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									Safeguarding Training

  Angela Chapman
 Area Children’s Officer
   (Child Protection)
  Mid Kent Education
 When we have to deal with abuse we
may feel a mixture of some or all of the
               following.
• Denial - because recognition might be
  costly
• Guilt - that we should have acted sooner
• Fear – that we won’t know what to do
• Anger – that people can do such things to
  children
• Pain – at the recognition of abuse in our
  own lives
• Jealousy – if we have to let another
  professional take over.
                                             Child deaths
                                             from abuse or
    Specialist                               neglect 50 – 100
S                                            per year

E                                              Children who
                                               are subject to a
R                     Looked After             CP plan
    Targeted            Children               29,000
V                        73,300

                     Children in Need
I                     300-400,000


C                   Vulnerable Children
                         3-4 million
E
    Universal
                 All Children – 11 million
S
        Professional awareness and responsibility
OBLIVION                           REALITY          Abuse is
                                   Enough           very
    What?                                                              OBSESSION
                                   awareness to :   common in
Child abuse?-                                       some types         everyone
                                   1 Recognise      of family          abuses children
                Abuse
 “there’s no                       abusive
                doesn’t
 such thing”    happen             situations
                amongst
                the people         2 Help
                I know             children
                        Too        who are                Any single
                        much       abused                 person
                        is made                           who works
NB: This                of                                with
                                   3 Protect              children
attitude can            abuse -
                                   children               is an
be abusive in           it isn’t
                        really                            abuser       NB: this
itself                             4 Prevent
                        very                                           attitude can be
                        common     abusive
                                                                       abusive in itself
                                   situations
                       Both extremes can be abusive
         Group exercise
Consider the following:

• What do all children need from adults
  (both parents/carers and others?)
• What are parents responsibilities?
• What makes parenting more difficult?
• How might a child with “difficulties”
  present in your school?
 CHILDREN ACT 2004
EVERY CHILD MATTERS
S   be safe
H   be healthy
E   enjoy and achieve
E   achieve economic well-being
P   make a positive contribution
        Being Safe from
• maltreatment, neglect, sexual
  exploitation
• accidental injury/death
• bullying/discrimination
• crime and anti-social behaviour both
  in and out of school
  “having security, stability and being
  cared for”
Victoria Climbie
     Working Together 2006
• Safeguarding and Promoting Welfare
  is
• protection from maltreatment
• preventing impairment of health or
  development
• ensuring children are growing up in
  circumstances consistent with the provision of
  safe and effective care
• and undertaking that role so as to enable
  those children to have optimum life chances
  and to enter adulthood successfully
     Working Together 2006
• Child Protection is
• a part of safeguarding and promoting welfare.
• The activity undertaken to protect specific
  children who are suffering or at risk of
  suffering significant harm
• Effective Child Protection is part of wider work
  to safeguard and promote welfare
• All agencies should aim to proactively
  safeguard and promote welfare so that the
  need to take action to protect children from
  harm is reduced.
   Kent Figures 2005-2006
• 14,717 referrals to Social services
• 2383 referrals lead to Strategy
  Discussions
• 16% of referrals from Education
  Professionals
• 724 Children on the CP register of these:
  385 Neglect, 143 Physical, 115
  Emotional, 81 Sexual
    Causes of children’s vulnerability

•   Abuse or neglect
•   Disability
•   Parental illness / disability
•   Acute family stress
•   Family dysfunction
•   Socially unacceptable behaviour
•   Low income
Child Maltreatment in the UK
 In a full double decker bus at the end
 of a school day

• at least seven children are likely to
  be going home to families which they
  do not see as loving or close
• as many as ten may be “caring” for
  parents who are incapacitated by
  their own health or social problems
• two or three will be going home in
  fear of the frequent violence
  between their parents

• two or three will be returning to a
  life of regular beatings or denigration

source: nspcc “Child Maltreatment in the UK
    In a primary school of 250
           pupils…………..
    ...approximately 20 children will have
    a significant mental health disorder:
•   7 will have an anxiety disorder e.g.
    phobias
•   1 will be seriously depressed
•   12 will have a conduct disorder
•   4 will have hyperkinetic disorder or
    severe ADHD
    In a secondary school of
      1000 children………….
    approximately 112 pupils will have a
    significant mental disorder:
•   46 will have an anxiety disorder (15
    of these will be affected by phobias)
•   18 will be seriously depressed
•   62 will have a conduct disorder
•   14 will have hyperkinetic disorder or
    ADHD
       Domestic Violence
• claims 150 lives a year
• accounts for 25% of all violent crime
• has more repeat victims than any
  other crime: 35 assaults will occur
  before the victim calls the Police
• there are children under the age of
  16 years in half the households where
  there is domestic violence
       Domestic Violence
• it is estimated that between one
  third and two thirds of children in
  homes where the mother is being
  abused are also at risk of abuse

