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									                                STUDY GUIDE – CHAPTER 12
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. A computer program is typically stored as a file and transferred into ____ when needed.
           a. REM                                           c. RUM
           b. ROM                                           d. RAM
____    2. A single programmer can, on average, write, test, and document only ____ lines of code per day.
           a. 10                                          c. 20
           b. 15                                          d. 25
____    3. Software engineers tend to focus on ____.
           a. engineering                                   c. designing
           b. developing                                    d. coding
____    4. Software engineering is a development process that uses ____ techniques to reduce cost and complexity.
           a. mathematical                               c. engineering
           b. management                                 d. all of the above
____    5. A ____ language uses command words and grammar based on human language.
           a. machine                                c. high-level
           b. modular programming                    d. low-level
____    6. A ____ language typically includes commands specific to a particular CPU or microprocessor family.
           a. low-level                                 c. third-generation
           b. high-level                                d. modular programming
____    7. The first computers were programmed using ____.
           a. circuits                                 c. low-level languages
           b. high-level languages                     d. assembler language
____    8. Assembly languages are considered ____-generation languages.
           a. first                                    c. third
           b. second                                   d. fourth
____    9. When high-level languages were originally conceived in the 1950s, they were dubbed ____-generation
           a. first                                      c. third
           b. second                                     d. fourth
____ 10. Languages which most closely resemble human languages are ____-generation languages.
         a. second                                  c. fourth
         b. third                                   d. fifth
____ 11. A computer programming language based on a declarative programming paradigm is a ____-generation
         a. second                                  c. fourth
         b. third                                   d. fifth
____ 12. Software specially designed for entering code for computer programs is a ____.
         a. code editor                                  c. program editor
         b. VDE                                          d. text editor
____ 13. A ____ provides programmers with tools to build substantial sections of a program by pointing and clicking.
         a. VDE                                        c. program editor
         b. code editor                                d. text editor
____ 14. When using a VDE, a ____ is a screen-based object whose behavior can be defined by the programmer.
         a. form                                      c. grid
         b. property                                  d. control
____ 15. Within the context of programming, a(n) ____ is defined as an action.
         a. event                                      c. class
         b. control                                    d. form
____ 16. A ____ error occurs when an instruction does not follow the grammar of the programming language.
         a. run-time                                   c. logic
         b. syntax                                     d. grammar
____ 17. A ____ error occurs when a program fails to perform as intended due to an error in the design of the program.
         a. syntax                                      c. run-time
         b. programming                                 d. logic
____ 18. Some ____ errors result from instructions the computer cannot execute.
         a. run-time                                     c. programming
         b. logic                                        d. syntax
____ 19. A collection of language-specific programming tools that enables a programmer to develop applications for a
         specific computer platform is a(n) ____.
         a. API                                        c. SDK
         b. LPT                                        d. IDK
____ 20. In gaming programming, explosions, flares, and fairy dust are accomplished by a(n) ____.
         a. particle renderer                          c. animation renderer
         b. pathfinder renderer                        d. special effects renderer
____ 21. The traditional approach to programming uses a(n) ____ paradigm.
         a. multi-paradigm                             c. object-oriented
         b. programming                                d. procedural
____ 22. ____ is a subset of the English language with a limited selection of sentence structures that reflect processing
         a. Pseudocode                                    c. Structured English
         b. Sub English                                   d. Sub code
____ 23. During ____ execution, the first instruction in the program is executed first, followed by the second.
         a. straight-line                                  c. control
         b. sequential                                     d. functional
____ 24. A ____ control structure changes the order in which instructions are carried out by directing the computer to
         execute an instruction elsewhere in the program.
         a. sequence                                    c. repetition
         b. selection                                   d. directing
____ 25. A ____ control structure tells a computer what to do based on whether a condition is true or false.
         a. sequence                                     c. selection
         b. repetition                                   d. directing
____ 26. The first widely used, standardized procedural computer language was ____.
         a. FORTRAN                                      c. C
         b. C++                                          d. BASIC
____ 27. A(n) ____ paradigm is based on the idea that the solution for a program can be visualized in terms of objects
         that interact with each other.
