is dotted with thousands of tiny beaks on stalks that bend over to snap at anything

foolish enough to tickle its surface.

Next time you find yourself feeling uncharitable about the spines, don't simply smash every sea urchin in sight, but prize one gently off

the rocks and put in a bowl, with enough water to cover it. Beg or preferably steal a lens (a jeweler's loop is good), and view the surface

of a sea urchin, it is a truly wondrous sight. Even without a lens you should be able to see that there is a lot more to a sea urchin than a

mass of spines. Long, thin, snakelike tube feet extend between the spines and stick to the glass or to the bottom of the bowl. This is

how sea urchins hang on to the rocks, and how they move about. Each tube foot is water filled, hollow and extended by pressure from

within. It can bend, and wave to and fro until a contact is made, whereupon the end of the "foot" pulls in to make a minuscule sucker

that grips the rock while the foot contracts and pulls. The pull of several hundred tiny feet can hold the urchin tight to the rocks, even in

the wave surge of a gale.

The sea urchin's mouth is on the lower side, directed toward the ground and armed with five protruding teeth, known as "Aristotle's

lanterns," which serve as much for tearing apart prey, mollusks, or branches of kelp, as for digging its shelter on the sea bottom.

The intriguing problem with the sea urchin is that as soon as it starts to move about, is how the activity of several hundred tube feet can

possibly be coordinated, for the animals have no detectable brain. Instead, a network of nerve cells is more or less concentrated along

the underside of the five radii that define the symmetry of the urchin. The five radii converge on a ring of nervous tissue around the

mouth of the animal. But that is all. No ganglia, no central control point as we are used to finding with more orthodox animals. So how is

coordination achieved? How does a sea urchin decide which way to go off for a browse today, let alone find its way home afterwards?

One can get a mesmeric inkling of some of its functions from simple experiments while one has the beast in a bucket. Poke the surface

of the urchin gently, but repeatedly, with the tip of a toothpick. The little snapping beaks and then the spines turn towards the point
touched. Carry on and the effect gradually spreads, farther and farther over the surface of the sea urchin. These are local, reflex actions

of course, but wait... soon hundreds and hundreds of tiny feet will be set in motion, and like a regiment of soldiers will march the beast

away from the source of annoyance. One might reasonably conclude that there was some sort of brain in the mouth region giving

orders, but even microscopic examination fails to reveal anything remotely resembling a brain.

So... we can conclude that a sea urchin functions as a democracy of reflexes (the older text books talk of a "republic of reflexes"), and it

works! From this I further conclude that the sea urchin's actions are governed by a republic of the mind. The nature of the sea urchin's

response to events in his life certainly suggests the function of mental properties and consciousness. I recognize that my conclusions

give rise to difficult problems and questions. In this writing I merely attempt to suggest a little broadening the definition of the word

"mind," and also to suggest some questions to which I won't attempt to provide answers.

How Atomic Clocks Work
We live in an age where people are obsessed with exact time. Our lives are ruled by the schedule, and our days are mostly composed

of running to and fro to be on time for a variety of things. Public transportation, the office, education, and even some of our

entertainment is by the clock. The preeminent importance of exact time is unquestionable, and it is this importance that lead to the

creation and maintenance of the atomic clock. With it, GPS can function, the position of planets can be calculated with enough accuracy

for space exploration, and the Internet will always know the exact time.

Actually, that importance lead to the creation of several atomic clock standards. There are three standards in use today: the Hydrogen,

Cesium, and Rubidium atomic clocks. This page is focused on the type of atomic clock that utilizes Cesium 133 in its measurement of

the second.

The cesium standard has become the master standard for measuring time in the modern world, with the International System of Units

defining a second as "the duration of 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation corresponding to the transition between two energy levels of the

Cesium 133 atom." The reason for this is that Cesium atomic clocks remain the most accurate over the longest period of time. It is

believed that if any single Cesium atomic clock were able to run long enough, it would remain accurate for millions of years.

Despite the word "radiation" being used, atomic clocks are not radioactive. They do not rely on atomic decay for measurement. No

energy is given off in that sense as the Cesium atom transitions between states. So how, exactly, does the measurement takes place?

Firstly, all atoms have characteristic oscillation frequencies. This means that all atoms repeat several states at a regular interval. In this

particular case, it is measuring the energy state between the electrons, which are negatively charged, and the nucleus, which is

positively charged. Different atoms have different oscillation frequencies based upon the mass of the nucleus and the electrostatic

"spring" that results in the opposing charges pushing the electrons away as the gravitational pull of the nucleus pulls them closer.

Simply put, the "oscillation frequency" is how often the electrons move back and forth as they orbit the nucleus.

Even then, there is variation among an atom's energy states, so the atomic clock has to make sure that the Cesium 133 has the correct

oscillation frequency. To measure it accurately, a crystal oscillator needs to be attached to the principal microwave resonance of the
Cesium 133 atom. This turns the cesium atomic resonance into an atomic clock. Incidentally, the signal from the principal microwave

resonance is in the same frequency used by direct broadcast satellite signals.

