Recent Developments in Feeding, Fixturing, and Holding

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					Introduction to
    Robots
The term “Robot”




Coined by Czech playright
   Karel Capek (1921)
        Robotics & Automation Society



Robotics and
Automation
involves designing
and implementing
intelligent
machines to do
work too dirty, too
dangerous, too
precise, or too
tedious for
humans.
                  http://ieee-ras.org
    Two Classes of Robots




Anthropomorphic   Non-Anthropomorphic
  Unstructured       Structured
   Flexible          Efficient
        Some Predictions

• “Household robots will do all
  chores.” (1930)
• “Atomic Batteries will be
  commonplace.” (1955)
• “2% of population will manufacture
  all goods.” (1963)

• (none of these were accurate ;)
 “Industrial robot”:
    • Reprogrammable,
      • multi-function
    • manipulator with
     • 3 or more axes.




(Robot Institute of America)
       Robot Industry
•   Fanuc, ABB, Adept
•   Welding
•   Spray Painting
•   Assembly
•   Automotive, Food, Aerospace, Electronics
•   Size of Industry (2007): $1 Billion
        Robotics Research


• MechE, CS, EE, IE   •   Kinematics
• NSF, Arpa, NASA     •   Dynamics
• Japan, Europe       •   Motion Planning
• Universities, Nat   •   Grasping
  Labs                •   Locomotion
• IEEE Society of     •   Actuator Design
  Robotics and        •   Sensor Design
  Automation
       Frontiers of Robotics


• Nonlinear Control   •   Medical Robots
• Lie Algebra         •   Micro-scale Robots
• Computational       •   Networked Robots
  Geom.               •   Modular Robots
• Computational       •   Hazardous Cleanup
  Algebra             •   Personal Robots
• Randomization       •   Robot Ethics
Lego Mindstorms (1998)
NASA Lunar Rover/Mars Sojourner
Honda Asimo Humanoid
             Robotics vs Automation
• Both involve: computers, physical world, geometry
• Both engage many disciplines
• “robota”           coined in 1920 (Capek)
   – Emphasizes unpredictable environments like homes, undersea
• “automation” coined in 1948 (Ford Motors)
   – Emphasizes predictable environments like factories, labs




        robotics                              automation
• Emphasis on efficiency, quality, productivity, and
  reliability
• New Applications and Methods
• Central to the IEEE RA Society
• Flagship journal (T-ASE), Flagship conference (CASE)
• Attracting leading researchers from Automation




         www.ieee.org/t-ase
   Introduction to
      Robotics
Sookram Sobhan, Polytechnic University
     ssobha01@photon.poly.edu
                 Outline


•   What is it?
•   What can it do?
•   History
•   Key components
•   Applications
•   Future
•   Robotics @ MPCRL
What is a Robot:
        I
   Manipulato
    r
Overview of Robots and Automation




      ken goldberg, uc berkeley
What is a Robot:
        I
   Manipulator
    What is a Robot:
           II
Legged Robot     Wheeled Robot
            What is a Robot:
                   III
Underwater Vehicle   Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
           What Can Robots Do: I


                        Jobs that are too
                        dangerous for
                        humans


    Decontaminating Robot
Cleaning the main circulating
pump housing in the nuclear
power plant
    What Can Robots Do: II



                Repetitive jobs that are
                boring, stressful, or
                labor-intensive for
                humans

Welding Robot
     What Can Robots Do: III




                Menial tasks that human
                don’t want to do



The SCRUBMATE
Robot
                Robot Defined

• Word robot was coined by a
  Czech novelist Karel Capek in a
  1920 play titled Rossum’s
  Universal Robots (RUR)
• Robota in Czech is a word for      Karel
  worker or servant
                                    Capek
Definition   of robot:
  –Any machine made by by one our members:
  Robot Institute of America 
Laws of Robotics
• Asimov    proposed     three
  “Laws of Robotics”

• Law 1: A robot      may not
  injure a human      being or
  through inaction,    allow a
  human being to      come to
  harm

• Law 2: A robot must obey
  orders given to it by human
  beings, except where such
  orders would conflict with a
  higher order law

• Law 3: A robot must protect
  its own existence as long as
  such protection does not
  conflict with a higher order
  law
                   History of Robotics: I

• The first industrial
  robot: UNIMATE
• 1954: The first programmable
  robot is designed by George
  Devol, who coins the term
  Universal Automation. He later
  shortens this to Unimation,
  which becomes the name of
  the first robot company (1962).


                                    UNIMATE originally automated the
                                    manufacture of TV picture tubes
             History of Robotics: II


1978:     The     Puma
(Programmable Universal
Machine for Assembly)
robot is developed by
Unimation with a General
Motors design support



                           PUMA 560
                           Manipulator
                History of Robotics: III
1980s: The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth.
Many institutions introduce programs and courses in robotics.
Robotics courses are spread across mechanical engineering,
electrical engineering, and computer science departments.




