Course: Science Grade 8 Unit: 5 by dEiSQrA

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									 8th Grade Science   Unit 1

                              8th Grade Science Unit 1
                                   Unit 1 Overview
                 How can we make discoveries about the world?
                     Pacing: 3 Instructional Weeks - Report Period 1



Key Concepts/Overarching Questions

                KEY CONCEPT                             OVERARCHING QUESTIONS
 Key 1: Scientists search for answers to their   How do scientists find the answers to the questions
       questions by performing controlled        that they have?
       experiments.

 Key 2: We can use different equipment and       What equipment will we be using to find the answers
        techniques to collect and display        we are seeking?
        experimental evidence.
 Key 3: Ideas in science may change based on     How does new evidence affect the science we have
       new evidence.                             knowledge of?




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1




                                     Unit 1 Overview

                                  Alignment to Standards

Focus Pennsylvania Standards
  3.2.7.A Explain and apply scientific and technological knowledge.
  3.2.7.B Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations.
  3.2.7.C Identify and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.

Eligible Content
  S8.A.1.1.1 Distinguish between a scientific theory and an opinion, explaining how a
             theory is supported with evidence, or how new data/information may change
             existing theories and practice.
  S8.A.1.1.2 Explain how certain questions can be answered through scientific inquiry
             and/or technological design.
  S8.A.2.1.2 Use space/time relationships, define concepts operationally, raise testable
             questions, or formulate hypotheses.
  S8.A.2.1.3 Design a controlled experiment by specifying how the independent variables
             will be manipulated, how the dependent variable will be measured, and which
             variables will be held constant.




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 8th Grade Science   Unit 1


                                    Unit 1 Overview

Unit Texts                        Additional Resources                  Supplies & Materials
  TEXT AND ASSOCIATED                          ADDITIONAL                          SUPPLIES AND
       RESOURCES                               RESOURCES                            MATERIALS

 CORE TEXT RESOURCES              SUPPLEMENTAL TEACHER                             Consumables
                                  RESOURCES
 CPO Science Foundations of
                                                                                Lab equipment
 Physical Science                 Advanced Learning Press
 pp. 9–10, 12                     The Write Tools
                                  “Annotating Text,” Active Reading, pp. 15–    Whiteboards
 TEACHER RESOURCES                17
 FOR THE SUGGESTED
 PATHWAY                          Davies, Kevin, Trisha Rossman, and
                                  Lorie Ulmer, eds.
 Lab Report Format for Middle     Resources to Prepare Your Students (and
 School Science Classes           Their Parents) for a Successful Science
 p. CG-17                         Fair.
                                   “Step 1: Posing a Question,” p. 50
 Learning Styles Survey            “Step 1: Posing a Question Worksheet,”
 pp. CG-6 through CG-10              p. 51
                                   “Step 4: Writing Your Hypothesis,” p.
 CPO Science Units 1–2               56
 Teacher Guide (Foundations of     “Step 5: Preparing for the Experiment,”
 Physical Science)                   p. 57–64
 pp. 12–17
                                  Scientific Method
 CPO Science Foundations of       http://scene.asu.edu/habitat/s_method.html
 Physical Science, Color
 Teaching Tools Index             Experimental Research Components of a
 CD-ROM                           Well-Designed Investigation,
 Scientific Method                Grades 6–12
 (01_2scimethod)                  www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/science/f
                                  orms/wdiexpmshs.pdf
 Kaplan’s Educational
 Resources                        Science Teaching Strategies Testable
  Chunking, p. GPT-4             Questions
  Exit Slip, p. GPT-5            www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/science/i
  Think-Pair-Share, p. GPT-12    nstr/scistrattestableQs.htm
  Laboratory Work:
    Guidelines for Writing
    Testable Questions, p. PTT-
    20
  Three-Column Chart, p. RR-
    87


