Deviance: violation of norms deviance is the opposite of by 5w283y

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									Chapter 6
Deviance: violation of social norms
Critical thinking: what is the opposite of deviance?
                   Different kind of social norms?
                   What is crime?
                   examples of deviance?

Point: both deviance and crime has nothing to do with
morality
The Sociological Perspective on
Crime/deviance
 Relativity of Deviance:

 No human action by itself is inherently deviant.
    Deviance or not depends on how people define it.
   People become deviants because others define
    them as deviants (subculture, physical
    differences)
   To some it is deviance, to others it is not.
   Variation exists across cultures, times, situations,
    places.
   Definition of deviance or deviants has much to do
    with power pattern and power struggle in society.
 Major argument: No absolute definition, deviance
    is relative in nature
Who is Deviant?
  Whether Deviant or not depends on social
   responses, such as stigma, negative sanction,
   for violation of the core values of society.

  Not necessarily on violations


  Sometimes: ascribed status and subculture
   make people become deviants.
Why deviance?
 Individual approach: biological, genetic
  factors; Predisposed psychological factors:
  personality disorder, weak self-control.
 Sociologists consider biological and
  psychological explanations inadequate, and
  believe that
   Outside factors, not inside / innate factors, are
  responsible for deviance. and
 the individual perspectives is blaming the
  victim.
 Critical thinking: social factors and crime/
  deviance: gender, age, race/ethncity/social
  class
Functionalist:
  Nothing abnormal about deviance, every society
  has deviance, just like human body get sick.

  Society needs deviance, when lacking deviance,
   society will create some.
  Functions of deviance: 1. promote social unity
  2. Affirm cultural values and norms,
  3. Clarify moral boundaries,
  4. encourage social change.
  5. provide a safety valve for society.
Why do some societies have
excessive amount of deviance?

 Durkheim: anomie: normlessness
        social integration

 Merton: strain theory (anomie theory): if
 society inculcates certain cultural values, goals,
 but fails to provide adequate means for people
 to achieve the cultural goals, anomie appears.

 Critical thinking question: poverty causes
 crime?
Point: If the discrepancy exists between
cultural goals and means, people tends to
seek alternative ways to adapt to the
adversity of life.
  Deviance behavior:
  1. Innovation: still keep cultural goals, give up
   institutionalized means.
  2. Ritualism, stick to the rules, give up
   aspirations.
  3. Retreatism: reject both.
  4. Rebellion: reject both, but seek change by
   challenging existing social order.
Opportunity Theory by Cloward
and Ohlin (1960)
 Blocked opportunity for success (lack
  legitimate means for achievement, ).
 But have Access to illegitimate opportunity:
   For example: inner city residents, young, male,
 poor - high crime rate.

Point: crime rate differ, not based on individual
 characteristics, but based on neighborhood
 characteristics.
Broken Window Theory:
 Deviance/crime is a rational response to situations of
 social disorder
Conflict explanation
 1. Deviance resulted from class struggle: social
 inequality is the root of other social problems.

 2. Deviance resulted from group conflict: value
 conflict, interest conflict. (e.g. hate crime)

 Critical thinking:
 Heterogeneity or homogeneity?
 Empirically supported?
Conflict theory (continued)
 Social class as the central variable in explaining
  crimes.
 Biases in law enforcement against the poor


 For example: white collar crime vs street crime
 White collar : the most expensive of all types of crime (cost
  range between 174 and 231 billion annually, c.f. 15 billion
  from street crime);
 Fewer than 25% reported get prosecuted.
 2.4 years average prison vs 7.8 years for traditional bank
  robbery
Feminist theory
 Gender is the central variable: why rape or date/
  acquaintance rape
 Women as subordinate
 As sexual object
 Lower social economic status
 Higher rate of mental depression

Interactionist theory: learned
behavior
  the differential association theory: people
   influenced by their primary groups, the
   intensity, the frequency of interaction
   affect behavior.
  Subculture theory: e.g. gang membership
   caused by teenage subculture: violence,
   rebellion etc.
Control theory/Social Bonds theory
(emphasize socialization)
 Deviance/criminal is normal, conformity is abnormal.
 Behave based on natural desires
 Society control exercise social control of people’s
  natural tendency for conformity:
 outer control: outside force to press you to conform.
 inner control: conscience for what is right and what is
  wrong

 Social bonds theory: emphasize that society bonds
 people together by attachment, committment, beliefs
 and values.
  Labeling theory
 Labeling theory: deviance is a result of being labeled
  by society.
     Primary deviance: out of curiosity, emergency, or
  as a spontaneous reaction.
 secondary deviance: out of people’s self –perception
  of being labeled; deliberate non-conformity
  behavior.

 Labels open or close doors of opportunity for the
  individuals involved.
 Point: labeling channels people’s behavior into continuance of
  deviant behavior.
Techniques employed to resist
labeling:
   Denial of responsibility
   Denial of injury
   Denial of a victim
   Condemnation of the condemners
   Appeal to high loyalty

 The theory is based on the conflict theory (power
  struggle), and the symbolic interactionist theory
  (people interpret their social situation and act
  accordingly).
  Deviance is resulted of Deviance
Medicalizationfrom physical illness and
     need to be treated by medicine.

  Sociologist finding: social experiences underlie
   deviant behavior. People deviate from social
     norms and social labeling made people deviants.
 