For the clock to start ticking, solid or liquid Caesium is heated so that atoms boil off and pass into a high vacuum tunnel. Upon entering

the tunnel they pass through a magnetic field that separates atoms. Atoms that have the right energy state move on to pass through an

intense microwave field.

The microwave energy within the field sweeps back and forth between a narrow range of frequencies, crossing exactly 9,192,631,770

Hertz in each cycle. The range always remains close to that frequency, as it comes from the crystal oscillator. When the Cesium 133

atom receives microwave energy at exactly the right frequency, it changes its energy state.

At the far end of the vacuum tube, the atoms encounter another magnetic field. This one separates out the atoms that have been

exposed to the precise frequency while inside the microwave field. These atoms, reach the end and strike a detector.

The detector's output reaches its peak when the microwave field was at the optimum frequency. This peak is used to make corrections

to the crystal oscillator and by extension the microwave field, making sure it stays exactly on frequency.

The final, locked frequency is then divided by 9,192,631,770 resulting in one pulse per second. This single pulse is the tick of an atomic


From there, various other consumer "atomic clocks" get their exact readings by either radio waves or satellite, depending on their

nature. In the continental United States and surrounding areas, wall mounted "atomic clocks" receive their signal from a radio signal

operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology out of Colorado. The NIST operated radio station, which is connected

directly to an atomic clock and called the WWVB, utilizes a high powered output on a relatively low frequency to give it its extraordinary

reach. Some wrist watches tap into this for accurate time as well.

The time read out on GPS comes from atomic clocks aboard satellites that are orbiting the Earth, and the Internet sources the Cesium

standard as well, along with others.

While the Cesium Standard is more accurate in the long haul, the other two standards mentioned can be more accurate over a shorter

span of time. Because of this they are sometimes used in commercial applications, but they have to ultimately be corrected by Cesium

atomic clocks to ensure continued accuracy.

They are complicated, beautiful results of scientific advancement and our continued need to know just what time it is down to the

second. One day an even more accurate way of telling time may emerge, but until that day the atomic clock remains at the cutting edge

of time telling technology.

What's Radon Gas?
Radon can be described as naturally sourced radioactive element which happens to be relatively widespread in the states. Radon is an

element belonging to the U-238 decay cycle. Given that Radon is usually a gas, it could possibly seep up to the surface through
fractures in the earth. This is the reason why Radon is often evident in cellars. The truth is, Radon is the lone gas that is normally

radioactive. Other gases may become radioactive if exposed to radiation, but this is not their natural state.

Radon can be described as colorless as well as tasteless, therefore it is effectively invisible to humans. The only way for people to

detect radon gas is through radon test kits. These kits can be easily found online. Some states provide radon test kits free of charge.

Due to the fact Radon Gas is known as a radioactive element, it will decay. Radon decays to become Polonium with the discharge of an

alpha particle.

Rn-222 -> Alpha Particle + Po-218

Radon Gas can be found on the periodic table having an number of 86. Radon is part of the Noble Gas Elements group with Helium,

Neon, Argon, Krypton, and also Xenon. Typically, the noble gases do not interact with other elements or compounds. Considering that

Radon is naturally radioactive, it has a half-life. A half-life is defined as the period of time it will require for an element to reduce half of

its own radioactivity. The half-life for Radon is about 91 hours. Thus, in about four days, radon gas will be about half as radioactive.

Radon does not completely disappear because it is also being generated at the same time it decays away.

In the USA, Radon Gas is typically calculated with picocuries per liter (pCi/L). According to the EPA, any radon quantity above 2 pCi/L

ought to be fixed to avoid health problems. Radon can be fixed professionally with the installation of a radon mitigation system into a

house. This system will normally vent the gas from the basement through the roof of the house. It is impossible to stop the ingress of

radon, but it can be made so that levels remain within a relatively safe band.

5 Different Types of Solid State
Last weekend I went furniture shopping with one of my friends. We went to a wide array of stores. The furniture exhibited on the floor

varied from antique, oversized pieces to clean, modern looks. I thought the options would never end. And, after a while, it all started to

look the same until an exquisite, large metal table caught my eye. It looked like a seamless piece of steel that must have been welded

together. Well, the welding aspect sparked my interest. I thought how do designers weld together metal. Are there different types of

welding? Here is what I found out.


Most welding methods use heat to join two or more pieces of metal together. In explosion, there is no heat applied. Instead, the process

relies upon a high energy collision and movement. For example, a shock wave could provide enough heat from the power of the impact

and the energy exhausted brings the pieces of metal together. This technique is used when producing heat exchangers and repairing

leak tube-to-tube sheet joints.


The cold technique is when you take material and connect them by using high pressure at room temperature or a vacuum without heat.

Unlike other practices, there is no liquefied state present. You are able to use handheld tools or a large press for sizable objects.

