Logical Framework Approach
Approaches to Activity Design
Logical Framework Approach (LFA) – Originally
developed in the 1970s, this planning process is
required by many donors, including the GEF.
Objective Oriented Project Planning (OOPP;
originally called ZOPP - the German acronym) -
very similar to the LFA.
Results Based Management (RBM) or Results
Oriented Assistance (ROA) - now being used by
donors such as USAID and Canadian CIDA; it
places as much emphasis on management,
monitoring and evaluation of a project as it does
These Approaches Require
Require the participation of all key
stakeholders and those who will be
involved in implementing the plan;
Are results oriented, i.e. they focus on
what it is to be achieved, as well as on the
immediate things that need to be done.
General Methodology of The Approaches
All the methods involve objective-oriented planning,
which comprises a series of steps:
1. Analyzing the existing situation;
2. Describing the desired situation, which requires
identifying the solutions – often called project
3. Choosing the strategy for meeting the objectives;
4. Identifying the actions to be taken and the desired
5. Analyzing the risks or potential hindrances to success
and the assumptions.
This is the LFM not LFA
LFA helps to:
1. Analyze the existing situation during activity preparation
2. Establish a logical hierarchy of means by which
objectives will be reached
3. Identify the potential risks to achieving the objectives,
and to sustainable outcomes
4. Establish how outputs and outcomes might best be
monitored and evaluated
5. If desired, present a summary of the activity in a
standard format, and
6. Monitor and review Activities during implementation.
How the Process is Carried Out
Inputs: Situation Analysis
Processing: Developing The Matrix
It’s a set of Techniques to:
Analyze the existing situation
surrounding a given problem condition
Identify the major problems in this context
Define the core problem of a situation
Visualize the cause-effect relationships in
a Problem Tree Approach, Mind Map,
Major Problem Loss of confidence
in bus company
Passengers hurt People are late
Effects or killed
Drivers not Bad conditions of Bad road
Core problem careful enough vehicles conditions
Vehicles too old No ongoing
Understand the interests of different
groups, and their capacities to address
identified problems, and
Design activities that appropriately
address institutional capacity, distributional
and social issues.
How to Carry out a Stakeholder Analysis
1. Identifying the principal stakeholders (these
can be at various levels, eg local, regional,
2. Investigating their roles, interests, relative
power and capacity to participate
3. Identifying the extent of cooperation or conflict
in the relationship between stakeholders, and
4. Interpreting the findings of the analysis and
defining how this should be incorporated into
Analysis of the Objectives
Simple Convert the Negative Problem
Statements into Positive Statement.
Different criteria’s are used, such as:
1. Sustainability of the benefits
2. Ability to repair and maintain assets post-activity
3. Total cost and recurrent cost implications
4. Financial and economic viability
5. Technical feasibility
6. Contribution to institutional strengthening and
management capacity building
7. Environmental impact, and
8. Compatibility of activity with sector or program priorities.
Characteristics yes – then logical framework
Purpose if and
Results if and
Activities if and
How to Word Assumptions
Assumptions can be derived from the objectives
Assumptions will be worded as a positive condition
Assumptions will be weighted according to
importance and probability
OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI’S)
Objectively verifiable indicators define the performance
standard to be reached in order to achieve the objective.
They specify what evidence will tell you if an overall goal,
project purpose or result/output is reached
in terms of
quantity how much?
quality how well?
time by when?
location / area where?
They focus on important characteristics of an objective
to be achieved
They provide a basis for monitoring and evaluation.
MEANS OF VERIFICATION
Where we get the evidence that the objectives have been met
Where we can find the data necessary to verify the indicator
Some important questions:
Are the means of verification available from normal sources?
(statistics, observation, records)
How reliable are the sources?
Is special data-gathering required? If so, what will it cost?
Has a new source to be created
If we cannot find a means of verification, the indicator has to