         a. declarative                                 c. procedural
         b. objective                                   d. object-oriented
____ 28. A(n) ____ is a unit of data that represents an abstraction or a real-world entity such as person, place or thing.
         a. object                                         c. class
         b. attribute                                      d. variable
____ 29. ____ attributes define the characteristics of a set of objects.
         a. Class                                           c. Private
         b. Object                                          d. Public
____ 30. A(n) ____ attribute is available for use by any routine in the program.
         a. class                                         c. public
         b. object                                        d. private
____ 31. A(n) ____ attribute is available only to the routine in which it is defined.
         a. object                                         c. class
         b. private                                        d. public
____ 32. ____ refers to passing certain characteristics from one class to another class.
         a. Objectification                                c. Encapsulation
         b. Inheritance                                    d. Extensibility
____ 33. A method is activated by a message which is included as a line of program code also referred to as a(n) ____.
         a. include                                     c. get
         b. call                                        d. fetch
____ 34. The ability to redefine a method is called ____.
         a. encapsulation                                 c. polymorphism
         b. instantiation                                 d. inheritance
____ 35. The advantages of polymorphism include ____.
         a. simplifying program code
         b. easy extensibility
         c. the ability to dispense with procedural languages
         d. both a and b
____ 36. The computer begins executing a Java program by locating a standard method called ____.
         a. begin()                                   c. start()
         b. main()                                    d. initiate()
____ 37. The first computer language to work with objects, classes, inheritance and methods was ____.
         a. Smalltalk                                   c. C++
         b. Java                                        d. SIMULA
____ 38. Object-oriented languages that are popular today include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
         a. Ada                                         c. C++
         b. C#                                          d. Pascal
____ 39. ____ refers to the process of hiding the internal details of objects and their methods.
         a. Polymorphism                                   c. Encapsulation
         b. Inheritance                                    d. None of the above
____ 40. The ____ paradigm emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, rather than the execution of commands.
