Document Sample
					CHAPTER 09:
 Internet: Introduction and History
 Internet Protocol
 Intranet
 Uses for Multimedia on the Internet

                    Last updated: 5/07/06
Internet: Introduction and History
   The Internet has revolutionized the             computer     and
    communications world like nothing before.

   The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer
    set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities.

   The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a
    mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for
    collaboration and interaction between individuals and their
    computers without regard for geographic location.

   The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of
    the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to
    research and development of information infrastructure.
Internet: Introduction and History
   The Internet began as a research network funded by the
    Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S Defense
    Department, when the first node of the ARPANET was installed
    at the University of California at Los Angeles in September

   By mid-1970s, the ARPANET “internetwork” embraced more
    than 30 universities, military sites, and government contractors,
    and its user base expanded to include the larger computer
    science research community.

   By 1983, the network still consisted of but several hundred
    computers on only a few local area networks.
Internet: Introduction and History
   In 1985, The National Science Foundation (NSF) arranged with
    ARPA to support a collaboration of supercomputing centers and
    computer science researchers across the ARPANET.

   The NSF also funded a program for improving the backbone of
    the ARPANET, increasing its bandwidth from 56 Kbps to T-1
    and then T-3, and branching out with links to international sites
    in Europe and the Far East.

   In 1989, responsibility and management for the ARPANET was
    officially passed from military interests to academically oriented
    NSF, and research organizations and universities became
    increasingly heavy users of this ever-growing “Internet”.

   Much of the Internet’s etiquette and rules of behavior (such as
    sending email and posting to newsgroup) was established
    during this time.
Internet: Introduction and History
   By the mid-1990s, the Internet included connections to more
    than 60 countries and more than 2 million host computers with
    more than 15 million users worldwide.

   Commercial and business use of the Internet was not permitted
    until 1992, but businesses have since become its driving force.

   By 2001, there were 407.1 million users of the Internet,
    representing 6.71% of the world’s population.

   In 2003, there were more than 550 billion documents online, and
    about 7.3 million documents and web pages were being added
    every day.
Internet: Introduction and History
How Internets Work
   Internets are formed by connecting local networks through
    special computers in each network known as gateways.

   Gateway interconnections are made through various
    communication paths, including telephone lines, optical fibers,
    and radio links.

   Additional networks can be added by linking to new gateways.
    Information to be delivered to a remote machine is tagged with
    the computerized address of that particular machine.

   Different types of addressing formats are used by the various
    services provided by internets (see Internet address).
Internet: Introduction and History
   One format is known as dotted decimal, for example:

   Another format describes the name of the destination computer
    and      other     routing      information,      such     as

   The suffix at the end of the internet address designates the type
    of organization that owns the particular computer network, for
    example, educational institutions (.edu), military locations
    (.mil), government offices (.gov), and non-profit organizations

   Networks outside the United States use suffixes that indicate the
    country, for example (.ca) for Canada.

   Once addressed, the information leaves its home network
    through a gateway.
Internet: Introduction and History
   It is routed from gateway to gateway until it reaches the local
    network containing the destination machine.

   Internets have no central control, that is, no single computer
    directs the flow of information.

   This differentiates internets from other types of online computer
    services, such as CompuServe, America Online, and the
    Microsoft Network.
Internet: Introduction and History
Internet Services
   File transfer between computer (File Transfer Protocol – FTP)
   Email – Electronic mail
   Telnet – login to computer in different system
   Usenet
   Chat/Real time messaging
   WWW
Internet Protocol
   The Internet Protocol is the basic software used to control an

   This protocol specifies how gateway machines route
    information from the sending computer to the recipient

   Another protocol, Transmission Control Protocol, checks
    whether the information has arrived at the destination computer
    and, if not, causes the information to be resent.

