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5TH URBAN & CITY MANAGEMENT COURSE FOR AFRICA FACE – FACE AND DISTANCE LEARNING VERSION MODULE II Organizational Development as a Framework for Creating Anti- Poverty Strategies and Action Including Gender Mainstreaming BY KINUTHIA WAMWANGI Senior Programme Officer Training and Human Resources Development Municipal Development Partnership Eastern & Southern Africa email@example.com Presented on 21 October 2003 At the Global Distance Learning Centre, Tanzania OBJECTIVES At the end of this module participants will be expected to understand the concept of organizational development and how it can be used: As a tool for managing change As a collaborative problem solving approach To manage organizational culture for effective outcomes OBJECTIVES….continues To mobilize cross functional teams in municipal project management To mainstream gender in local government management and processes As a framework for creating anti-poverty strategies DEFINITION OF CHANGE Change occurs in society, organizations or individuals. It implies a perceived difference or transformation It is continuous. Modern change has changed in speed, depth and complexity. The present generation has witnessed many changes (The fall of the Berlin Wall, the Collapse of the Soviet Union, Globalization). Change brings new social values, new ways of doing things and new possibilities. TYPES OF CHANGE There are many forms of change Two types have attracted analysis in the study of organizational behaviour 1. Organizational change. 2. Organizational development. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE It describes the interrelationships between the organizational change and human change. Organizational change involves various aspects including; products and service, technologies, systems, relationships, organizational culture and management techniques. The behaviour of organizational workers at all levels determines what organizational changes can be made. People need to understand change and be willing and able to embrace it. Change occurs when there is a change in attitude and behaviour FIGURE I: LEVELS & DETERMINANTS OF CHANGE (High) ORGANIZATIONAL OR GROUP BEHAVIOUR (4) INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR (3) Difficulty involved ATTITUDES (2) KNOWLEDGE (1) (Low) (Short) (Long) Time involved Source: P. Hearsey and K.H. Blanchard: management of organizational behaviour (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1972), p. 160. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE (Continued) If change is decided and imposed on individuals by management it can lead to organizational dilemma The imposition of change on individuals is preferred by organizations in a fast moving competitive environment. These organizations are usually faced immediate threats that need rapid change and improvements within tight timescales. Organizational change is therefore ‘results driven’. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT DEFINITION OD is a methodology or technique used to effect change in an organization with a view of improving the organization’s effectiveness It aims at gaining sustained commitment to the pursuit of intangible goals such as attitude change and new sets of values. ATTRIBUTES OF OD A planned process of change Applies behavioral science knowledge Aims at the change of organization strategies, structures and processes Applies to an entire system of an organization Targets long term institutionalization of new activities Encompasses strategy, structure and process changes A process managed from the top CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Values of OD OD Approaches OD Toolkits VALUES OF OD OD places human centered values above everything else. The human values are as follows: - The individual should be treated with respect and dignity. - The organization climate should be characterized by trust, openness and support. - Hierarchical authority and control are not regarded as effective mechanisms. - Problems and conflicts should be confronted, and not disguised or avoided - People affected by change should be involved in its implementation OD APPROACHES At least three planned change models 1. Lewin’s Change Model 2. Action Research Model 3. Contemporary Action Research Model FIGURE II: COMPARISON OF PLANNED CHANGE MODELS (A) (B) (C) Lewins’ Change Action Research Contemporary Model Model Action Research Unfreezing Problem Identification Choose Positive Subjects Consultation with a Behavioral Science Expert Collect Positive Stories with Broad Participation Data gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis Movement Examine Data and Develop Feedback to Key Client or Group Possibility Proportions Joint Diagnosis of Problem Develop a Vision with Broad Participation Joint Action Planning Develop Action Plans Action Refreezing Data gathering after Action Evaluate LEWIN’S MODEL It is a once only intervention with seven steps: 1. Scouting 2. Entry 3. Diagnosis 4. Planning 5. Action 6. Stabilization and Evaluation 7. Termination THE ACTION RESEARCH MODEL The outcomes are fed back fed back so that further improvements and changes can be made. It is a cyclical and iterative process. It is a collaborative effort between the consultant and the client’s members who engage in joint planning, diagnosis, implementation, evaluation and further planning. THE CONTEMPORARY ACTION RESEARCH This is of great interest to the Workshop Can be used to promote projects in both public and private organizations . OD TOOLKITS These are used to address specific areas of a problem. They include: - process consultation. - Changing the structure. - Survey feedback. - Team building. - Inter-group development. - Role negotiation. - Sensitivity training. FIGURE III: ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT Attitude survey ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS Cultural Analysis Process consultation Structure Change Team Building Role Negotiation CULTURAL ANALYSIS One of the most complex change actions It is a result of long term learning Organizational culture influences organizational strategy, performance and policies. To change organizational culture may be traumatic and it requires careful analysis and handling. Trauma experienced by American Companies in the 1980s when they adopted Japanese approach. PROCESS CONSULTATION Consultation is that situation where an expert is invited to advise an organization that is experiencing a problem. Three types of consultation: 1. The expertise model 2. The doctor patient model 3. The process consultation model PROCESS CONSULTATION (Continued) OD advocates the process consultation model. The purport of the model is to engage an external consultant on a flexible advisory capacity to work with the clients. The consultant need not be an expert in the problem at hand. His expertise is in facilitating a process that carries everybody in the search for solutions. Once the expert leaves the people should have the capacity to solve the next round of problems. STRUCTURE OF CHANGE An intervention that helps to change the structure of an organization to make the work more interesting, challenging or productive. Involves activities such as job enrichment, formation of autonomous work teams or business re-engineering. Other actions involve decentralization / centralization in an organization or even redesigning of focus from region to product or vice versa. TEAM BUILDING Team work is vital to the functioning of modern organizations. Members of teams bring different strengths to the group. Teams take over from hierarchical systems where individuals are assumed to know everything depending on their level in the authority ladder. The system denies the organization the cumulative advantage of skills and strengths in different individuals. ROLE NEGOTIATION A misunderstanding between individuals in an organization can affect its effectiveness. Caused by lack of shared awareness, misunderstanding or lack of trust. Role negotiation helps to clarify individual perceptions and mutual expectations in order to resolve differences. ACTION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The action research model is the more preferred OD model. It focuses on planned change as a cyclic process. Eight steps can be identified: 1. Problem identification 2. Consultation with a behavioral science expert 3. Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis 4. Data feedback to the key client group. 5. Joint (evaluation) diagnosis of problem. 6. Joint action planning 7. Action or implementation of proposals for change. 8. Repeat the cycle – fresh data gathering and feedback of results. STRUCTURE OF THE OA PROCESS Step 1: Facilitated Self Analysis Step 2: Reporting & Acknowledgement Of Issues Interactive Learning Process Output •Raising key questions for discussion Self Analysis report by RDC •Joint analysis of issues at all levels * Prioritized issues Facilitator Step 3: Joint Formulation •Process report OUTPUT •Critique RDC Report •What RDC can do, how and when •What SNV can do, how and when Step 5: Monitoring & Review Step4: Implementation (all) Monitoring and Review •What happened and why? Implementation Priorities •What did not happen & why •Primary RDC’s own commitments •What successes & lessons •Joint commitments with SNV •Joint commitments with others CONTEMPORARY ADAPTATION TO ACTION RESEARCH This model shifts attention from smaller sub-units of organizations to total systems and communities. It is more complex and political and involves multiple change processes. It has been developed internationally and more specifically in developed countries. It is characterized by increased involvement of members in learning about their own organizations and how to change them.
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