         a. object-oriented                           c. functional
         b. declarative                               d. procedural
____ 41. The ____ paradigm attempts to describe a problem without specifying exactly how to arrive at a solution.
         a. object-oriented                            c. declarative
         b. procedural                                 d. functional
____ 42. In programming languages such as Prolog, finding a value for a variable is referred to as ___.
         a. querying                                   c. instantiation
         b. goal finding                               d. assignment
____ 43. A(n) ____ table is a tabular method for visualizing and specifying rules based on multiple factors.
         a. assumptions                                   c. decision
         b. truth                                         d. rules
____ 44. The kinds of problems best suited to the declarative approach involve ____.
         a. words                                        c. routines
         b. complex calculations                         d. simple calculations
____ 45. One of the first exploits to take advantage of buffer overflows was the ____.
         a. Phillip worm                                  c. Morris worm
         b. Michelangelo virus                            d. love virus
____ 46. The language that offers little protection from buffer overflows is ____.
         a. C++                                           c. Java
         b. C#                                            d. D
____ 47. In addition to buffer overflows, hackers can use ____ to find vulnerabilities.
         a. variable typing                              c. code reuse
         b. verbose error messages                       d. all of the above
____ 48. ____ help(s) programmers apply rigorous logical and mathematical models to software design.
         a. Formal methods                             c. Secure programming
         b. Threat modeling                            d. all of the above
____ 49. In the threat model, STRIDE, the S stands for ____ or pretending to be someone else.
         a. Spoofing                                    c. Sabotage
         b. Simulating                                  d. none of the above
____ 50. In the threat model, STRIDE, the T stands for ____ or changing, adding, or deleting data.
         a. tampering                                   c. trading
         b. transforming                                d. none of the above
____ 51. In the threat model, STRIDE, the R stands for ____ or covering tracks to make attacks difficult to trace.
         a. reputation                                  c. reimage
         b. repudiation                                 d. retracing
____ 52. In the threat model, STRIDE, the I stands for ____ or gaining unauthorized access.
         a. information disclosure                       c. information detection
         b. information discovery                        d. intrusion
____ 53. In the threat model, STRIDE, the D stands for ____ or making a system unavailable to legitimate users.
         a. denial of service                           c. denial
         b. detection                                   d. deauthorization
____ 54. In the threat model, STRIDE, the E stands for ____ or modifying user rights to gain access to data.
         a. elevation of rights                         c. elevation of access
         b. elevation of service                        d. elevation of privilege
____ 55. Microsoft’s ____ technology uses Internet Explorer as the verification client.
         a. code wrapping                              c. DigiSign
         b. VeriSign                                   d. Authenticode
____ 56. Patches can be supplied as complete files or as ____ code segments.
         a. partial-line                                  c. in-line
         b. entire                                        d. partial
____ 57. Among the steps you can take to avoid security problems is ____.
         a. use freeware
         b. be selective of the patches you choose to apply
         c. keep your firewall deployed
         d. all of the above
____ 58. STRIDE and DREAD are _____________________.
         a. visual development environments       c. debugging tools
         b. object-oriented programming languages d. threat modeling tools
____ 59. ______________ is a procedural language that was modified to incorporate object-oriented features and is
         now popular for U.S. government programming projects.
         a. Ada                                       c. Fortran
         b. COBOL                                     d. Prolog
____ 60. Suppose you're reading through a Java program and you see getArea(). What is it?
         a. a predicate                                c. a method
         b. a numeric variable                         d. a text variable
____ 61. Suppose you're creating a program for the Windows platform. You want your program to display standard
         menus and dialog boxes for printing. You can access these functions using ____________________.
         a. an agile methodology                       c. Windows APIs
         b. a debugger                                 d. none of the above
____ 62. When computer programmers see IDE, SDK, and API, they think of ________.
         a. declarative languages                  c. variables
         b. assembly language commands             d. programming tools
____ 63. During what part of the programming process would programmers use predictive or agile methodologies?
         a. Planning, executing, and testing          c. Scheduling and editing
         b. Encapsulating and patching                d. None of the above
____ 64. Commands such as PRINT and INPUT can be expected in______________.
         a. Pascal                                c. third-generation languages
         b. high-level languages                  d. all of the above
____ 65. If a programmer is writing a program with commands, such as LDA, STA, and ADD, the program is most
         likely ____________________.
         a. written in a low-level language           c. loaded into a debugger
         b. Prolog                                    d. being written in a VDE
____ 66. You can use pico to write a short batch program for your Mac computer; then you can run the program from
         the _________________.
         a. Command Prompt window                       c. iWeb prompt
         b. browser                                     d. Terminal
____ 67. You can use _________________ to write a short batch program for your Windows computer; then you can
         run the program from the Command Prompt.
         a. Bat                                      c. Notepad
         b. All Programs                             d. Structured English
____ 68. End users can write short programs that execute from the _______________ on a Windows computer or from
         the Terminal on a Mac.
         a. editor                                      c. flowchart
         b. Command Prompt                              d. Bash
____ 69. In a Pascal program to convert feet and inches into centimeters, a programmer might set up
         _______________ to hold the values for feet and inches that are to be converted.
         a. arguments                                    c. predicates
         b. variables                                    d. buffers
____ 70. The instructions that make up a program are sometimes referred to as __________.
         a. Pascal                                      c. code
         b. bugs                                        d. binary objects
____ 71. A software engineer is responsible for __________.
         a. software design                            c. programming
         b. testing                                    d. all of the above
____ 72. On average, how many lines of code can one person write, test, and document in one day?
         a. 20                                        c. 100
         b. 2000                                      d. 5
____ 73. A(n) _________ translates each line of program code into machine language.
         a. interpreter                                c. compiler
         b. syntax                                     d. A and C
____ 74. Which of the following language categories use easy-to-remember command words, such as PRINT and
         a. Third-generation                            c. Second-generation
         b. First-generation                            d. All of the above
____ 75. Which of the following is not a third-generation language?
         a. COBOL                                        c. SQL
         b. Pascal                                       d. C
____ 76. _________ is a high-level C++ derivative developed by Sun Microsystems and used extensively for Web-
         based programming.