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8th Grade Science   Unit 1
The article “Morphing a Wing
to Save Fuel” can be found
here:
www.sciencenewsforkids.org/art
icles/20070103/Note3.asp




                                 4
  8th Grade Science   Unit 1


                                          Unit 1 at a Glance
                                           Pacing 3 weeks


Module        Pacing               Key                  Overarching Questions          Student Products

                          Key 1:                   How do scientists find the      Students will be able to
                          Scientists search for    answers to the questions that   use the Write Tools on
                          answers to their         they have?                      an article and create a
   1             5
                          questions by                                             graphic organizer and
                          performing controlled                                    summary paragraph of
                          experiments.                                             text.
                          Key 2:                   What equipment will we be       Students will be able to
   2             5        We can use different     using to find the answers we    complete the
                          equipment and            are seeking?                    Investigation
                          techniques to collect                                    Worksheet which
                          and display                                              teaches them
                          experimental evidence.                                   measurement of length
                                                                                   and mass.
                          Key 3:                   How does new evidence affect    Students will produce a
   3             5        Ideas in science may     the science we have             claim, evidence,
                          change based on new      knowledge of?                   reasoning sheet from
                          evidence.                                                data gathered during
                                                                                   investigation.

Required Culminating Project:
Students will use the data gathered from an Investigation of your choice performed in order to create a
cohesive well written claim, evidence, reasoning summary.

Suggested Unit Performance Assessment:

Students will design an experiment on a testable question from the list of questions that they will
produce in Key 1. Students will also distinguish between hypotheses and theories by writing a few
sentences on a related question.




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1



                                 Unit 1 Instructional Pathway

Module 1: SNAPSHOT
                                                 Pacing: 5 days
Objectives:
Students will be able to:
   1. Determine what a testable question is and how it is formed.
   2. Use the Write Tools skills to identify key facts which will determine testable questions.
   3. Write scientific summary paragraphs based on readings

Content Expectations (CE’s) and Performance Expectations (PE’s)

CE’s:
Students will know that…
CE 1.1: A testable question is one that can be answered through the analysis of observations or
     data. (STANDARD 3.2.7.C) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.1.1.2)
CE 1.1: The components of a controlled experiment include asking a testable question, forming
     a hypothesis, repeated trials, repeatable procedures, collecting and analyzing data, and making
     and justifying conclusions. (STANDARD 3.2.7.C)
CE 1.1: In an experiment, all variables except the one being tested must be controlled, in order
    to obtain reliable results. (STANDARD 3.2.7.B) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.1.3)

PE’s:
Students will be able to…
PE 1.1: Generate questions about objects and/or events that can be answered through scientific
     investigations. (STANDARDS 3.2.7.B, 3.2.7.C) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.1.2)
PE 1.1: Evaluate the appropriateness of questions. (STANDARD 3.2.7.C)
    (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.1.3)
PE 1.1: Explain how, in an experiment, the independent variable will be manipulated, how the
    dependent variable will be measured, and which variables will be held constant.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.B) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.1.3)
PE 1.1: Use evidence from investigations to clearly communicate and support conclusions.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.C) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.1.5)

               Unit 1
Text References, Materials & Supplies:

                               Resource                            Needed Supplies
      Google the article “Morphing a wing to save    Pink, Green, Yellow Highlighters
      fuel” for copying.
      Write Tools Graphic Organizer for Summary


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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1

       Writing


Instructional Pathway:


   1.   Write Tools Graphic Organizer for summary writing
   2.   Developing testable questions from Write Tools organizer
   3.   Summary Paragraphs will be developed using the Write Tools graphic organizer
   4.   Formative Assessment

Assessments (formative and/or summative):
  1.    Accountable Talk
  2.    Graphic Organizer
  3.    Testable Questions
  4.    Summary Paragraph
  5.    Claim, Evidence, Reasoning Writing
  6.    Warm-Ups