Inertia is a type of friction welding that involves a spinning flywheel being rotated by a motor until a certain speed is achieved. Once this

occurs, the other piece (or pieces) to be welded rotates, the motor disengages from the flywheel and the welded part joins on contact

the rotating piece. The contact moment is when pressure is applied and action takes place. At the moment the flywheel slows down or

completely stops, more pressure is applied and the welding is finished.


Hammer is also known as forge. This process includes joining metals by heating them in an oven and applying weight or whacks

powerful enough to create long-lasting distortion at the crossing point. When imagining this welding, think about a blacksmith doing

his/her work. A blacksmith uses the same process.


Roll and hammer welding are very similar. They both use pressure to connect the two metals. The only difference is with roll welding,

hammering does not occur. It uses pressure caused by a rolling motion. It is one of the most common procedures utilized in casing low

alloy steel with stainless steel.

Everything You Need To Know About
Radioactivity And Alpha Radiation
If you have ever wondered what is Radioactivity and could not find the answer then you have come to the right place. Radioactivity is a

very interesting phenomenon that occurs in nature as well as in labs where it is done artificially. In this phenomenon, the nucleus of

atoms disintegrates by emitting waves of energy called radiation.

The atoms of heavier elements do not have an ideal proton to neutron ratio. This makes them unstable. In order to approach the stable

ratio, the atoms go through radioactive decay and in process emit energy or various particles as by products. The most common types

of materials showing radioactive decay are Uranium, Strontium, Plutonium and Radium. The reason for the instability in these and other

radioactive materials is that they have extra neutrons in their atoms. This creates the imbalance.

Radioactivity is a spontaneous process but owing to advancements in technology, radioactive decay can also be produced artificially in

atoms. This is done by bombardment of the nucleus of materials with neutrons, which disturbs the ratio between protons and neutrons.

Radioactive decay is of three types, alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay. Alpha decay is said to have occurred when the

decaying atomic nucleus, emits an alpha particle as a by-product. An alpha particle is a Helium nucleus. It has two neutrons and two

protons. This means that the parent nucleus will have mass for less than the original.

Alpha radiation is the most common kind of cluster decay. This means that the parent atom ejects a fixed collection of daughter

nucleons and leaves behind another well-defined product. Alpha radiation is a property of relatively heavier atoms among the

radioactive materials.
The alpha particles are the heaviest among all three types of radiation. Because of this, the velocity of propagation of these particles is

very low. Therefore, the probability of alpha particles interacting with other particles is very high. This in turn makes the Alpha particles

lose their energy very quickly and they quickly stop their forward motion within a few centimeters.

Alpha radiation is the most harmful of the three types of Radioactivity as the loss in the energy by the alpha particles is very quick. This

deposits more amount of harmful energy in the small volume of space increasing the risk of damage.

Alpha radiation has the least penetrating power among the three types. A thin sheet of paper, a layer of air few centimeters thick or

even a layer of dead cells on the skin can stop it. Therefore, it is very safe to touch the alpha radiation although that will not be

recommended to do anytime.

Alpha radiation finds its uses in many industries and research fields. For example, smoke detectors employ Alpha emitters in order to

sound the alarm when smoke reaches the maximum level. Another application of Alpha radiation is that it provides power and acts as a

source for the radioisotope thermoelectric generators used for space probes and artificial heart pacemakers.

Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
The universe is an incredibly large place with hundreds of billions of galaxies. Each galaxy has hundreds of billions of stars in it. So

there are more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars out there, and most of them are bigger than our sun. There is probably

much more as well. That's just all we can see.

All of that stuff out there is made of matter, all of which is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. There are other particles that

pop in and out of existence and apply the forces, but they aren't matter like protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Protons and neutrons are indeed composed of smaller particles called quarks, that stick together like magnets. An enormous amount of

energy is required to get quarks to fly apart because the energy of motion has to be greater than the energy of attraction. Other than in

the lab, quarks haven't been by themselves for billions of years.

For about the first hundred thousand years following the Big Band, the Universe was much smaller than it is now, but it still had the

same amount of mass and energy, so the amount of energy in a single particle was so big that particles like quarks just could not stick

together. The soup of particles that constituted the universe was so hot that no protons or neutrons existed yet.

After this period of time things started cooling down. Of course cooling here means hotter than the sun, but that is cold enough for

quarks to start sticking together. The next phase was the combination protons, neutrons, and electrons into atoms like helium and


These atoms began to clump together into gigantic clouds of dust, many hundreds of thousands of light years across. They swirled

around until dense spots formed into stars. In their life cycle, stars produce atoms like iron, copper, and carbon. When it finally died and

exploded, the star spread these elements were across the galaxy to eventually form planets. But of course all of these still consisted of

the same three particles; protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Still today, everything that we can see, touch, taste, smell, and for that matter even hear, is made of three basic particles; protons

neutrons electrons. We can't see them directly, but they are there, interacting at an incredibly small scale to create the atoms,

molecules, and eventually complex systems that allow us to survive, and even thrive.

