POWERPOINT CHAPTER 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE INTRODUCTION by 6w2954

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									 PHYSICAL SCIENCE

     CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE
         1.1 THE NATURE OF
               SCIENCE
Is science:
    a set of FACTS?

        OR

an ongoing PROCESS?
               BRANCHES OF SCIENCE


LIFE SCIENCE    PHYSICAL SCIENCE     EARTH SCIENCE
              ?
?   How do pure science and
    technology depend on
    each other?
A ________ is a tested (when possible)
   THEORY
explanation (how or why) of a natural
event.
The KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY
states that molecules are in constant motion.
Use this theory to explain why the balloon
takes the shape it does.
                                    Use the KINETIC theory to explain
                                    why the handle of a camp fork gets hot.
   LAW
A _____ states a summary of a
repeated observation about a natural
event in God’s creation.
A MODEL is a _______ of an object
or event.
 MODELS MAY BE:
   drawings
   mental pictures
   a set of rules
   physical objects
   computer pictures
 Identify some models in our classroom….
 Identify some things in the classroom that are
   NOT models…
THE WAY SCIENCE WORKS
          1.2
         It is a way of THINKING
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a way to
organize your thinking.
After making observations…
1. Question
2. Collect Data
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment – only one
   variable!!! All other
   conditions controlled!!!
5. Conclusion         Using the Scientific Method to improve
                      your social life.
    It is using scientific TOOLS.




Name some tools found in our classroom…
  It is using the METRIC system of
             measurement.
                    UNIT                   TOOL

LENGTH

MASS

VOLUME

TEMPERATURE

  CLICK FOR A MEASUREMENT PRESENTATION
  http://pc65.frontier.osrhe.edu/hs/science/ppt/ps02.ppt
SI - International System of Units
1. Based on multiples of 10
2. Common metric prefixes:
  a.   mega- (M)    1 000 000 x
  b.   kilo- (k)        1 000 x
  c.   hecto- (h)         100 x
  d.   deka- (da)           10 x
  e.   deci- (d)    0.1 x   (1/10)
  f.   centi- (c)   0.01 x (1/100)
  g.   milli- (m)   0.001 x (1/1000)
  h.   micro- (u)   0.000 000 001 x
Jason goes metric…
1.3 ORGANIZING DATA
              LINE GRAPHS
• MOST OFTEN USED IN SCIENCE
• DISPLAY DATA THAT IS CHANGING
• TWO VARIABLES
 – _________________ “I choose this variable!”
 – _________________ “this depends on what happens”

   How to Construct a Line Graph


   Making Science Graphs and Interpreting Data
           BAR GRAPHS
• TO COMPARE DATA FOR INDIVIDUAL
  ITEMS
            PIE CHARTS
• TO DISPLAY DATA THAT ARE PARTS OF
  A WHOLE
       Accuracy or Precision?
• Accuracy vs. Precision
   – Accuracy – a statement of how close a
     measured value is to the true or accepted value.
   – Precision – a statement of how reproducible the
     measured results are.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
ACCURACY        PRECISION
1.              1.
2.              2.
3.              3.
4.              4.




  WHICH WOULD YOU PREFER?
          Scientific Notation
• What- a value written as a simple number
  multiplied by a power of 10.
  – The sun is 93 X 106 miles from earth.
• Why? – Very large or very small numbers
  are written this way as a form of number
  “shorthand”.
           Scientific Notation
What Is the Standard Form of These Tens?

                 2        100
              10
                 3       1,000
              10
                 4
              10        10,000
                 5
              10        100,000
           Exponents of Ten
Notice that the number of zeros matches
 the exponent number…

                  2       100
               10
                  3      1,000
               10
                  4
               10       10,000
                  5
               10       100,000
What is the Exponent Form?



                             2
  500 = 5 x 10
 Scientific Notation and Accuracy
        or is it Precision???




Why did mom use scientific notation?
Is the word “accuracy” used properly here?
           Significant Figures
• Significant Figures
   – The value reported for a measurement is
     rounded off so that it contains only the digits
     known with certainty plus one uncertain one
     which is the last digit.
• Significant Figure Rules
   – To determine the number of significant figures
     in a reported value, start at the left and count all
     digits beginning with the first non-zero digit.
        Examples: 0.003040 => 4 sig. fig.
                     10,200 => 5 sig. fig.
          Significant Figures
• Significant Figures in Calculations
   – Addition & Subtraction: The number of
     decimal places in the answer should be equal to
     the number of decimal places in the value with
     the fewest decimal places.
       Example:       12.0035 g   (4 decimal places)
                       3.72 g     (2 decimal places)
                       0.015 g    (3 decimal places)

                      15.74 g     (2 decimal places)
              Significant Figures
• Significant Figures in Calculations
    – Multiplication & Division: The number of
      significant figures in the answer should be the
      same as the value with the fewest significant
      Example:
      figures.
        12.36 mL       x    1.7 g   =   21 g
4 sig. fig.   2 sig. fig.
                             mL                2 sig. fig.



     – Note: Definitions and counted numbers have an
       unlimited number of significant figures.
  And now to prepare for the test…
• Know the branches of science.
• Understand how pure and applied science differ.
• Know how laws, theories, and models are alike
  and how they are different.
• Understand metric measurement: mass length,
  and volume.
• Types of graphs and variables.
• Accuracy, precision, significant figures,
  scientific notation.

								
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