Differentiation:
   1. Small Group Activity
   2. Small Group Discussion
   3. Whole Class Instruction / Discussion




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1


Module 1: DETAILED
INSTRUCTIONAL PATHWAY
                                                                                     Teacher Notes:
DAY 1:                                                                               Differentiation / Scaffolding
  1. Whole Class Instruction to Engage:                                              & Common Misconceptions
       a. Pose the unit question:                                                    At this point do not judge
            "How can we make discoveries about the world?"                           the answers given, just place
       b. Write some of the ideas on a large sheet of Post It paper and mark         them all on the board.
            the ones that deal with the topics discussed throughout this lesson
            and call specific attention to them.
       c. Ask students to brainstorm ideas about:
            "How do scientists find the answers to the questions that they           Marking student’s ideas
           have?”                                                                    directs value and attention
                                                                                     to a student’s contribution.
       d. Write all ideas and mark the ones which also allow for further             “That’s an important idea...”
            discussion in the lesson.
  2. Small Group Activity to Explore:                                                If your students are unaware
       a. Students use Write Tools Organizer and Model to read the article           of the Write Tools method
            “Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel”.                                          then perform this activity as
                                                                                     a whole class instruction.
  3. Whole Class Instruction to Explain:
       a. Use a Write tools Graphic Organizer transparency template to
            construct this as a class with input from each group.

DAY 2:
  1. Whole Class Instruction to Engage:                                              You’re probably not going
       a. Ask the students about the first step that should be made before           to get through this in one
            beginning an investigation. Guide them to the conclusion that the        day so break where it makes
            question being investigated is the first thing that scientists need to   sense.
            determine.
  2. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. In small groups or pairs have the students develop 5 questions from
            the Write Tools graphic organizer developed the previous day
            which they believe to be testable.
  3. Whole Class Direct Instruction to Explain:
       a. Have students share questions and their thoughts on how they
            developed them and why it is a good testable question. Explain
            which characteristic of a testable question the students have
            covered and guide them through the development of the remaining
            characteristics of a testable question.
       b. Place all characteristics as they are covered on the board for the
            class to journal.




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1


DAY 3:
  1. Whole Class Direct Instruction to Explain:
       a. Continue having students share questions and explaining
           characteristics.
  2. Whole Class Discussion to Elaborate:
       a. Ask students why they think the link between Write Tools and             The links that you are
                                                                                   looking for are having
           testable questions was made.                                            students realize that the
       b. Ask the students what the scientist does with the testable question      details are what make the
           after they have developed it.                                           testable question.
       c. This discussion should be guided to discuss a claim that is made
           about the testable question. Journal this word and definition so that
           it can be later recalled for students.

DAY 4:
  1. Small Group for Evaluation:
       a. Have students develop a summary paragraph from their Write
            Tools graphic organizer being sure to highlight the paragraph
            labeling each main idea and supporting detail.
       b. Have the students share out their paragraphs.

DAY 5:
  1. Individual Assessment for Evaluation:
         a. Give students a science article of your choice and have them use
            the graphic organizer and Write Tools to complete a summary
            paragraph.




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1




                               Unit 1 Instructional Pathway

Module 2: SNAPSHOT
                                                Pacing: 5 days
Objective(s):
  Students will be able to:
     1. Properly use and measure with the timers provided by CPO
     2. Measure in both metric and English lengths
     3. Explain the difference and significance between accuracy and precision


Content Expectations (CE’s) & Performance Expectations (PE’s):

CE’s:
Students will know that…
CE 1.2: We must take precautions when using laboratory equipment to ensure safety in the lab.
    (STANDARD 3.7.7.A)
CE 1.2: Measurements must be accurate and precise in order to produce reliable results.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.B)