• A survey of 1300 schoolchildren in
  2000 found that 1 in 3 boys thought
  violence against women was
  acceptable
            Recent Research
         NSPCC Teen Abuse Survey 2005
    2,000 female respondents aged 13-19 years

• 33% experience some violence at home
• 11% see their parents hit each other
• 20% have been hit by their parents
• 31% think cheating gives a guy the right to
  get aggressive
• also identified a clear link between
  domestic abuse in the home and then in
  relationships with boyfriends
‘MAJOR’ CHILD ABUSE INQUIRIES
          SINCE 1974

  •   1974 – Maria Colwell
  •   1981 – Malcolm Page
  •   1985 – Jasmine Beckford
  •   1985 – Heidi Koseda
  •   1987 – Tyra Henry
  •   1987 – Kimberley Carlile
  •   1987 – Cleveland
  •   1998 – Ricky Neave
  •   2003 – Victoria Climbie
       Children Act 1989
           Key Principles
• Paramount welfare of the child
• Parental Responsibility
• Partnership with parents
• Children best cared for in own family
  wherever possible
• Duty to make enquiries (S47)
• Intervention by Local Authorities
  MUST be warranted
      CHILDREN IN NEED
         (SECTION 17 CA 1989)

It shall be the general duty of every Local
Authority….
(a) to safeguard and promote the welfare of
children within their area who are in need; and
(b) so far as is consistent with that duty, to
promote the upbringing of such children by their
families,
by providing a range and level of services
appropriate to those children’s needs.
         CHILDREN IN NEED
              SECTION 17 CA 1989

A child is deemed to be in need if
• He is unlikely to achieve or maintain, or
  have the opportunity of achieving or
  maintaining, a reasonable standard of
  health and development without the
  provision for him of services by a Local
  Authority.
• His health or development is likely to be
  significantly impaired or further impaired
  without the provision of services.
• He is disabled
       CHILD PROTECTION
          SECTION 47 CA 1989
• 47.1 Where a Local Authority has
  reasonable cause to suspect that a child
  is suffering, or is likely to suffer
  significant harm, they have a duty to
  investigate

• 47.1 duty of “any person” to co-operate
• 47.9 names LEA specifically
      “SIGNIFICANT HARM”
…needs to be understood separately from child
 abuse or neglect. The two can be
 differentiated by the idea that child abuse
 describes acts or omissions, significant harm
 describes effects…Ill treatment may lead to
 the impairment or likely impairment of health
 or development. Some children may need
 protection to prevent recurrence; any child
 whose health development has been
 impaired may need services to deal with the
 consequences of this.
              (Adcock 1998)
          SIGNIFICANT HARM

• Ill-treatment or impairment of health or
  development including for example the
  impairment from seeing or hearing the ill-
  treatment of another
• Significant Harm is measured against the
  severity, extent, duration, frequency, extent of
  premeditation and the degree of threat and
  coercion involved.
• It takes account of the effect on the child and the
  degree of difficulty in helping the child overcome
  the adverse impact of the ill treatment
      Kent and Medway New
           Procedures
• Purple Handbook
• Large on-line Manual
• Specific guidance
• Sexually active young people,
  exploitation, trafficking, managing those
  presenting a risk
• Child on child abuse
• Forced Marriage, honour based violence
  FGM
• Fabricated and Induced illness
       Kent and Medway
     Safeguarding Children
       Procedures (2007)
• Integrates ChIN / CP Processes
• Parents informed about most
  referrals
• Consent issues (ChIN)
• Consultation
• Responses proportionate to
  circumstances
• Written referrals (I-A Ref form)
          CHiN/CP PROCESS
                 CONCERN
          CHiN / CHiN of protection


        CONSULTATION (own agency)
        AND /OR ADVICE FROM SSD
Urgency, gravity, risk, consent, appropriateness



    CONSENT / HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES
        With/out consent, urgency,
       gravity, rights of child to an
                assessment


             REFERRAL TO SSD
     Referral form or telephone referral
            followed up in writing
                               Health                   Basic Care


                        Education                           Ensuring Safety


     Emotional & Behavioural                                    Emotional
                Development                                     Warmth


             Identity                      CHILD                     Stimulation
                                        Safeguarding
                                        and promoting
   Family & Social                         welfare                          Guidance &
     Relationships                                                          Boundaries


Selfcare Skills                                                               Stability
      Education Act 2002
         Section 175
• ….introduces a new statutory duty
  on schools, LEA’s and Further
  Education Institutions to ensure that
  they meet their responsibilities in
  promoting the welfare of and
  safeguarding children. There must be
  regard to guidance issued by the
  Secretary of State.
 Lauren Wright
16.07.93-06.05.00
                Lauren Wright
• “Lauren Wright was brutally killed after being let
  down by every single agency responsible for
  protecting her in the months before her
  death………….At the time of her death, her frail
  body had some 60 bruises and marks and she
  weighed little more than two stone.”

