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									        PowerPoint Presentation
    to accompany

Organizational Behavior
11th Edition

Don Hellriegel and John W. Slocum, Jr.

Chapter 9—Leading Effectively:
          Contemporary Developments
                                  Prepared by
                                  Argie Butler
                             Texas A&M University
    Learning Objectives for Leading
Effectively: Contemporary Developments

 State the characteristics of transactional
  leadership.

 Describe the features of charismatic
  leadership.

 Discuss the attributes of authentic
  leadership.

 Explain the nature of transformational
  leadership.
 Transactional Leadership:
 Interrelated Components



Emphasizes                       Provides
  passive                       contingent
management      Transactional    rewards
by exception     Leadership


                     Exhibits
               active management
                   by exception
 Practices of Effective Transactional
               Leaders

 They ask: “What needs to be done?”

 They ask: “What is right for the
organization?

 They develop action plans.

 They take responsibility for decisions.

 They take responsibility for communicating.
Model of Charismatic Leadership
          (Figure 9.1)


             Reflects    Extraordinary
             strength      personal
                           qualities

                  Charismatic
  Exhibits        leadership    Emphasizes
  desired                       shared vision
  behaviors                      and values

                  Promotes
                   shared
                   identity
      Implications for Leaders

 Gains power because their followers identify
  with them

 Rare in business

 Communication competency is critical
            Model of Authentic Leadership (Figure 9.2)

                                       Raises            Stimulates
                                      optimism            follower
                                                        identification


                                                 Authentic
                             Shows                                      Creates
                                                Leadership
                             positive                                    hope
                            emotions

                                                 Reflects
                                                  trust


Source: Based on Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Walumbwa, F.O., Luthans, F., and May, D.R. Unlocking the
mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. Leadership
Quarterly, 2004, 15, 801-823.
         Implications for Leaders

 Influence followers’ attitudes and behaviors
  through identification, hope, trust, positive
  emotions, and optimism.

 Knows oneself—strengths and limitations

 Ethics and open communication are central

 Focus on being a “servant” to followers and other
  stakeholders
Model of Transformational Leadership
            (Figure 9.3)


       Shows                   Provides
   individualized            inspirational
   consideration              motivation

                Transformational
                   leadership
     Fosters                         Creates
    idealized                      intellectual
    influence                      stimulation
            Inspirational Motivation


 Displays great enthusiasm and optimism



 Gets followers involved in and committed to a vision



 Inspires others by what they say and do
           Intellectual Stimulation

 Urges followers to question assumptions,
  explore new methods and ideas, and take
  new approaches to old situations

 Actively seeks out new ideas and creative
  solutions from followers


 Doesn’t criticize followers’ ideas just because
  they differ from those of the leader
          Intellectual Stimulation
                   (Continued)

 Relatively high tolerance for mistakes made
  by conscientious followers

 Focuses on the “what” in problems rather
  than the “who” to blame

 Willing to abandon systems and practices
  that are no longer useful

 Views risk taking as necessary and desirable
  for long-term development and success
        Idealized Influence

 Often considers the needs and interests
  of their followers before their own

 May willingly sacrifice personal gain

 Can be trusted

 Demonstrate high ethical and moral
  standards
         Idealized Influence
                 (Continued)


 Can be very direct and challenging to some
  followers and empathetic and supportive of
  others

 Minimizes the use of power for personal gain


 Uses all power sources to move individuals
  and teams toward a vision and its goals
         Individualized Consideration

May act as coach, mentor, teacher, facilitator, confidant,
 and counselor

Embraces and rewards individual differences to enhance
 creativity and innovation

Encourages open dialogue with followers

Empowers followers to make decisions

Monitors followers to determine if they need additional
 support or direction
             Implications for Leaders


 Needed more than ever at all levels


 Encourages reasonable risk taking


 Knows when to reject traditional ways of doing things


 Vital to handling difficult and complex organizational
  threats, opportunities, and weaknesses
PowerPoint Presentation
to accompany
Organizational Behavior
11th Edition

Don Hellriegel and John W. Slocum, Jr.

Chapter 10—Developing and Leading
           Teams
                                     Prepared by
                                   Argie Butler
                           Texas A&M University
           Learning Objectives for Leading
               and Developing Teams
 State the basic characteristics of groups, including
  informal groups.

 Describe the attributes of six types of work-related
  teams.

 Explain the five-stage model of team development.

 Describe seven key factors that influence team
  effectiveness.

 Explain how team creativity can be stimulated through
  the nominal group technique, traditional
  brainstorming, and electronic brainstorming.
               Features of Informal
                     Groups

Informal group goals and formal organizational
 goals are not necessarily related

 Often meet their members’ social and security needs

May exercise undesirable power over individual
 members from the perspective of higher management


May exhibit both positive and negative
 characteristics
      Characteristics of Effective Groups

 Members of effective groups:

   Know why the group exists and have shared goals

   Support agreed upon decision-making guidelines
    or procedures for making decisions

   Communicate freely among themselves

   Help each other

   Deal with conflict within the group

   Diagnose and improve individual and group
    processes and functioning
Common Types of Work-Related
    Teams (Figure 10.1)


                Functional

   Virtual
                Global       Problem-
                Teams         Solving

 Self-Managed
                Cross-Functional
            Brief Definitions of Types of
               Work-Related Teams

 Functional team
   Members work together daily on similar tasks and must
    coordinate their efforts

 Problem-solving team
   Members focus on a specific issue, develop potential
    solution, and often are empowered to take action

 Cross-functional team
   Members from various work areas who identify and solve
    mutual problems
              Brief Definitions of Types of
             Work-Related Teams (continued)
 Self-managed team
   Highly interdependent and empowered members who must work
    together effectively daily to manufacture an entire product (or major
    identifiable component) or provide an entire service to a set of
    customers.