Adept's SCARA      Cognex In-Sight       Barrett Technology
History of Robotics: IV


           1995-present:
           Emerging applications
           in small robotics and
           mobile robots drive a
           second growth of start-
           up    companies    and
           research
         Knowledgebase for Robotics
•Typical knowledgebase for the design and operation
of robotics systems
  –Dynamic system modeling and analysis
  –Feedback control
  –Sensors and signal conditioning
  –Actuators and power electronics
  –Hardware/computer interfacing
      Disciplines: mathematics, physics,
  –Computer programming
      biology,    mechanical    engineering,
      electrical   engineering,   computer
            Key Components
        Power conversion
              unit
  Sensor                   Actuators
    s
               Controlle
                  r
  User
interface
              Manipulat
              or linkage
                  Bas
      Robot Base: Fixed v/s Mobile
Robotic manipulators used in    Mobile bases are typically
manufacturing are examples of   platforms with wheels or tracks
fixed robots. They can not      attached. Instead of wheels or
move their base away from the   tracks, some robots employ
work being done.                legs in order to move about.
Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements
                           Gear, rack, pinion, etc.




                                                           Cam and Follower
Inclined plane wedge   Chain and sprocket




                                                          Lever
  Slider-Crank

                                                Linkage
                           Sensors: I
•Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and
smell provide us vital information to function and
survive

•Robot         sensors:          measure        robot
configuration/condition and     its environment and
send such information to         robot controller as         Accelerometer
                                                        Using Piezoelectric Effect
electronic signals (e.g., arm   position, presence of
toxic gas)

•Robots often need information that is beyond 5
human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark,
detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure
movement that is too small or fast for the human
eye to see)
                                                          Flexiforce
                 Sensors: II

Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick
bins, perform inspection, etc.

Part-Picking: Robot can          In-Sight Vision
                                 Sensors
handle work pieces that are
randomly piled by using 3-
D vision sensor. Since
alignment     operation,   a
special parts feeder, and an
alignment pallete are not
                Sensors: III
   Force Sensor: e.g.,
   parts      fitting  and
   insertion,         force
   feedback in robotic
   surgery
Parts fitting and insertion:
Robots can do precise fitting
and insertion of machine
parts by using force sensor.
A robot can insert parts that
have the phases after
matching their phases in
                          Sensors: IV




Infrared Ranging Sensor
                             Example


                                                       KOALA
                                                       ROBOT
                          •6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas
                          •Obstacle detection over a wide range from 15cm to 3m
                          •16 built-in infrared proximity sensors (range 5-20cm)
                          •Infrared sensors act as a “virtual bumper” and allow for
                          negotiating tight spaces
                      Sensors: V
Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a
robot



                        Example




        Tilt Sensor

                                   Planar Bipedal Robot
                   Actuators: I

• Common robotic actuators utilize combinations
  of different electro-mechanical devices
  –   Synchronous motor
  –   Stepper motor
  –   AC servo motor
  –   Brushless DC servo motor
  –   Brushed DC servo motor




                                 http://www.ab.com/motion/servo/fseries.html
                   Actuators: II



                     Pneumatic
                     Cylinder
 Hydraulic Motor                    Stepper Motor




Pneumatic Motor          DC Motor
                                    Servo Motor
               Controller
 Provide necessary intelligence to control the
  manipulator/mobile robot
 Process the sensory information and compute
  the control commands for the actuators to
  carry out specified tasks
       Controller Hardware:
                 I
Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the
control program and the state of the robot
system obtained from the sensors
             Controller Hardware:
                       II
      Computational engine that computes the
      control commands




RoboBoard Robotics Controller   BASIC Stamp 2
                                    Module
                    Controller Hardware:
                             III
  Interface units: Hardware to interface
  digital controller with the external world
  (sensors and actuators)
Analog to Digital                     Operational Amplifiers
   Converter




                              LM358                      LM358




                              LM1458 dual operational amplifier
           Industries Using
•Agriculture   Robots
•Automobile
•Construction
•Entertainment
•Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery ,
research, etc.
•Laboratories: science, engineering , etc.
•Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc.
•Manufacturing
•Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc.
•Mining, excavation, and exploration
•Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc.
•Utilities: gas, water, and electric
             What Can Robots Do?

 Industrial Robots

•Material handling
•Material transfer
•Machine loading and/or
unloading                 Material Handling
                            Manipulator
•Spot welding
•Continuous arc welding
•Spray coating
•Assembly
•Inspection                                           Assembly
                                                     Manipulator
                                      Spot Welding
        Robots in Space




NASA Space Station
   Robots in Hazardous Environments




                         HAZBOT      operating      in
TROV in     Antarctica   atmospheres       containing
operating       under    combustible gases
water
              Medical Robots




Robotic assistant for
micro surgery
                Robots at Home




Sony SDR-3X Entertainment Robot   Sony Aido
      Future of Robots: I

      Artificial
      Intelligence




Cog                  Kismet
          Future of Robots: II

               Autonom
                  y




Robot Work Crews         Garbage Collection
                                Cart
Future of Robots: III

     Humanoi
       ds




               HONDA Humanoid Robot
Introduction to Robotics

“Robot”s – A historical perspective
           What is in a name?

How does one define ROBOT?