Particle physics

What Is Zero Point Energy?
Back in 1917 this stupendous energy field which was originally believed to be simply an empty vacuum, but in-fact after further

researched was found to be an amazing reservoir of homoeostatic balance and natural healing, is now uniquely positioned to change

the entire face of "free energy." It is believed that this change will also include health and wellness within and throughout the body of

humans, and all living organisms. To learn more about this stupendous healing power, please read on...

The science of zero point energy was first proposed by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1917, which they referred to as "zero point


All quantum mechanical systems are known to have a zero point energy source. Originally it was thought that this source was simply a

giant vacuum of emptiness, but the overwhelming consensus amongst scientists today is that it is really a giant reservoir of energy.

What Exactly Is It and Why Is It So Relevant Today?

When we look at an object under the powerful lens of a microscope, say a part of your body or the tile floor or a counter top, almost

everything, as you delve deep, deep down into the structure of the object you reach a place where everything looks exactly the same,

whether you are looking at electrons, protons, or neutrons.

As you continue even deeper, you will find the sub-atomic range. However between these sub-atomic particles you will find what is

known as Zero Point Energy Field or "source energy", and it is from this place where all things are "sourced".

When this Zero Point Energy or Resonance is directed towards an object such as a plant, water, wine, our a body, that object instantly

recognizes this energy and there is a response. A response which is very measurable. The recipient object will immediately begin to

move in the direction of its source state or its natural-condition prior to pain, distortion and disease.

As one can deduct, this "source energy", if it is really authentic and is applicable as implied by Albert Einstein way back in 1917, as the

natural source of healing energy which is created to resonate throughout the entire body, then why is there so much pain, illness and

disease within this society, today. Is it because of some conspiracy within the health and wellness industry, or is it simply because of


Amized Fusion Technology
Amized Fusion Technology (AFT) is a patented technology which was developed by the Amega Global Research & Development

Team. This team comprises a group of scientist, doctors and physicists over a period of 25 years, using the principles of Quantum

Physics and Quantum Mechanics.

All of AFT products are known to resonate at a zero point energy field, and this field of energy combines with the bio-energetic field of

the body, to source the life force energy to optimize the congestion of energy flow in the body, thus harmonizing the resonance and the

homoeostatic state of the body. With in this state of homoeostasis all living organisms existence is returned to a state of harmony, and

ease, as opposed to dis-ease.

Victor Graham has been very successful in the health and wellness home base business industry for over 20 years.He is confident that

this line of natural healing energy products will be the next billion dollar company in this trillion dollar industry

2012 Science Trends
Well, science is making some decent headway in particle physics, astrophysics, astronomy, healthcare, material science, nanotech, and

personal tech as we are all very aware. Okay so, let's talk about all of this for second shall we?

It looks as if IBM and Intel are both working on major breakthroughs in things like spectral imaging, supercomputers, and the new chips

that use unbelievable materials, able to process with ultra-efficiency and at speeds unheard of. It looks as if science may crack an

individual's DNA sequencing for a cost of under $500. Also we note that major discoveries are being made in cancer research, and the

mapping of the human brain. Each incremental push forward seems to be bringing us to the point of major breakthroughs.

The concept of thought swapping is moving ahead very rapidly, it appears that in the future our personal tech devices, social networks,

and virtual world will be a blurred reality. Our thoughts may become more transparent, which will lead to all sorts of cultural changes in

our society, and places throughout the world. It may be too much for some things, and even change the dynamics of our reality. This is

thanks to all the great neuroscience discoveries.

Will this be the year that particle physicists discover the God particle? Well, it appears they will discover something, but it probably won't

be exactly what they thought it was. In fact it will lead to even more questions, but at least humankind is making significant progress

here, in unlocking the secrets of our world. Great strides are being made with nanotech especially with all the crew properties of Carbon

Nanotubes, and Graphene - these new findings, will lead to changes in almost every single industry from computers and biotech to

transportation and energy. They will even allows humans to design future spacecraft; "to badly go!"

Speaking of energy and our future in space; science may be on the path to figuring out new alternative energy sources which used on

Earth, as well as wherever humans take themselves in the future. Military science is also moving forward rapidly with high energy laser

weapons, autonomous robotic vehicles, and magnetic propulsion. All of these great new discoveries will find transfer technologies into

the private space. This means there will be a boatload of new advances in human technology throughout science, but for those we must

patiently wait. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this, consider the future of humanity, and think on it.
Top 10 Ways The World Could End In
Could the world end in 2012? Put aside the goofy prophecies of Mayan calendar doomsayers and join us on a journey into the cold,

hard science of civilisation ending catastrophe. Predicting the end of the world is both a sure bet and a fool's errand. Eventually, the

total destruction of civilisation, the human race, and, indeed, the world is a near certainty. The tricky part about predicting the

apocalypse is the timing. But that hasn't stopped people from forecasting impending doom throughout human history. Holy men, ancient

astronomers, and even modern computer scientists have all occasionally read the leaves in their occupational cups of tea and

concluded that the end is nigh. And, without exception, they have all been wrong.