 Virtual team
   Members who collaborate through various information technologies
    on one or more tasks while located at two or more locations.

 Global team
   Members from a variety of countries who are, therefore, often
    separated significantly by time, distance, culture, and native
    language.
        When Is Team Problem Solving Likely
        to be Superior to Individual Problem
                      Solving?

 Greater diversity of information, experience, and
  approaches is important to the task

 Acceptance of decisions is crucial for effective
  implementation

 Participation is important for reinforcing the values
  of representation and demonstrating respect

 Team members rely on each other in performing
  their jobs
Characteristics of Team Empowerment


              Potency




Impact     Empowerment Meaningfulness



             Autonomy
   Examples of Managerial Tasks That May
    be Performed by Self-Managed Teams

 Work and vacation scheduling



 Ordering materials
 Deciding on team leadership
 Setting key team goals


 Hiring replacements for departing team members
 Sometimes evaluating each other’s performance
      Conditions for Use of Empowered
           Self-Managed Teams

Is the organization fully committed to aligning
 all management systems with the teams?

Are organizational goals and the expected
 team results clearly specified?

Will the teams have access to the resources
 they need for high performance?
      Conditions for Use of Empowered
       Self-Managed Teams (continued)

Will team members carry out interdependent
 tasks?

Do employees have the necessary maturity
 levels?

Are employee competency levels sufficient for
 handling increased responsibility and, if not,
 will training lead to the needed competencies?
        Core Features of Virtual Teams

 Goals
    Clear, precise, and mutually agreed upon goals are the
     glue that holds a virtual team together

 People
    Everyone needs to be autonomous and self-reliant while
     simultaneously working collaboratively with others

 Technological links
    Virtual teams can function with simple or more complex
     information technologies
                       Stages of Team Development
       Mature
       (efficient,
       effective)
    Group Maturity




                                                                                  Failure


   Immature                                                      Failure
   (inefficient,                               Failure
   ineffective)
                         Forming            Storming           Norming          Performing         Adjourning
                                                                 Stage
Source: Adapted from Tuckman, B.W., and Jensen, M.A.C. Stages of small-group development revisited. Group and
Organization Studies, 1977, 2, 419-442; Komanski, C. Team interventions: Moving the team forward. In J. Pfeiffer (ed.),
The 1996 Annual: Volume 2 Consulting. San Diego: Pfeiffer and Company, 1996, 19-26.
     Potential Team Dysfunctions in
           Performing Stage

 Groupthink

       Illusion of invulnerability
       Direct pressure to suppress dissent

       Self-censorship
       Shared illusion of unanimity

 Free Riding

 Absence of Trust
                 Team Context

                 Type of Technology




Organizational                         Physical
  Rewards            External          Working
     and            Conditions        Conditions
 Punishments

                  Management
                   Practices
                   Goals

 Team Goals

     Outcomes desired by the team as a whole,
     not just goals of the individual members

 Compatible and conflicting goals often exist
  within a team

 Use of superordinate goals
         Team Member Roles and Diversity

Task-oriented role
    Initiating new ideas, seeking information, giving
     information, coordinating, and evaluating

Relations-oriented role
    Encouraging members, harmonizing and mediating,
     encouraging participation, expressing standards, and
     following

Self-oriented role
    Blocking progress, seeking recognition, dominating,
     and avoiding involvement
                 Team Diversity

   Attitudes involving stereotypical false assumptions
   about team diversity

Diversity poses a threat to the organization’s effective
 functioning.

Expressed discomfort with the dominant group’s
 values is perceived as oversensitivity by minority
 groups.

Members of all groups want to become and should be
 more like the dominant group.

Equal treatment means the same treatment.
                  Norms
Rules and patterns of behaviors that are accepted
and expected by members of a team


 Conforming to norms

     Compliance conformity


     Personal acceptance conformity
              Cohesiveness
  Strength of the member’s desire to remain in a
  team and their commitment to it


 Low cohesiveness is usually associated with
  low conformity

 High cohesiveness may be associated with
  either high or low conformity
           Leadership in Teams

Informal leaders are important in determining
 whether a team accomplishes its goals

Multiple leaders may exist in a team because it has
 both relations-oriented and task-oriented goals

Effective team leaders influence virtually all the
 other factors that affect team behaviors
          Stimulating Team Creativity

Nominal group technique
    A structured process used where there is disagreement
     or incomplete knowledge

Traditional brainstorming
    Individuals state as many ideas as possible during a
     short time period

Electronic brainstorming
    Uses collaborative software technology to facilitate
     involvement of all team members in idea generation
           Stages of the Nominal Group
                Technique (NGT)



                                  Voting   Outcome
Generating Recording Clarifying
                                   on         of
  Ideas      Ideas     Ideas
                                  Ideas     Session
     Guidelines for Traditional
          Brainstorming

        Wilder the Ideas the better




 Quantity    Brainstorming     No Criticism
is Wanted                        Allowed



        Hitchhike on or Combine
         previously stated ideas

								
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