• “During the trial it emerged that Lauren’s school
  had not followed government recommendations
  and had failed to designate a teacher with
  responsibility for child protection in the months
  before her death”             (media coverage
  (2001) of criminal trial following the death of
  Lauren Wright, age 6).
Safeguarding Children and Safer
Recruitment in Education (2007) DfES
The guidance outlines an objective
shared by everyone in the education service to help
keep children safe by:


• Providing a safe environment for children to
  learn in education settings – duty of care

• Identifying children suffering or likely to
  suffer significant harm and taking
  appropriate action – child protection
‘Safeguarding Children and Safer
Recruitment in Education (2007)’ DfES
• In Conjunction with “What to do if You’re
  Worried a Child is Being Abused” (2003).

• LEA’s, Governing Bodies & FE colleges
  MUST have regard to guidance and
  procedure (inc DfES 0027/2004)

• Schools subject to Ofsted inspection &
  LEA monitoring (Policy (broad issues),
  Training, DCPC, Record Keeping,
  Procedures)
• No direct liability on individuals, but staff
  are responsible for carrying out duties in
  compliance with arrangements. Failure to
  do so may lead to disciplinary process.

• Safe recruitment procedures (staff &
  volunteers)

• Procedures for dealing with allegations
  against staff

• Curricular issues - Keeping Safe
        Staff Code of Conduct?
• How might your actions / comments be
  perceived? (avoid ambiguity & comments with
  derogatory or sexual overtones)

• Immediately record & report ALL incidents of
  Positive Handling / Physical Restraint

• Corporal or physical punishment is prohibited

• DO NOT have special relationships with students
  – they might be misconstrued

• Care when comforting a student in distress
• ‘Sexual’ relationships with pupils aged 16 – 18 are
  now illegal (Sexual Offences Amendment Act
  (2000))

• If necessary to meet with a student 1 to 1 : avoid
  remote areas; leave door open; inform others;
  keep a record of ‘personal’ discussion; don’t go
  off site without manager agreement

• Necessary assistance with personal care :
  permission? Inform others nearby

• Particular care on ‘residentials’ - young people
  can misinterpret more relaxed / informal
  relationships

• Report concerns about colleagues
         Think about...
• What do you do to promote the
  welfare of all children ?

• Identify areas where children or
  staff may put themselves at risk

• What can staff in your school do to
  minimise these risks for the children
  and all staff?
     Recording        Child Protection
Anti Bullying                            Staff Conduct
and other
welfare
Policies                                      Curriculum
Attendance         Safeguarding
                                              Managing
Behaviour                                     Allegations
Management                                    Against
                                              Staff
    Health      Whistleblowing                  Building
    and                    Safe Recruitment     Design
    Safety                 and Selection
What is Child
  Abuse?

EXERCISE
             Is it ok? (Primary)
• Leaving a 7 year old child home alone
• Smacking a 6 year old girl on the bottom
  (over the knee) for a minor misdemeanour
• Having a bath with an 8 year old child
• Burning a child’s teddy as a punishment
• Mother leaves brother to baby-sit,
  knowing he’s just come out of prison after
  serving a sentence for raping 16 year old
• Parents have frequent physical fights in
  the home
            Is it ok? (Secondary)
• Parents have frequent physical fights in
  the home
• Mother tells her 14 year old son that she
  hates him and never wanted a son
• Mother is alcoholic and drunk asleep at
  5pm. 12 year old cares for younger
  siblings
• Allowing 15 year olds to sleep together
• Burning a child’s teddy as a punishment
• 14 year old caring for terminally ill parent
    CHILD PROTECTION
“ The first role for the school in
  the management of child abuse
  is prevention: to act as the
  watch dog for the Social
  Services in spotting children
  who show signs of abuse.”
Ref: A Child in Trust
 1985 - (Jasmine Beckford)
Categories of Abuse
    • Physical

    • Emotional

    • Sexual

    • Neglect
          Categories of Abuse & Neglect
(Taken from “Working Together” and ChiN/CP Procedures – Section
                             6.3