PE’s
Students will be able to…
PE 1.2: Apply appropriate measurement systems (e.g., time, mass, distance) to record and
     interpret observations.
     (STANDARDS 3.2.7.B, 3.7.7.B) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.2.2)
PE 1.2: Describe the appropriate use of instruments and scales to accurately and safely measure
     time, mass, or volume under a variety of conditions.
     (STANDARD 3.7.7.A) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.2.2.1)
PE 1.2: Use evidence, such as observations or experimental results, to support inferences about
     a relationship.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.B) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.1.1.3)




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1

Text References, Materials & Supplies:

                               Resource                             Needed Supplies
      CPO Text book Page 6                               N/A
      CPO Investigation 1.1                              1.   Ruler with both English and Metric
                                                         2.   CPO Timers
                                                         3.   CPO Photogates
      CPO Investigation 16.2                             1.   Scales
                                                         2.   Weights (if needed for certain scales)
                                                         3.   Many of one small object (marbles)
                                                         4.   Large Post It paper


Instructional Pathway:


   1.   Discussion of metric and English measurements
   2.   Perform Investigations 1.1 parts 5-7
   3.   Perform Investigation 1.1 parts 1-3
   4.   Engaging in class discussion on accuracy of equipment
   5.   Perform Investigation 16.2
   6.   Brainstorming own ideas and sharing with class.


Assessments (formative and/or summative):

   1.   Summary Paragraphs
   2.   Investigation Worksheets from 1.1
   3.   Investigation Worksheets from 16.2
   4.   Warm-Ups for Math Understanding

Differentiation:

   1.   Small Group Instruction
   2.   Small Group Investigations
   3.   Whole Class Instruction / Discussion
   4.   CPO created Differentiated Investigation Activities




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1

Module 2: DETAILED INSTRUCTIONAL
                                 Pacing: 5 Days
PATHWAY
                                                                             Teacher Notes:
DAY 1:                                                                       Differentiation / Scaffolding
  1. Whole Class Instruction to Engage:                                      & Common Misconceptions
       a. Pose the question,
           “What equipment will we be using to find the answers that we      Keep linking the claim and
           are seeking?”                                                     evidence together so that the
                                                                             students can be sure to have
       b. Inquire why it is important to use the appropriate equipment.      those terms and meanings.
           Guide them to a discussion about gathering evidence which is
           accurate and precise and can support the claim that was made      Be sure that all students’
           from the testable questions.                                      ideas are noted as valid at
       c. Have students brainstorm how many ways something can be            this point.
           measured.
       d. Note all suggestions on the board but mark any of the ones that
           relate to the task they are about to do.
       e. Write Tools page 6 of Foundations of Physical Science.
           As a class, journal all important information.
       f. Define and journal as a group page 4 section 4 in the
           Investigations manual.

DAY 2:
  1. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. Remind them of the overarching question “What equipment
           will we be using to find the answers that we are seeking?” to
           have them pay attention to the equipment they are using and
           why.                                                              This will ensure that all
       b. Perform Investigation 1.1 parts 6 & 7. As they are performing      students have been heard.
                                                                             “Did everyone hear that?”
            the task be sure to keep each group together by asking how the
            task is being completed and why it’s important.
  2. Whole Class Instruction to Explain:                                     Redirecting questions back
       a. Discuss precision of experiment and ask for suggestions on         to other students in the
            how to improve the precision. Be sure to challenge the           group will ensure further
                                                                             inquiry. “What do YOU
            suggestions made by asking how that suggestion would get a       think?”
            more accurate answer.
       b. Instruct the math necessary to calculate the average and
            determine the percent error.

DAY 3:
  1. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. Perform Investigation 1.1 Parts 1 & 2. Remind the students that
            evidence that they gather should be as precise as possible.
  2. Whole Class Instruction to Explain:
       a. Have students share their averages with the class and record.
       b. Use the data to discuss accuracy of reflexes and how more
            accurate evidence can be gathered.