But maybe this year is going to be different. On Dec.21, 2012, the Mayan calendar will reach the end of a 394-year cycle called a

Baktun, which has sent end-time aficionados into a frenzy. Archaeologists laugh off that doomsday scenario, explaining that the Mayan

calendar is no more momentous than our own calendar ticking over from 1999 to 2000. So that's a relief. Still, just because the Mayans

didn't predict the end of the world this particular year doesn't mean our safety is assured. There are plenty of other risks to life on earth

that scientists do take seriously. These might range from disasters that threaten millions or billions of people to an all-out "extinction-

level event" that wipes out the majority of life on the planet. Below we will take a look at the top 10 ways the world will end in 2012.

Asteroid Impact

Space objects strike the earth all the time, but extinction-level impacts occur only once every 100 million years. After the spectacular

collision of the Showmaker-levy 9 comet with Jupiter (and a host of asteroid-disaster flicks) in the 1990s, NASA set out to map all large

near-earth objects. But it appears that there are far fewer potential catastrophes in earths neighbourhood than once thought. "A

civilisation-killing asteroid would have to be a mile across," says Spahr of the Minor Planet Center. (The space rock that ended the

dinosaur era is estimated to have been six times that size.) "There just aren't any asteroids that size out there," he says. There is,

however, a large population of as-yet-undiscovered objects several hundred yards across. One that we do know about, a 300-yard-wide

asteroid called 99942 Apophis, will pass within the orbits of earth satellites in 2029 and could one day strike the planet. "Worst-case

scenario?" Spahr says."You hit Los Angeles, kill millions of people, and shut down the entire West Coast."


For a disease to be globally destructive, it must undergo a flare-up of contagiousness and lethality like the 1918 influenza pandemic,

which in the course of two and half years killed 50 to 80 million people. If the next influenza pandemic is as bad as 1918s, the equivalent

toll would be 210 million."Knocking off that many people at once would disrupt civilisation,' the CDC's Khan says. He adds, however,

that in the past century medical science has developed powerful weapons against disease."we're an intelligent species,"he says"We

can fight back." But what if that intelligence were turned against us? Thanks to advances in biotechnology, it will become increasingly

possible to custom-tailor a pathogens lethality. "we're on the cusp of what could be a frightening time," says Charles P. Blair, director of

the Terrorism Analysis Project at the Federation of American Scientists."I think in the very near future you're talking about a potential

extinction event.

Machines Take Over
Moore's law-the observation that computer chips get twice as powerful every two years-implies that, eventually, artificial brains will

eclipse the human brain. The big question is, what will the artificial super-intelligence of the future choose to do with it's gifts? "The risk

is not so much a Terminator scenario, where you get a super computer that dislikes humans,"says Anders Sandberg, a researcher and

futurist at the Oxford Martin Schools Future of Humanity Institute in England."A malign neglect would be a bigger problem. You get

something that's very intelligent but has motivations that are completely non-human. [The computer] might not really care about

anything that we care about, but since its smarter, it's going to get what it wants."

Gamma-Ray Bursts

When large stars die, they go out in spectacular fashion. Having used up their nuclear fuel, their cores collapse inward into a black hole,

which then devours the star inside out. Out of this paroxysm of destruction, powerful beams of energy burst from both poles, shooting

gamma rays and charged particles that for a second outshine the rest of the stars in the universe combined. That's great for

astronomers, who can observe the gamma-ray bursts, or GRBs, from across the universe, but not so good for any planet that happens

to be located in the path of the beams. In a one-two punch, a bath of charged particles would quickly kill everything on one side of the

planet while intense gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and cause years of acid rain. "As a rule of thumb, the danger zone

extends to anything within 3000 light-years," says Penn State astronomer Derek Fox, who specializes in gamma-ray bursts. But for us,

he says,"it's not a likely threat." The average galaxy experiences a GRB only every 10 million years or so, and the danger zone is a

small percentage of that galaxy.

Snowball Earth

Right now people worry about global warming, but fallout from a nuclear war or a super volcano could put enough sunlight-blocking dust

in the air to cause the opposite problem: a deep plunge in surface temperatures. If the earth stayed cool long enough, a worse

catastrophe could ensue. Back in the 60s, climate modelers realized that if the earth were covered in enough ice, most of the incoming

solar radiation would be reflected back into space and the planet would settle into a stable state at about minus 50 degrees F. Then, in

1992, Cal-Tech Geobiologist Joseph Kirschvink proposed that the earth had once spent long stretches of time almost entirely frozen

over, leaving evidence of glacial deposits in the tropics. Life clung on in a few sanctuaries heated by volcanic springs. Could it happen

again?"Its not something you would need to worry about in 2012, or the next hundred years,"Kirschvink says."Even if the climate

became very cold, it would take a long time for glaciers to build up."