                   Physical Abuse
   Physical Abuse may involve hitting, shaking,
   throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning,
   suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm
   to the child. Physical harm may also be caused
   when a parent or carer feigns the symptoms of,
   or deliberately induces injury in a child.
  Common Sites For Accidental
            Injury
   FOREHEAD          NOSE

                       BONY SPINE
  CHIN
                        FOREARM
ELBOWS
                            HIP

   KNEES
                        SHINS
    Common sites for physical injury
      EYES - bruising,                        SKULL - fracture or
      black (particularly                     bleeding under skull (from
      both eyes)                              shaking)
                                                       EARS - Pinch or
CHEEK/SIDE OF
                                                       slap marks, bruising
FACE - bruising,
finger marks
                                              NECK -bruising, grasp marks
     MOUTH - torn
     frenulum                                         UPPER & INNER ARM -
                                                   bruising, grasp marks
SHOULDERS - bruising,                         CHEST - bruising, grasp marks
grasp marks

GENITALS - bruising                  BACK       } Linear bruising. Outline
                                     BUTTOCKS } of belt/buckles.
               KNEES - grasp marks                   Scalds/burns
                                     THIGHS      }
                  Emotional Abuse
Emotional Abuse is the persistent emotional ill-treatment of a
child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse affects on
the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to
children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or
valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person.
It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate
expectations being imposed on children.May include interactions
beyond the child’s developmental ability, overprotection,
limitation of exploration or learning, prevention of normal social
interaction. Seeing or hearing ill-treatment of another, serious
bullying causing children to frequently feel frightened or in
danger, or exploitation and corruption of children. Some level
of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill-treatment of a
child, although it may occur alone.
               Sexual Abuse
Sexual Abuse involves forcing or enticing a child
or young person to take part in sexual activities,
whether or not the child is aware of what is
happening. The activities may involve physical
contact, including penetrative (i.e.rape or buggery
or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts. They may
include non-contact activities, such as involving
children in looking at, or the production of,
pornographic material, or watching sexual
activities, or encouraging children to behave in
sexually inappropriate ways.
  Child Pornography - Extent of the Problem
• 1988 - 35 prosecutions / cautions for possession of child
  pornography

• 2001 - 549 prosecutions / cautions

• 2002 - Operation Ore identified 7,000 individuals in the UK
  who had bought child pornography from one internet site
  by credit card (responsible for 27,000 transactions).

• Studies suggest 1 in 3 arrested for possession of indecent
  images are likely to be involved or have been involved in
  hands-on abuse.

• Personality profiling of those convicted following Operation
  Ore show parallel to convicted ‘hands-on’ abusers.
                        Neglect
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic
physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the
serious impairment of the child’s health or development. It
may occur in pregnancy as a result of maternal substance
abuse.Once a child is born it may involve a parent or carer
failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing, failing
to protect a child from physical harm or danger, failure to
ensure adequate supervision incl.the use of inadequate care-
takers or the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical
care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or
unresponsiveness to a child’s basic emotional needs.
   ROLE OF THE EDUCATION
          SERVICE
Sections 27 and 47 of the Children Act 1989
place a duty on the Service to assist local
authority social service departments acting
on behalf of children in need or enquiring
into allegations of child abuse

ROLE IN CHILD PROTECTION IS TO
RECOGNISE AND REFER NOT TO
INVESTIGATE
       SCHOOL
   RESPONSIBILITIES
• PROMOTE welfare

• PREVENT abuse

• PROTECT from abuse
     School Procedures
• School CP Policy – (Where? Read?)
• Communication – (To Who? How?)
• Monitoring & Recording – (How? What?)
• Positives as well as Negatives!
• Confidentiality.
• Disclosures & Concerns (Talking with
  Children).
• Staff Support – (Where?)
 Dealing With Disclosures

• Child’s WELFARE FIRST
• HEAR the child & stay CALM
• DON’T ‘INVESTIGATE’ (clarify with
  caution)
• REASSURE!
• SECRETS are No No’s!
• INFORM the child (what now?)
• RECORD (facts, child’s words,
  observations) ASAP
• BODY MAP?
• TELL your designated teacher
• Do not GOSSIP
• Stay IN TOUCH (you’ve been trusted)
• SUPPORT for you?
           And Finally…
• All children have the right to be
  protected
• The prime concern at all stages should
  be the interests and safety of the
  child
• Where there is conflict – the child is
  paramount
• The responsibility to refer a concern
  belongs with the person who has the
  concern.
• If in doubt – CONSULT.
      EXERCISE


