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MODULEIIO rganizational Development KINUT by R0dxt80

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									5TH URBAN & CITY MANAGEMENT COURSE FOR AFRICA
   FACE – FACE AND DISTANCE LEARNING VERSION

                        MODULE II
Organizational Development as a Framework for Creating Anti-
Poverty Strategies and Action Including Gender Mainstreaming


                     BY KINUTHIA WAMWANGI
                      Senior Programme Officer
            Training and Human Resources Development
     Municipal Development Partnership Eastern & Southern Africa
                        kinuthia@mdpesa.org

                      Presented on 21 October 2003
            At the Global Distance Learning Centre, Tanzania
              OBJECTIVES
  At the end of this module participants will be
  expected to understand the concept of
  organizational development and how it can be
  used:
      As a tool for managing change
     As a collaborative problem solving approach
     To manage organizational culture for
      effective outcomes
    OBJECTIVES….continues
 To mobilize cross functional teams in
  municipal project management
 To mainstream gender in local
  government management and processes
 As a framework for creating anti-poverty
  strategies
    DEFINITION OF CHANGE

   Change occurs in society, organizations or
    individuals.
   It implies a perceived difference or transformation
   It is continuous.
   Modern change has changed in speed, depth and
    complexity.
   The present generation has witnessed many changes
    (The fall of the Berlin Wall, the Collapse of the Soviet
    Union, Globalization).
   Change brings new social values, new ways of doing
    things and new possibilities.
TYPES OF CHANGE


    There are many forms of change

    Two types have attracted analysis in the
     study of organizational behaviour

1.   Organizational change.

2.   Organizational development.
    ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
   It describes the interrelationships between the
    organizational change and human change.
   Organizational change involves various aspects
    including; products and service, technologies, systems,
    relationships, organizational culture and management
    techniques.
   The behaviour of organizational workers at all levels
    determines what organizational changes can be made.
   People need to understand change and be willing and
    able to embrace it.
   Change occurs when there is a change in attitude and
    behaviour
FIGURE I: LEVELS & DETERMINANTS OF CHANGE


       (High)
                                     ORGANIZATIONAL OR GROUP BEHAVIOUR (4)


                                              INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR (3)
Difficulty
involved
                                      ATTITUDES (2)


                        KNOWLEDGE (1)
        (Low)


                    (Short)                                                                            (Long)
                                                   Time involved

             Source: P. Hearsey and K.H. Blanchard: management of organizational behaviour (Englewood Cliffs,
             New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1972), p. 160.
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE (Continued)
   If change is decided and imposed on individuals
    by management it can lead to organizational
    dilemma
   The imposition of change on individuals is
    preferred by organizations in a fast moving
    competitive environment.
   These organizations are usually faced
    immediate threats that need rapid change and
    improvements within tight timescales.
   Organizational change is therefore ‘results
    driven’.
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 DEFINITION
 OD is a methodology or technique used to effect
  change in an organization with a view of
  improving the organization’s effectiveness
 It aims at gaining sustained commitment to the
  pursuit of intangible goals such as attitude change
  and new sets of values.
ATTRIBUTES OF OD
   A planned process of change
   Applies behavioral science knowledge
   Aims at the change of organization strategies,
    structures and processes
   Applies to an entire system of an organization
   Targets long term institutionalization of new
    activities
   Encompasses strategy, structure and process changes
   A process managed from the top
CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT

   Values of OD

   OD Approaches

   OD Toolkits
    VALUES OF OD
   OD places human centered values above everything
    else.
   The human values are as follows:
-   The individual should be treated with respect and
    dignity.
-   The organization climate should be characterized by
    trust, openness and support.
-   Hierarchical authority and control are not regarded
    as effective mechanisms.
-   Problems and conflicts should be confronted, and not
    disguised or avoided
-   People affected by change should be involved in its
    implementation
OD APPROACHES

    At least three planned change models
1.   Lewin’s Change Model
2.   Action Research Model
3.   Contemporary Action Research Model
 FIGURE II: COMPARISON OF PLANNED CHANGE MODELS

     (A)                            (B)                                     (C)
Lewins’ Change                Action Research                         Contemporary
    Model                          Model                              Action Research

  Unfreezing               Problem Identification                 Choose Positive Subjects


                 Consultation with a Behavioral Science Expert
                                                                 Collect Positive Stories with
                                                                      Broad Participation
                  Data gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis

   Movement
                                                                  Examine Data and Develop
                       Feedback to Key Client or Group
                                                                    Possibility Proportions


                          Joint Diagnosis of Problem
                                                                     Develop a Vision with
                                                                      Broad Participation
                            Joint Action Planning

                                                                    Develop Action Plans
                                   Action

  Refreezing
                          Data gathering after Action                     Evaluate
                LEWIN’S MODEL