Solar Storm

Late last year a major solar storm launched a wave of charged particles through the solar system at 4 million mph, setting the stage for

a display of northern lights that could be seen as far as Arkansas. But while delightful to the eye, such a storm could someday herald a

disaster. The earths magnetic field prevents the suns deadly particles from striking the surface. The motion of those particles, however,

can induce strong currents on the ground. During the worst solar storm ever recorded, in 1859, the currents were so intense that

telegraph lines burst into flames."If we had a storm like that today, it would be possibly quite catastrophic,"says Jeffrey Love, a

geomagnetic researcher with the U.S Geological Survey. "Months without electricity could cause losses of trillions of dollars and

basically wreck the economy."

Super Volcano
Two million years ago, a massive volcanic eruption near what is today Yellowstone National Park shot 600 cubic miles of dust and ash

into the atmosphere, 2400 times more than Mount St. Helen's did in 1980. If such an eruption happened today, "it would greatly interrupt

business as usual around the planet." Since that ancient blast, massive eruptions have been taking place every 600,000 years or so,

and the last one was 640,000 years ago. On the bright side, the intervals between the Yellowstone volcano eruptions are extremely

erratic. Statistically speaking, it's very unlikely to blow in 2012, or even within the next millenium.

Geomagnetic Reversal

Right now, the magnetic north pole is up near the rotational north pole, but this hasn't always been the case. Throughout the earths

history, the north and south magnetic poles have swapped places, a phenomenon known as geomagnetic reversal. It happens

irregularly, every 100,000 to 1 million years, and the last time they flipped was 780,000 years ago. So maybe we're due. Geophysicist J.

Marvin Herndon has suggested that the reversal could cause the geomagnetic field to temporarily collapse, disrupting everything from

power grids to gas pipelines to communication satellites. But there's also no need for immediate panic. While a flip would occur quickly

on a geological time scale, it is far longer in human terms, between 1000 and 10,000 years. "Whether it's going to do us harm is an

academic question," says Jeffrey Love of the U.S. Geological Survey, "because it's not going to happen tomorrow, and it's not going to

happen in our lifetime.

Nuclear War

On Sept.26, 1983, a satellite-monitoring unit at a secret facility near Moscow received a warning: Five nuclear missiles had launched

from a base in the U.S. Luckily, the unit's officer, Stanislav Yevgrafovich Petrov, was sceptical about the reliability of newly installed

equipment, and he chose to wait rather than immediately pass along an alarm that might trigger a nuclear war. His judgement may have

saved millions of lives. Nuclear tensions have subsided since the end of the Cold War. But the threat remains. More countries than ever

have the bomb, and terrorist groups and rogue states remain a worry. A study published in 2008 by the journal Physics Today suggests

that a regional war involving as few as 100 bombs could cause a nuclear winter, resulting in the lowest temperatures in 1000 years,

while an exchange involving thousands of weapons would, the study concluded, "likely eliminate the majority of the human population".

"Nuclear war is the near-term risk that people tend to forget about," says Sandberg of Oxford Martin. "If you think historically, we've

probably been very lucky."

Artificial Black Hole

In 1945, a physicist working on the first atomic bomb raised a disturbing possibility: What if the energy released by the fissioning nuclei

ignited the atmosphere and wiped out life on earth? Obviously, that didn't happen, and mankind survived its entry into the nuclear age.

But the notion that physicists could unwittingly trigger a world-ending catastrophe has not gone away. In 1999, as the Brookhaven

National Laboratory prepared to fire up its Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a Hawaiian man named Walter Wagner filed a lawsuit

to have the facility shutdown. He claimed that the collision of high-energy subatomic particles could spawn tiny black holes that could

subsequently grow until they swallowed the earth. In more than a decade of operation the RHIC has not produced a black hole, but

Wagner is currently warning of the same danger for Europe's Large Hadron Collider, which is generating yet higher energies.

Mainstream physicists dismiss the threat. "This danger simply does not exist," says Brookhaven Lab physicist Dmitri Kharzeev. "These
energies are high in human terms, but the cosmic rays that naturally occur in space are much more energetic. If high-energy particle

collision could produce black holes, one would have swallowed us a long time ago."

Newton's Laws of Motion
Isaac Newton was a 17th century physicist who is known for coming up with three laws of gravity and motion that explain motions

observed in space and on earth. He is also known for having contributed to science; study of light and in mathematics; calculus. Many

students find it hard to grasp the three laws of motion presented by Newton. However, the laws are simple to understand. They are as


The first Newton' law of motion states that if an object has a constant velocity it is moving at a uniform speed. When the object is at rest,

its velocity is zero. For the velocity of the object to change, an outside force must come into the picture and change it. In other words, it

is impossible for objects to move without force being applied to them. The first law of motion is also referred to as the inertia law. For

instance, a soccer ball on the field will not move unless someone kicks it. If the soccer ball is at rest, it will continue to be at the same

state until an outside force intervenes. Moreover, if it is moving, it will do so in a straight line until an outside force interferes with it.