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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1


DAY 4:
  1. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. Perform Investigation 1.1 Part 3. Students are unfamiliar with
            the equipment at this point so be sure to circulate the room and
            model what they should be doing.
  2. Whole Class Instruction and Discussion to Explain and Elaborate:
       a. Have the class share out answers to questions.
       b. Discuss with them why it is important to use the photogates
            and get more accurate evidence.

DAY 5:
  1. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. Perform Investigation 16.2 Part 1. It’s important to keep the
            entire group together and listening to one another.
       b. In investigation 1 the students are still learning about specific
            equipment, balance scale, in order to understand about making
            accurate quantitative measurements.
  2. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. Give students a plastic cup of water and instruct them to place
            20ml of that water into a beaker. Record the amount of volume
            on the top of Investigation 16.2
       b. Now have them transfer the liquid from the beaker into a 50ml
            graduated cylinder and record the amount of water.
       c. Ask the students at this point which piece of equipment is more
            accurate and in what situations would they use either piece of
            equipment.
       d. Perform Investigation 16.2 Part 2 and remind them that they
            can use all equipment that has been introduced or any
            equipment that may aid in solving the problem.

   3. Class Discussions to Explain and Elaborate:
         a. Share out techniques for mass and volume and have students
             explain reasoning for technique and the evidence that they
             gathered.
         b. Share student ideas on finding the volume of a student and
             have them place their findings onto a large sheet of Post It
                                                                               This is the portion of the
             paper for sharing out ideas.                                      lesson which will begin to
                  1) The testable question is “How can I determine the         allow the students to see the
                       volume of a student?”                                   claim, evidence, reason,
                  2) Have students develop a claim which answers that          scaffolding which will be
                       testable question.                                      used throughout this course.
                  3) Have students collect the evidence which will prove
                       their answer to the testable question.




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1




                                Unit 1 Instructional Pathway

Module 3: SNAPSHOT
                                               Pacing:
Objective(s):
  Students Will Be Able To:
     1. Determine a good hypothesis
     2. Determine the difference between a belief and a theory
     3. Explain skepticism and its role in science inquiry
     4. Discuss how new information and discoveries effect theory


Content Expectations (CE’s) & Performance Expectations (PE’s):

CE’s:
Students will know that…
CE 1.3: Theories are supported with evidence.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.A) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.1.1.1)
CE 1.3: When a hypothesis is supported by repeated testing, it may become a theory.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.A)

PE’s:
Students will be able to…
CE 1.3: Distinguish between a scientific theory and a belief.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.A) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.1.1.1)
CE 1.3: Distinguish between a hypothesis and a scientific theory.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.A)
CE 1.3: Explain how skepticism about an accepted scientific explanation led to a new
     understanding.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.A)
CE 1.3: Explain how new information may change existing theories and practice.
    (STANDARD 3.2.7.A) (ELIGIBLE CONTENT S8.A.1.1.1)



Text References, Materials & Supplies:

                               Resource                          Needed Supplies
      Google article “Absent Shorelines challenges
      Mars Water Theory.” For copying purposes.
      Claim, Evidence, Reasoning Framework
      copied for students.

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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1

Instructional Pathway:

   1.   Venn diagramming of the belief vs. the scientific claim
   2.   Discussion about skepticism and what skepticism does for science
   3.   Discuss how new information changes old theory
   4.   Access students understanding of evidence and claim


Assessments (formative and/or summative):
   1. Venn Diagrams
   2. Class Discussion (Accountable Talk)

Differentiation:

   1.   Small Group Instruction
   2.   CPO Created Differentiated Investigation Worksheets
   3.   Small Group Investigations
   4.   Whole Class Instruction / Discussion




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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1