    It is a once only intervention with seven steps:
1.   Scouting
2.   Entry
3.   Diagnosis
4.   Planning
5.   Action
6.   Stabilization and Evaluation
7.   Termination
THE ACTION RESEARCH MODEL

 The outcomes are fed back fed back so that further
  improvements and changes can be made.
 It is a cyclical and iterative process.
 It is a collaborative effort between the consultant
  and the client’s members who engage in joint
  planning, diagnosis, implementation, evaluation
  and further planning.
THE CONTEMPORARY ACTION RESEARCH

 This is of great interest to the Workshop
 Can be used to promote projects in both public
  and private organizations .
OD TOOLKITS

   These are used to address specific areas of a problem.
   They include:
-   process consultation.
-   Changing the structure.
-   Survey feedback.
-   Team building.
-   Inter-group development.
-   Role negotiation.
-   Sensitivity training.
FIGURE III: ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN LOCAL
            GOVERNMENT



                             Attitude
                             survey




                      ORGANIZATIONAL
                       DEVELOPMENT
                         IN LOCAL
                       GOVERNMENT
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
INTERVENTIONS

   Cultural Analysis
   Process consultation
   Structure Change
   Team Building
   Role Negotiation
CULTURAL ANALYSIS

   One of the most complex change actions
   It is a result of long term learning
   Organizational culture influences organizational
    strategy, performance and policies.
   To change organizational culture may be traumatic
    and it requires careful analysis and handling.
   Trauma experienced by American Companies in the
    1980s when they adopted Japanese approach.
PROCESS CONSULTATION

    Consultation is that situation where an expert is invited
     to advise an organization that is experiencing a
     problem.
    Three types of consultation:
1.   The expertise model
2.   The doctor patient model
3.   The process consultation model
PROCESS CONSULTATION (Continued)

   OD advocates the process consultation model.
   The purport of the model is to engage an external
    consultant on a flexible advisory capacity to work with
    the clients.
   The consultant need not be an expert in the problem at
    hand.
   His expertise is in facilitating a process that carries
    everybody in the search for solutions.
   Once the expert leaves the people should have the
    capacity to solve the next round of problems.
STRUCTURE OF CHANGE

   An intervention that helps to change the structure of an
    organization to make the work more interesting,
    challenging or productive.
   Involves activities such as job enrichment, formation of
    autonomous work teams or business re-engineering.
   Other actions involve decentralization / centralization
    in an organization or even redesigning of focus from
    region to product or vice versa.
TEAM BUILDING

   Team work is vital to the functioning of modern
    organizations.
   Members of teams bring different strengths to the
    group.
   Teams take over from hierarchical systems where
    individuals are assumed to know everything depending
    on their level in the authority ladder.
   The system denies the organization the cumulative
    advantage of skills and strengths in different
    individuals.
ROLE NEGOTIATION

   A misunderstanding between individuals in an
    organization can affect its effectiveness.
   Caused by lack of shared awareness, misunderstanding
    or lack of trust.
   Role negotiation helps to clarify individual perceptions
    and mutual expectations in order to resolve differences.
ACTION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    The action research model is the more preferred OD
     model.
    It focuses on planned change as a cyclic process.
    Eight steps can be identified:
1.   Problem identification
2.   Consultation with a behavioral science expert
3.   Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis
4.   Data feedback to the key client group.
5.   Joint (evaluation) diagnosis of problem.
6.   Joint action planning
7.   Action or implementation of proposals for change.
8.   Repeat the cycle – fresh data gathering and feedback of results.
STRUCTURE OF THE OA PROCESS
Step 1: Facilitated Self Analysis         Step 2: Reporting & Acknowledgement
                                          Of Issues


Interactive Learning Process                          Output
•Raising key questions for discussion
                                             Self Analysis report by RDC
•Joint analysis of issues at all levels
                                             * Prioritized issues



                          Facilitator       Step 3: Joint Formulation
                  •Process report         OUTPUT
                  •Critique RDC Report    •What RDC can do, how and when
                                          •What SNV can do, how and when
  Step 5: Monitoring & Review

                                             Step4: Implementation (all)
      Monitoring and Review
   •What happened and why?                Implementation Priorities
   •What did not happen & why             •Primary RDC’s own commitments
   •What successes & lessons              •Joint commitments with SNV
                                          •Joint commitments with others
CONTEMPORARY ADAPTATION TO ACTION
RESEARCH

   This model shifts attention from smaller sub-units of
    organizations to total systems and communities.
   It is more complex and political and involves multiple
    change processes.
   It has been developed internationally and more
    specifically in developed countries.
   It is characterized by increased involvement of
    members in learning about their own organizations and
    how to change them.

								
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