         a. Smalltalk                                  c. Visual Basic
         b. Java                                       d. C#
____ 77. Which of the following terms refer to the way a computer programmer conceptualizes and structures the tasks
         that a computer performs?
         a. Algorithm development                        c. Logical architecture
         b. Object-oriented design                       d. A programming paradigm
____ 78. Which of the following is NOT a programming paradigm?
         a. Procedural                               c. Object-oriented
         b. Prolog                                   d. Event-driven
____ 79. In a problem statement, which of the following terms refers to the information that you supply to the
         computer to help it solve a problem?
         a. An algorithm                                 c. A paradigm
         b. An assumption                                d. Known information
____ 80. Which of the following provides tools to create programs by pointing and clicking?
         a. GUI                                          c. Program editor
         b. Control editor                               d. VDE
____ 81. Which of the following types of program errors is the easiest to correct?
         a. Global error                                c. Logic error
         b. Syntax error                                d. Runtime error
____ 82. Using the wrong formula to calculate the area of a cube is an example of which type of program error?
         a. Mathematical                                 c. Logic
         b. Syntax                                       d. Runtime
____ 83. A(n) ___________ is a set of application program or operating system functions that programmers can access
         from within the programs they create.
         a. DRM                                         c. API
         b. IDE                                         d. SDK
____ 84. A program written in a(n) __________ language typically consists of self-contained instructions in a sequence
         that indicates how a task is to be performed or a problem is to be solved.
         a. functional                                    c. procedural
         b. event-driven                                  d. object-oriented
____ 85. Which of the following is NOT a way to express an algorithm?
         a. Flowchart                                 c. Structured English
         b. Pseudocode                                d. Assumptions
____ 86. Which of the following are program instructions that specify the sequence in which a program is executed?
         a. Walkthroughs                                c. Syntax statements
         b. Control structures                          d. Algorithms

____ 87. Most programming languages include control structures known as __________ controls.
         a. selection                                 c. sequence
         b. repetition                                d. all of the above
____ 88. Which of the following is NOT an example of a repetition command?
         a. FOR...NEXT                                c. IF...THEN
         b. WHILE...WEND                              d. DO...UNTIL
____ 89. Which of the following is an example of a popular procedural programming language?
         a. C                                          c. FORTRAN
         b. BASIC                                      d. All of the above
____ 90. The OO paradigm defines a(n) __________ as a unit of data that represents an abstract or real-world entity.
         a. class                                    c. object
         b. method                                   d. attribute
____ 91. Which type of diagrams are often used to plan the OO classes for a program?
         a. HTML                                        c. Flowchart
         b. UML                                         d. XML
____ 92. __________ allows programmers to create a single, generic name for a procedure that behaves in unique ways
         for different classes.
         a. Inheritance                               c. Iterative
         b. Polymorphism                              d. Paradigm
____ 93. Which of the following items is NOT a typical feature of an object-oriented language?
         a. Polymorphism                                c. Inheritance
         b. Relationships                               d. Classes
____ 94. The process of hiding internal details of objects and their methods is called __________.
         a. encapsulation                                  c. polymorphism
         b. object oriented                                d. inheritance
____ 95. Which of the following programming paradigms attempts to describe a problem without specifying exactly
         how to arrive at a solution?
         a. Declarative                             c. Procedural
         b. Functional                              d. Object-oriented
____ 96. A Prolog statement defining a fact includes __________.
         a. a predicate                                 c. both A and B
         b. arguments                                   d. a decision table
____ 97. In Prolog, the process for finding a value for a variable is called __________.
         a. instantiation                                  c. inheritance
         b. goalfinding                                    d. polymorphism
____ 98. A Prolog rule consists of a(n) __________.
         a. head                                           c. connecting symbol
         b. body                                           d. all of the above
____ 99. The _________________ programming language provides very little protection against buffer overflows.
         a. C                                     c. C++
         b. Java                                  d. A and C
____ 100. In threat modeling, categories such as ___________ are used.
          a. DREAD                                       c. BOMB
          b. STRIDE                                      d. A and B

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