Newton's second law of motion provides us with a way of determining the degree of force needed to move an object. It gives the formula

necessary to calculate how much force is required to move an object. It also goes on to state that the speed at which an object moves

depends on the force applied to it. The less force used the slower will the object move. For instance,if a player kicks the soccer ball in

the first law with little force, the ball will not move a greater distance than when it is kicked with greater force. The force of a constant

mass or object is calculated by multiplying its acceleration with its mass.

Newton's third law simply states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. In other words, for every action, there is a

reaction. The term reaction and action is intended to mean forces. Newton' third law involves two objects. For instance, if you kick a

soccer ball with a certain degree of force onto a wall, according to the law, the ball will react by coming back to you. Another example is

taken from gravity. If the Earth's gravity is pulling you down, then you are also reacting by pulling the Earth up. Consider another

example such as when an insect hits a moving car. Although they both hit each other with equal force, the impact caused by the insect

is minimal.

These laws of motion have enabled scientist come up with explanations involving all types of motion. These motions involve the ones

normally seen here on Earth as well as those that happen in space; motions of stars, planets and other heavenly bodies. The motion on

Earth could be moving objects such as cars, animals and so on.

Where Does Water Come From?
Water is made up of two elements - hydrogen and oxygen. Each molecules contains 2 parts of hydrogen to 1 part oxygen.

Most of the Earth's water is held in the sea and the seas cover about 70% of the surface of the planet. The rest is in the polar ice caps,

rivers, lakes, reservoirs, clouds, sea ice, and locked underground in aquifers.
The water in the sea contains salt so is not drinkable, but the other sources mentioned are mainly fresh and it is this that humans need

to drink.

Water is constantly moving around in something that is called The Water Cycle. Basically, water that is exposed to the sun evaporates

and the vapour created eventually forms a cloud. When the cloud can hold no more liquid, it rains and the falls back down to Earth, only

to start the process all over again.

The balance of water on the planet remains fairly constant, but individual molecules move around, in and out of the atmosphere. Water

moves from one reservoir to another and goes through varying phases of solid, liquid and gas.

There are a few processes involved in the water cycle: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, subsurface runoff and

surface runoff.

The sun powers The Water Cycle with evaporation. Evaporation involves the water taking up energy from the surroundings and

subsequently cooling the environment. The liquid water turns into a gas and rises into the atmosphere.

When in the atmosphere, the particles collide and become bigger, forming clouds. This happens through the process of condensation

where the gas turns back into a liquid.

Precipitation is the scientific name for rain. It falls onto land, sea, and bodies of fresh water. It can also fall as snow or hail.

Water that falls on the land infiltrates soil and gets down to the groundwater supply, topping it up. The water flows under the surface and

find its way to the rivers and sea. The water moving underground is the subsurface runoff.

Other water that falls on the land runs off it into rivers and streams - this is the surface runoff.

It then enters the rivers and seas and will be subject to evaporation again.

There is another way that water can get into the atmosphere and that is through the transpiration of trees. Trees move groundwater

from their roots to the pores on their leaves where it evaporates - this process is called evapotranspiration. About 10% of the water in

the atmosphere gets there this way. It is then condensed into clouds and falls again because of precipitation.

Water comes from many places on Earth, but it is sure to have been to more places than you think because of The Water Cycle.

Next time you have a glass of water, think about the amazing journey it has taken to get there.

Is It Possible to Build a Space
First of all, what is a space elevator? Well, as the name suggests, it's an elevator-like structure that extends from the surface of the

Earth up into space. Oh, one thing I forgot to doesn't actually physically exist just yet. Clearly, it would be totally awesome to

be able to take a cute, little elevator ride straight up into the heavens, but...easier said than done. - At this point that is.

Even though the idea has been around since the late 1800s, there are still many obstacles that make its practical realization nearly

impossible. The first ideas started out as simple towers built so high so as to enter the geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). Once there, it

would orbit the Earth with an equal orbiting period, causing it to remain stationary relative to Earth.

The problem with this model is that it would be a compression structure, with the primary forces being compression. A tower can only go

so high before it will buckle under its own weight. There is simply no material known to man that is both strong and light enough to

withstand the compression forces the weight-force of a 35,000 kilometer-high tower (the approximate altitude of the geostationary orbit)

will exert along its height.

The other option, and the one that is currently considered "viable", is a model that utilizes tension as opposed to compression. The way

this would (theoretically) work is by launching repeated (thousands actually) space shuttles loaded with materials into the geostationary

orbit, from where they would begin lowering cable toward the Earth's surface. By gradually connecting additional segments, the cable

should eventually reach Earth, where it will be anchored.

So is it possible to build a space elevator? Well, I sure hope so...However, hope may not be enough at this point. The rest of the article

covers various physics-related aspects of a space elevator as well as the limitations scientists and engineers face in making it a reality.

Note that research on a space elevator is ongoing, and as such, certain aspects are subject to change as new technology emerges.