   Even though computer interaction is in its infancy, it has
    dramatically changed our world, bridging the barriers of time
    and distance, allowing people to share information and work

   Evolution toward the Information Superhighway will continue
    at an accelerating rate.
Internet Protocol
   Available content will grow rapidly, making it easier to find any
    information on the Internet.

   New applications will provide secure business transactions and
    new opportunities for commerce.

   New technologies will increase the speed of information
    transfer, allowing direct transfer of entertainment-on-demand.

   Broadcast television may be replaced by unicast, in which each
    home receives a signal especially tailored for what its residents
    want to see when they want to see it.
   A network system similar to the Internet but accessible only
    within an organization or company.

   A private Internet established by & belonging to an

   Organization usually keeps their Intranets separate for security
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
Importance of the Internet for Multimedia
1. A capable delivery system
 With the capabilities of web browser software applications,
   users have the built-in capability.

   To play Internet-delivered media files.

   They can view video, play sound effects, view animation easier
    & faster than ever before.

   With faster, cheaper modems & Internet connections, increasing
    bandwidth & the Internet's enhanced capacity, the Internet has
    quickly become an ideal distribution vehicle for MM

   Internet as a vast storage device that enables anyone connected
    to it to search for and download any info or application that he
    or she finds.
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
2. Platform independence
 When publishing over the Internet, developers no longer must
   focus on cross-platform compatibility.

   Internet browsers provide the front-end interface to enable the
    user to download, translate & present Hyper Text Markup
    Language (HTML) documents media files and applets, the user
    only needs a suitable browser to view the web pages.

   Because the main browser manufacturers have already
    provided their products on these diverse systems & because the
    various browsers all have the same fundamental capabilities to
    access web cities, you can assured that users can view your site
    on a PC as well as on a Macintosh, SG1, Sun or other system.

   The Internet brings us as close to achieving platform
    independent applications as we could ever hope for.
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
1. Advertising & Catalogs
 A common application of MM over the Internet is to advertise &
   promote products and services.

   Many corporations have discovered that by providing
    information on their products on the Internet, they can access
    another global market & enhance the effectiveness of their
    advertising budget for little extra investment.
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
2. Product Showcases & Demonstrations.
 The technology of MM is also being used to provide “virtual
   test drives” of products from software to automobiles.

   The experience will likely encourage the consumer to consider
    the product more favorably when it comes time to decide on a

3. Commerce
 Internet provides easy & quick capability to transact business
   securely & efficiently companies are investing heavily in
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
4. E-zines
 Electronic form of a conventional magazine (online version).

   Offering many features & services not available from the
    newsstand copy.

   Searching through article archives, listening to actual
    interviews, viewing descriptive animations and interacting with
    the publication are among the capabilities of electronic format.

   The Internet versions of these magazines offer publishers the
    capability to expand their publication's readership & their
    advertising revenues.
Uses for Multimedia on the Internet
5. Communication
 Internet phones.

   Transmit & receive sound data between connected parties over
    the Internet, allowing long-distance calls to be placed to
    anywhere in the world.

   Video conferencing over the Internet provides low-cost, easily
    implemented (and cross platform) visual communication
    through out the world to connect the meeting attendees.
Issues To Consider When Developing
Multimedia For The Web
   How many users will have the appropriate browser to view this
    multimedia (will their browser support features, media
    component & applet) ?

   Will users have to download a plug-in or helper application to
    view this MM?

   If so, is this a plug-in or application that is often used on the
    web and can you direct the user to a download site?

   What is the connection and system speed of many of the users?

   How will these speeds affect any animation? Video? Applets?
Issues To Consider When Developing
Multimedia For The Web
   Size and Performance?
      Size
          Size refers to 2 things:
           1.     The file size on disk - the number of bytes.
           2.     Images & sound resolution – quality.

        Performance
           Performance refers to 2 issues :-
            1.    Speed - how quickly the user's computer can
                  load, display or play.
            2.    Quality - the amount of detail in the image ,
                  or the clarity of the sound.

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