# POWERPOINT CHAPTER 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE INTRODUCTION by 6w2954

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```									 PHYSICAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE
1.1 THE NATURE OF
SCIENCE
Is science:
a set of FACTS?

OR

an ongoing PROCESS?
BRANCHES OF SCIENCE

LIFE SCIENCE    PHYSICAL SCIENCE     EARTH SCIENCE
?
?   How do pure science and
technology depend on
each other?
A ________ is a tested (when possible)
THEORY
explanation (how or why) of a natural
event.
The KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY
states that molecules are in constant motion.
Use this theory to explain why the balloon
takes the shape it does.
Use the KINETIC theory to explain
why the handle of a camp fork gets hot.
LAW
A _____ states a summary of a
repeated observation about a natural
event in God’s creation.
A MODEL is a _______ of an object
or event.
MODELS MAY BE:
drawings
mental pictures
a set of rules
physical objects
computer pictures
Identify some models in our classroom….
Identify some things in the classroom that are
NOT models…
THE WAY SCIENCE WORKS
1.2
It is a way of THINKING
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD is a way to
organize your thinking.
After making observations…
1. Question
2. Collect Data
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment – only one
variable!!! All other
conditions controlled!!!
5. Conclusion         Using the Scientific Method to improve
your social life.
It is using scientific TOOLS.

Name some tools found in our classroom…
It is using the METRIC system of
measurement.
UNIT                   TOOL

LENGTH

MASS

VOLUME

TEMPERATURE

CLICK FOR A MEASUREMENT PRESENTATION
http://pc65.frontier.osrhe.edu/hs/science/ppt/ps02.ppt
SI - International System of Units
1. Based on multiples of 10
2. Common metric prefixes:
a.   mega- (M)    1 000 000 x
b.   kilo- (k)        1 000 x
c.   hecto- (h)         100 x
d.   deka- (da)           10 x
e.   deci- (d)    0.1 x   (1/10)
f.   centi- (c)   0.01 x (1/100)
g.   milli- (m)   0.001 x (1/1000)
h.   micro- (u)   0.000 000 001 x
Jason goes metric…
1.3 ORGANIZING DATA
LINE GRAPHS
• MOST OFTEN USED IN SCIENCE
• DISPLAY DATA THAT IS CHANGING
• TWO VARIABLES
– _________________ “I choose this variable!”
– _________________ “this depends on what happens”

How to Construct a Line Graph

Making Science Graphs and Interpreting Data
BAR GRAPHS
• TO COMPARE DATA FOR INDIVIDUAL
ITEMS
PIE CHARTS
• TO DISPLAY DATA THAT ARE PARTS OF
A WHOLE
Accuracy or Precision?
• Accuracy vs. Precision
– Accuracy – a statement of how close a
measured value is to the true or accepted value.
– Precision – a statement of how reproducible the
measured results are.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
ACCURACY        PRECISION
1.              1.
2.              2.
3.              3.
4.              4.

WHICH WOULD YOU PREFER?
Scientific Notation
• What- a value written as a simple number
multiplied by a power of 10.
– The sun is 93 X 106 miles from earth.
• Why? – Very large or very small numbers
are written this way as a form of number
“shorthand”.
Scientific Notation
What Is the Standard Form of These Tens?

2        100
10
3       1,000
10
4
10        10,000
5
10        100,000
Exponents of Ten
Notice that the number of zeros matches
the exponent number…

2       100
10
3      1,000
10
4
10       10,000
5
10       100,000
What is the Exponent Form?

2
500 = 5 x 10
Scientific Notation and Accuracy
or is it Precision???

Why did mom use scientific notation?
Is the word “accuracy” used properly here?
Significant Figures
• Significant Figures
– The value reported for a measurement is
rounded off so that it contains only the digits
known with certainty plus one uncertain one
which is the last digit.
• Significant Figure Rules
– To determine the number of significant figures
in a reported value, start at the left and count all
digits beginning with the first non-zero digit.
Examples: 0.003040 => 4 sig. fig.
10,200 => 5 sig. fig.
Significant Figures
• Significant Figures in Calculations
– Addition & Subtraction: The number of
decimal places in the answer should be equal to
the number of decimal places in the value with
the fewest decimal places.
Example:       12.0035 g   (4 decimal places)
3.72 g     (2 decimal places)
0.015 g    (3 decimal places)

15.74 g     (2 decimal places)
Significant Figures
• Significant Figures in Calculations
– Multiplication & Division: The number of
significant figures in the answer should be the
same as the value with the fewest significant
Example:
figures.
12.36 mL       x    1.7 g   =   21 g
4 sig. fig.   2 sig. fig.
mL                2 sig. fig.

– Note: Definitions and counted numbers have an
unlimited number of significant figures.
And now to prepare for the test…
• Know the branches of science.
• Understand how pure and applied science differ.
• Know how laws, theories, and models are alike
and how they are different.
• Understand metric measurement: mass length,
and volume.
• Types of graphs and variables.
• Accuracy, precision, significant figures,
scientific notation.

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