Module 3: DETAILED
INSTRUCTIONAL PATHWAY
                                                                               Teacher Notes:
DAY 1:                                                                         Differentiation / Scaffolding &
  1. Whole Class Instruction to Engage:                                        Common Misconceptions
       a. Pose the overarching question,
           “How does new knowledge affect the science that we already
           have knowledge of?”
       b. Have students brainstorm the difference between beliefs and
           scientific claims.
       c. Note all of the students answers on the board and discuss.
       d. Have students define theory and how it relates to the beliefs and
           scientific claims just discussed. Place those answers on the
           board until the students and you have come to a consensus about
           what a theory is.
       e. Inquire with the students why a scientist would want to know if
           something is a theory, belief or scientific claim. Guide them to
           the conclusion that this information gathered by scientists is
           research and is used within the reasoning the scientist uses when
           analyzing the evidence.
       f. Create a Venn diagram using a transparency or on the board
           showing all of the connections of the three with student
           suggestions.

DAY 2:                                                                         Define skeptical prior to the
                                                                               lesson if you feel your students
  1. Whole Class Instruction to Engage:                                        will not understand. Give
       a. Ask the students to define or give examples of skepticism based      examples.
           on what they know. If they need help then give them an example
           of something you were skeptical about in your life.
       b. Ask the students to complete the sentence:
           Something I was skeptical about that made me come to a new
           understanding is…
       c. Share out some of the skepticisms that they wrote about and
           share some of your own.
       d. Discuss how skepticism is important in scientific discoveries
           and could lead to new investigations with new claims and new
           evidence gathered for further development of knowledge and
           understanding.

Day 3:
  1. Small Group Activity to Explore:
       a. Take a tally of all of the students that believe or do not believe
            that there is water on Mars.
       b. Assign each group one paragraph from the reading, “Absent
            Shoreline Challenges Mars Water Theory”, and have them use
            the Write Tools and large Post It paper to record.

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  8th Grade Science   Unit 1

        c. Have students write down how the research (evidence)
            challenges the theory of water on Mars.
   2. Whole Class Instruction to Explain:
        a. Take another tally of how many students believe that there is
water
             on Mars.
        b. Have students give you the reason that they changed their minds
or
            didn’t and write them on the board. Be sure that all students can
            hear each other and respect each other's opinion.
   3. Whole Class Instruction to Elaborate:
        a. Ask the students what research in the past 10 years has changed
           their views on any topic of their choice.
                                                                                If kids get stuck and can’t
DAY 4:                                                                          really think of anything then
  1. Small Group Activity to Elaborate:                                         here are a few examples:
       a. In small groups have the students pick a theory that they are              1. Breast Cancer research
                                                                                     2. AIDS Research
            skeptical about and write it on a large sheet of Post It paper.          3. Life on Mars
            This theory may be something that they learned last year or              4. Intelligence of
            something that they have been thinking about. Be sure the group               Animals
            is agreeing on one topic to cover.
       b. Have the group develop a testable question using the                  Be sure that as you circulate
                                                                                you encourage group s to use
            characteristics that they developed in Module 1 based on the        different pieces of the
            theory that they believe needs to be answered.                      equipment that they have seen.
       c. Have the students list all of the equipment that they will need to
            properly test their claim.
       d. Have the students develop what type of evidence they will be
            gathering: will it be exact measurements using time, rulers,
            photogates, volume…

DAY 5:
  1. Small Group Activity to Evaluate:
       a. In the students’ groups have them develop the procedure that
            they would use to test the testable question from the previous
            day. They should be detailed and specific as if a stranger were
            doing the experiment.
       b. Have the students explain why the proper procedure and
            equipment are so important when gathering evidence.
       c. Have students use their imaginations and make up the evidence
            as if they had actually done the experiment.
       d. Be sure that students have used the proper units within their
            findings.
       e. Explain how the reasoning behind their claim is important in
            determining its truth and that they should use their claim and
            evidence to develop the reason for their belief. This is a first
            attempt at reasoning and will give you a good base on what


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 8th Grade Science   Unit 1

                 students believe is enough.




Unit 1 CULMINATING PROJECT
                                               Pacing: 1 Day
The culminating project is Module 3 Days 4 & 5 lesson.




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