WHAT DO CHILDREN NEED?
   Safeguarding Children
Head Teacher and all staff should have
appropriate training to enable them to
carry out their cp responsibilites
effectively. Update every 3 years
All schools, colleges and services
should have a senior member of the
leadership team designated to take
responsibility for child protection. Have
appropriate training updated every 2
years
               Induction
• Clear policy
• confirm expected conduct
• support individual in their role
• training/info re policies and procedures
• opportunity to raise and act on issues or
  concerns
• signed Code of Conduct
     Sexual offences act 2003
•   Abuse of Trust
•   age of consent
•   protecting under 16
•   protecting under13
•   grooming
•   sex offenders
•   general advice
     PROMOTE WELFARE
“Rights, Responsibilities, Rules
         and Routines”
• Provide a safe environment which
  encourages confidence and
  independence
• Equality of opportunity
• Value and listen to children
• Provide children with consistent,
  supportive, caring adult role models
• Ensure parental involvement
           PREVENT ABUSE
• Developing a CP policy which complements
  other health, safety and welfare policies e.g.
  Behaviour management and Anti bullying

• Building opportunities through curriculum and
  other areas for increasing self awareness, self
  esteem, assertiveness and decision making into
  children’s learning experiences - ‘resilience’

• Giving children strategies for making
  judgements about people, recognising and
  expressing their own feelings and dealing with
  threatening situations
    PROTECT FROM ABUSE
   Role is to recognise and refer, not to
                 investigate
• Early detection of abuse. Knowing how to
  recognise and respond
• Monitoring children who cause concern or
  are known to be at risk
• Recording concerns
• Working with parents to share school
  concerns
• Referring children “in Need or in Need of
  protection”
    BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT

• “Discipline helps children stay within reasonable
  behavioural limitations and enhances self-esteem
  by helping the child meet expectations.
  Punishment is usually to alleviate adult
  frustration” (Fahlberg)

• Behaviour management is the educational
  process which involves the use of authority to
  bring about change. Children are guided through
  their participation in this process towards
  socially acceptable, self controlled and
  responsible behaviour.
• Challenging behaviour is a developmental
  right of passage that impacts on
  individual children and young people at
  different times and with different levels of
  intensity. Testing boundaries should
  therefore be viewed as natural.
    BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT -
             DO’S
•   Stay CALM & be CONSISTENT
•   Acknowledge FEELINGS
•   Provide CLEAR INSTRUCTION
•   Non-confrontational BODY LANGUAGE
•   Non-confrontational PROXIMITY
•   SUPPORT your colleagues
•   DUTY OF CARE – Act as a reasonable
    parent
  BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT -
          DON’TS
• Never use FORCE as a punishment
• PHYSICAL INTERVENTION is a last
  resort ONLY to be used to protect a
  child from harming themselves,
  others or property
• Know WHAT you can and can’t do
• Don’t be over CONFRONTATIONAL
• Avoid being ALONE with a child
 HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 1998
DECISION CONSIDERATIONS

  Justification
  Authorisation
  Proportionality
  Auditable
  Necessary
      HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 1998
              (HRA)
The HRA 1998 introduced an obligation on
public authorities to act consistently with
the European Convention on Human Rights.

Under the HRA people will be able to enforce
their ECHR rights in UK courts at all levels.

Public authorities will be responsible for
ensuring their policies and practices are
compatible with those rights.
HRA 1998 CONVENTION ARTICLES
   2. Right to Life
   3. Freedom from Torture or Inhuman or
      Degrading Treatment
   5. Right to Liberty and Security
   6. Right to a Fair Trial
   8. Respect for Private and Family life
  10. Freedom of expression
  11. Freedom of Assembly
  14. Discrimination
THE DATA PROTECTION
      ACT 1998
 …..requires that personal information is
obtained and processed fairly and
lawfully; only disclosed in appropriate
circumstances; is accurate, relevant and
not held longer than necessary; and is
kept securely.

 The Act allows for disclosure without
the consent of the subject in certain
conditions i.e prevention or detection of
crime.
  Two aspects to Safeguarding
     and promoting welfare

• arrangements to take all reasonable
  measures to ensure that risks of harm
  to children’s welfare are minimised;
 and
• arrangements to take all appropriate
  actions to address concerns about the
  welfare of a child, or children,
  working to agreed local policies and
  procedures in full partnership with
  other agencies.
   Achieving these aims requires
   systems being in place which
• Prevent unsuitable people working with
  children
• Promote safe practice and challenge
  poor and unsafe practice
• Identify child welfare concerns and
  take action
• Contribute towards effective
  partnership working

								
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