Docstoc

Developing conceptual frameworks for effective school – based

Document Sample
Developing conceptual frameworks for  effective school – based Powered By Docstoc
					Jia Xu and Colin Marsh
 Curtin University
 Is it necessary and possible to have SBCD at
 schools in Australia?

 Is it necessary and possible to use conceptual
  frameworks to help us understand and develop
  more effective SBCD?
SBCD in China
 SBCD has been a highlight of China’s new curriculum
  reform since 1999.
 A curriculum policy change towards devolving partial
  power in curriculum decision-making to teachers.
 10% of curriculum is decided by local regions and
  individual schools.
 Transforming teachers’ role from “book-knowledge
  transmitters” to curriculum developers.
Defining school-based curriculum
development (SBCD) as:
 a slogan,

 a democratic philosophy,

 a practical series of steps.
Caveats
 SBCD is a constantly evolving term. It is very difficult to
  come up with a perfect form of SBCD.

 Although it is a desirable process for teachers to become
  involved in SBCD yet the hard realities of systems and
  governments necessitate limitations.
What is a conceptual framework?
  It provides a structure for curriculum planning.

  It provides a coherent grouping of terms or values.

  It provides ideal goals.
Some preliminary questions
 Is school-based curriculum development alive and well in
  2011 in Australia?
 Is there a perfect type of school-based curriculum
  development and has it ever existed in a pure form?
 Do ideas about school-based planning change over the
  decades, for better or worse?
Some different priorities of SBCD
 A democratic vision to have more teacher involvement
 A way of supplementing student resource materials
 A way of addressing critical problems in an education
  system
 A way to support systemic reforms and to enhance the
  professional skills of teachers
How successful are current efforts to do
SBCD in Asian countries ?

 An example from Hong Kong
 An example from Singapore
SBCD in action in Hong Kong
 Innovative teachers are selected to be seed teachers
  and given special training at head office.
 Creation of new promotional positions of curriculum
  leader in each primary school
 Setting up of school-based support team in each
  education district
 Celebration of exemplary efforts
SBCD in Singapore
 Intensive workshops on SBCD provided for all primary
  schools
 Research activists appointed for each school to support a
  specific SBCD project
 Learning journeys to other schools locally & overseas
 Celebration of successes through public
  presentations/workshops
The Australian scene in 2011
 Teaching has always been a complicated process.
 Teachers need to be able to do a number of things
  almost simultaneously, including
  unpacking knowledge and ideas,
 making this accessible to others within a caring productive
 environment.
New pressures for teachers
 New external pressures & ongoing internal, school
  level pressures.
 New external pressures:
 Australian Curriculum,
 NAPLAN,
 MY SCHOOL website,
 Professional standards for teachers.
 School-based planning and central planning working
  towards educational reform.
General problems for doing SBCD
 Lack of time
 Lack of expertise
 Lack of finance
 Externally imposed restrictions
 Threatening school climate (resistors or lack of
  effective leadership) (Marsh,1992).
  The arrival of the National Curriculum
 Materials produced so far for the first four subjects
 indicate that what ACARA is requiring is more than
 just general principles and outcomes for each
 subject area.

 There will be a major emphasis upon content and
  specifying of what is taught at each grade level.

 This will be reinforced through NAPLAN results in
 terms of literacy and numeracy. This will flow over
 into other subjects.
Likely impacts


   •Teaching will              •Teachers will try new
   become more            OR   initiatives enthused
   teacher-directed and        by the content and
   focussed on content         structures of the
   coverage.                   Australian
                               Curriculum.
Curriculum planning models
 These models are typically general and apply
  across various subjects and teaching levels.
 Models provide simple procedures for teachers to
  go about planning of lessons.
  prescriptive models (Tyler, 1949; Taba, 1962).
  Naturalistic Model (Walker, 1970).
 Understanding by Design model (Wiggins & McTighe,
 1998).
SBCD planning models
 In situations where teachers want to get involved in
  school-based planning SBCD models need to be
  considered.

 It is important to remember that each school
  situation is very different and so it makes the task of
  developing SBCD planning models all the more
  difficult.
Major categories of school-based models
                             Models that develop
   Models that create
                           interlinked explanatory
 typologies of different
                             factors for successful
   variations of SBCD
                                     SBCD

• Brady (1987)             • Wong Yu Lai Wah (2008)

• Marsh et al (1990)       • Lo Yiu Chun (1999)

                           • Lee (2008)

                           • Marsh (2009)
   Models that create typologies of different
              variations of SBCD




Figure 1: Brady's matrix for analysis of SBCD in practice (Brady, 1987)
          Advantages                             Disadvantages

• It indicates a number of              • It doesn’t show the influence
  combinations;                           of head office and how they
• It seems to indicate that any           could limit choices;
  combination is possible;              • It is a static model – just a list
• It illustrates three main               of categories;
  processes well.                       • It doesn’t show which factors
                                          are more important than
                                          others.

Figure 1: Brady's matrix for analysis of SBCD in practice (Brady, 1987)
Models that create typologies of different
           variations of SBCD




   Figure 2: A three-dimensional model of SBCD (Marsh, 1990)
             Advantages                        Disadvantages

• It creates a dynamic, 3D            • It doesn't include all the
  picture;                              important factors, only

• It shows a lot of different           includes three;

  combinations;                       • It doesn't show which factors

• It seems to indicate that any         are more important than

  combination is possible.              others;

                                      • It doesn't show the influence
                                        of head office and how this
                                        could limit choices.


       Figure 2: A three-dimensional model of SBCD (Marsh, 1990)
interlinked explanatory factors
      Models that develop




                                  Figure 3: School-Based Curriculum Project Scheme,
                                                Hong Kong (Lo, 1999)
       Advantages                         Disadvantages

• It demonstrates clear             • Only limited SBCD can
 focus of centrally                   occur;
 controlled SBCD;                   • Teacher empowerment
• It includes a                       is limited within
 celebration of                       planning and
 successful efforts.                  evaluation.



           Figure 3: School-Based Curriculum Project Scheme,
                         Hong Kong (Lo, 1999)
                        Models that develop interlinked
                            explanatory factors




Figure 4: Lee’s model of SBCD (2008)
       Advantages                        Disadvantages

• It is teacher focused and        • It underestimates
 encourages                          influences of head
 empowerment                         office;

• It is pragmatic - finding        • It doesn’t clearly
 spaces/ opportunities.              establish constraints.



                 Figure 4: Lee’s model of SBCD (2008)
Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors




     Figure 5: A model of implementing school-based curriculum
                     in a subject (Wong, 2008)
Figure 5: A model of implementing school-based curriculum
                in a subject (Wong, 2008)
Models that develop interlinked explanatory factors




      Figure 6: A Conceptual Model of SBCD (Marsh, 2009)
Figure 6: A Conceptual Model of SBCD (Marsh, 2009)
Concluding comment
 Making curriculum space available for SBCD is a
  major issue and it depends upon levels of
  cooperation between centralised and decentralised
  forms of curriculum development.
 There are a variety of SBCD approaches. The
  conceptual models outlined here provide just some
  of the possibilities.
 Because SBCD is closely related to local needs and
  priorities it is not possible to come up with one
  conceptual model which fits all.
 curriculum space available for SBCD is a
  major issue and it depends upon levels of
  cooperation between centralised and decentralised
  forms of curriculum development.
 There are a variety of SBCD approaches. The
  conceptual models outlined here provide just some
  of the possibilities.
 Because SBCD is closely related to local needs and
  priorities it is not possible to come up with one
  conceptual model which fits all.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:8/8/2012
language:
pages:32