  Social implication: Institutionalized treatment vs
   de-institutionalization. Labeling, stigma, or
   blovked opportunity for the individuals involved.
Social control
Internal control: Individuals
 internalize norms and values,
 develop conscience and
 voluntarily control themselves.
External control: Outside forces
 such as controlling actions of
 social groups. formal     informal
       legal codes    family
     enforced by      friends
   government agencies peers
Formal control: the Criminal Justice
System
 Three parts: the police, the courts, and the
  corrections:
 Deter crime, preserve order, maintain justice, and
  rehabilitation
 Deterrence theory: deter crime by creating fear:
  letting potential offenders know that those who
  break the law will be punished severely,
 Certainly,
 And swiftly.
Why Criminal justice system does not
function as expected, and Why Prisons do
not Rehabilitate?
 Inmate Subculture
 Inconsistency between the goals and the
  internal structure of prisons
 Inconsistency between written laws and
  laws in action
 Decision is at the discretion of individual law-
  enforcement agents.
 Social structural factors such as social class
  and gender.
Sociologists’ Argument
 Social context and structural factors affect crime
  rate: factors External to individuals are
  responsible.
 Criminals are the victims of society’s
  problems
 Society’s tendency to blame the victims: e.g.
  misconceptions in victimization
  age
  race
  gender
  social classes
         of crime: 2 categaries: crime crime
Types indexcrime/Extent of against
 UCR: 8
  person, crime against property
 Uniform Crime Report: official source of data
 UCR represents only crimes known to police;
 Only reflects 1/3 of all crimes committed annually;
 Focus on lower class crime: 8 indexed crimes:
  violence and property crime;
 Overlook offenses that have an extrem impact on
  society: (particularly corporate crimes and
  organized crimes)
 Recording is at the discretion of individual officers.:
  respect, social class, minority status.
Continued:
 Inconsistency exists between Reported crime and
  NCS victimization rate.
 Clearance of crime: process of being arrested and
  charged for the offense:
 Clearance rate: 45% for violence crime
                 18% for property crime
 Only about 1 in 5 offenses results in an arrest.
 Criminal case mortality (attrition rate)
 Only 7 out of 100 cases result in a charge being
  filed against a suspect.
 Fewer than half finally go to prison
 E.g. rape: 92% do not result in the offender going
  to prison.
White collar crimes
  / occupational crime (term coined by Edwin
   Sutherland)
  Who? Medical professionals, bankers, bond
   traders, brokers, politicians, etc.
  Consumer crime
  Occupational crime
  Organizational crime
  cybercrime
Organizational crime:
corporations engage in illegal
activities:
  hazardous working conditions, harmful products,
   negligence of workers’ and consumers’ interests.
  U.S. chemical corporations export 150 million
   pounds of presticides to other countries.
  1.7 million of intrauterine devices dumped
   overseas.
  Characteristics: utilitarian, positive public image,
  enormous expenses to the public, attitude of
   noncriminality
Organized crime: structured and global
scale


 Internationalized, industrialized.
 Gross income exceeds $226 billion US alone).
Violent crimes
 There is a high rate of violent crime in American
  society (9.4 per 100,000) compared to other
  western countries (4.3 per 100.000).

 Violence: the homicide rate is 2 times greater than
  the average for other industrialized nations.
  (Reason: cultural context: American is the most
  violent in western cultures: glorify violence and a
  tradition of violence?)
 Gun Violence
 Federal control of gun licensing is lax and
  ineffective in controlling sale and purchase (about
  70% of the people holding licenses should not hold
  them).
 Gun crime increased while other types of violent
  crime decreased. (about 30,000 death of gun
  related violence annually, more than traffic
  accident, ¾ by acquaintances)
 Gun killing among the young increased 371% since
  1980
 Compare: in 1996: New Zealand: 2, Japan: 15,
  England: 30, Canada: 106, Germany: 213, US: 9396
The magnitude and variety of Rape
 Forcible rape
 Statutory rape
 Acquaintance rape
 80 per 100,000 females city
 77 suburban
 51 rural
 Social responses? Stigma, blame the victim
 Causes: male domination mentality
          women as sexual object
           lower position of women in society
Gang Violence and Hate Crimes
 Increased
 Subculture
 Hate crimes: based on race, sexual orientation,
  ethnicity and ancestry.

 Family violence: violence against children (reasons)
 Child abuse
 Wife abuse (reasons)
 Alcohol and family violence
Property crime
 Poor people’s crime.
 More harm done to the public interest than white
 collar crime?
the Influence of Drug on Crime
 As many as 80% of all offenders admit to the use of
  illegal drugs
 Points:
 1. Substance abuse facilitate criminal behavior
 2. other factors affect the relationship: background,
  personality, type of substance, circumstances.
 3. Drug use does not directly cause criminal behavior,
  but the same circumstances contribute to both
  behavior.
 4. Gender as an intervening variable.
The extent of crime (victimization and victims)
   80% victims and 90% offenders are male
   Female kill 14% of male victims, for self-defense
   Highest for young between 20-35 years old
   47% white
   49% black
   Black victim 3 times higher than white, victimization 4
    times higher.
   Percentage of violent crime in general increased 17%, bur
    for the young, by 128%
   Most homicide are intraracial: 94% black victims were by
    black, 84% white by white
   87% male death by male
   9 out of 10 female death by male
Social Deviance by Shaw and McKay
 Crimes are deviant behavior when social
 disorganization occurs.
 The root is social, not individual traits: social
  characteristics of the respective neighborhoods
  make the differences in behavior.
 Crime rate are directly, positively related to
  other social problems such as poverty, infant
  mortality, and school drop-out, drug problem.
 Problems: neglect the effect of social inequality
  and macro level social change.

								
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