Physics of the Space Elevator

There are two primary forces at work concerning the statics of a space elevator - the force of gravity or centripetal force, and the Earth's

centrifugal force. The Earth exerts a gravitational force on an object, the strength of which varies depending on the object's altitude. The

further it is from the Earth's surface - or its core, depending on how you look at it - the weaker the force of gravity.

A centrifugal force is one that is directed away from the center of a given object, and is used in relation to spinning or rotating objects

and the phenomenon of things seemingly flying outward from a spinning object. A ride in a merry-go-round is an example of a

centrifugal force pulling you away from the axis of rotation.

But the fact of the matter - and here is where it gets a little tricky - is that this force only exists so long as the opposing centripetal force

exists. It's really no more than the "sensation" of being pulled outward from the center of the spinning mass.

In reality, if the centrifugal force overpowers the centripetal force, it will cause the object to fly tangent to the point on the orbital path

that it occurred - not outward from the center of the spinning mass. A yo-yo being spun like a sling-shot is a good example that

illustrates this principle. The yo-yo is kept in orbit by these 2 forces, the centripetal and centrifugal forces.

The string that keeps the yo-yo from flying away is continually pulling it toward the center of the spinning mass - your hand - as it spins.

This force that tries to pull it in is the centripetal force, and the opposing force that keeps the string taut, is the centrifugal force.

However, if you were to let the yo-yo go, releasing it into the air, in which direction would it fly? Yes, tangent to the orbital path!
If you were to take several photos in continuous shooting mode of the yo-yo "in action" within split-seconds of each other, you would no

doubt witness this phenomenon first-hand. If you want the yo-yo to fly up vertically upon release, you'd have to release it when the string

connecting the yo-yo to your hand forms a horizontal line, with the direction of angular motion being upward.

So, relating this to the space elevator, the force of gravity equals the centripetal force, the yo-yo string if you will. The centrifugal force

would counter the force of gravity, keeping the cable taut in tension, and is what would prevent the whole structure from crashing down

to Earth. In order for the centrifugal force to be strong enough however, the entire system's center of mass would have to be above the

geostationary orbit.

To achieve this feasibly, a large counterweight would have to be installed some 144,000 kilometers above Earth - almost half the

distance to the moon. This counterweight would be slowly extended into space to match the gravitational pull (centripetal force) of the

lowering cable to Earth as it is constructed. An alternative would be to simply extend the cable (instead of the counterweight) to the

needed distance to achieve equilibrium.

The Coriolis Effect and How it Will Affect a Space Elevator

Imagine you and a friend on opposite sides of a carousel tossing a ball back and forth to each other. As it spins, the rotation will cause

the ball being thrown to seemingly assume a slightly curved path. If the carousel spins clockwise viewed from above, the curve will be to

the left from the thrower's perspective, and to the right from the receiver's.

The Coriolis effect only manifests itself in a rotating reference frame, or non-inertial frame of reference. A non-inertial frame of reference

can be described as a point of observation where you, the observer, are experiencing continuous changes in velocity. A rotating object

is just such a situation, where even though the rate of rotation may be constant, the direction of movement is continually changing.

Let's say there was a tall tree that hung over the carousel in the above example, and you climbed up and observed 2 kids throwing the

ball back and forth while spinning. From your vantage point up in the tree, now an inertial frame of reference in relation to the carousel,

the ball will no longer seem to curve, but will fly straight. The difference lies simply in the observer's frame of reference.

Well, we all know that the Earth rotates as it orbits the Sun, right? So doesn't that mean we should see the Coriolis effect even if we're

not on a carousel? The answer is yes. However, because the Earth rotates at only 1 revolution per day, the effect is so small that it's not

detectable unless an object is in flight for a fairly long time.

But let's say we succeed in building a space elevator...will the Coriolis effect have to be taken into consideration? Yes, it will! As a

climber ascends up the cable vertically, it must accelerate not only in the vertical direction, but in the horizontal as well. Because the

Earth is spinning and the cable is spinning with it, the ascending climber must also achieve the equivalent angular velocity as it climbs.

The good news is that even though the Coriolis effect will cause the climber to pull the cable slightly backward as it ascends, the

centrifugal force will always bring it back to the vertical position due to it being the natural energy-favorable position. By the time a

climber gets to geostationary orbit, it will have reached an orbital velocity of roughly 3 kilometers per second.

Practical Limitations
The primary snag in the development of a space elevator is the lack of a material that is both strong and light enough to support the

enormous tensile load of the cable. Various calculations put the required tensile strength of the cable between 130 giga-pascals and

300 giga-pascals (Gpa). As a comparison, structural steel has a tensile strength of about 250 mega-pascals (Mpa) - about 1000 times

weaker than required.

The closest material to being a viable candidate is carbon nanotube. It has a measured tensile strength of 63 Gpa, but a theoretical

tensile strength of 300 Gpa. However, at this point, carbon nanotube can only be produced in very small quantities - in the tens of

centimeters. So to think of making a 100,000+ kilometer cable out of carbon nanotube is simply unrealistic at this point.

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