Oxford American Dictionary:
A machine capable of carrying
out a complex series of actions
automatically, especially one
Merriam-Webster Dictionary: 1. A machine
programmed by a computer
that looks and acts like a human being. 2. An
efficient but insensitive person. 3. A device that
automatically performs repetitive tasks. 4.
Something guided by automatic controls.
           What is in a name?

The robot rage currently is BIOMIMICRY. Biomimicry is
  the study of nature’s designs and processes in search of
  inspiration for creating machines and process that solves
  human problems.


                           So does copying
                           nature DEFINE
                           what robots are?
        Robot Institute of America

RIA presents its definition of a robot as: A
  reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator
  designed to move material, parts, tools, or
  specialized devices through various
  programmed functions for the performance ofa
  variety of tasks.
 Japanese Industrial Robot Association
               (JIRA)

JIRA’s chiefly concerned with industrial robots but has
   created a robot classification system.
• Manipulators (Manual, Sequential,
  Programmable)
• Numerically Controlled
• Sensate
• Adaptive
• Smart
• Intelligent mechantronic
                Manipulators

• Manual – Machines slaved to a
  human operator
• Sequential – Device that
  perform a series of tasks in the
  same sequence every time they
  are activated. (Phone switching
  system)
• Programmable – An assembly
  line robotic arm
          Numerically Controlled

• These are also known as
  Playback robots.
  – Robots that are instructed to
    perform tasks through the receipts
    of information on sequences and
    positions in the form of numerical
    data.
  – These types of robots are often
    used to make precision machinery.
             Sensate Robots

• Robots that incorporate senor
  feedback into their circuitry –
  touch sensors, proximity
  sensors, vision systems, and
  so forth.


 The HelpMate trackless robotic hospital courier
 uses sensors to deliver materials within a
 hospital or medical facility so that the staff can
 focus on patient care instead of running around
 taking care of errands. It includes laser scanners
               Adaptive Robots

• Robots that can change the
  way they function in response
  to their environment.


KASPAR (Kinesics and              This program works with children
                                  who are prevented from playing,
Synchronization in                either due to cognitive,
Personal Assistant                developmental or physical
                                  impairments which affect their
Robotics) is a child-sized        playing skills, and is investigating
                                  how robotic toys can empower
humanoid robot . This             children with disabilities to discover
                                  the range of play styles from solitary
robot has been used to
                                  to social and cooperative play.
investigate the possible
use of robotic systems as
                    Smart Robots

•   Robots that are considered to
    possess Artificial Intelligence
    (AI). Whether or not AI exists is
    still debated.




    Frontline and White Box Robotics has created a
    robots called PC-BOT. The idea is based on
    collaboration. Teams of these small robots
    can be used at factories, plants, & shopping
    malls. The software is designed in layers where
    the first controls the movement of the robot
    and its own sensor function which looks for
   Intelligent-Mechatronic Systems

• “Mechatronics” a fancy word
  coined by the Japanese
  refers to the intersection of
  Mechanical/Electrical and
  computer control systems. It
  refers to “smart devices”
  that are embedded into
  systems already in place. iLane™
      An intelligent, portable device that lets you
     control your smartphone using simple voice
     commands when you're inside your vehicle.
     Now you can open, listen to, and respond to
     email entirely hands-free simply by speaking
                          aloud.
So how would you respond if you were
       asked what is a robot?

•   Carlo Bertocchini (Battlebots Champion) –”Deciding if a machine
  is or is not a robot is like trying to decide if a certain shade of greenish
  blue is truly blue or not blue”.
• Roger Gilbertson (owner of THE ROBOT STORE) – “I define a
  robot as any autonomous sensor-processor-actuator system that
  functions in a specific world.”
•   Fred G. Martin ( professor of computer science a UMASS) –
  “The term ‘robot’, while accurate, is too mentally confining.”
• Rodney Brooks (Director of MIT’s AI lab) – “A robot is a machine
  which senses the world, computes, and then decides on some action in
  the world which has a physical reach beyond itself.”
• Gordon McComb (amateur robotics guru) –” I can’t really define
  robot. I just know one when I see it.”
         So why the confusion?

Part of what constitutes a robot has to do with the many
  types of popular media which has led robots to infamy.



The term ROBOT comes to us from the Czech
word , robota, which means forced labor or
servitude.

The term was first introduced in Karel Capek’s
play R.U.R (Rossum’s Universal Robots).
Written in 1920, it centers around a mad-
scientist type who tries to usurp the powers of
                         R.U.R

In the play, Rossum’s industrialist
   nephew sees the artificial humans as
   the perfect worker, a tireless laborer
   who doesn’t complain, doesn’t need
   health insurance, and doesn’t
   demand a paycheck



  Karel himself didn’t coin
  the term robot but rather
  his brother, Josef. Prior to
  1920, the term
  automaton was used.
                  Issac Asimov

• Throughout the 1940’s , Issac,
  wrote many short stories
  depicting robots for various
  popular sci-fi magazines.
• In 1950, I-Robot was published.
• In 1942, he used the word
  Robotics in a short story called
  Runaround and is therefore
  credited as the author of the
  word.
Engleberger meets Devol

        In 1956, Joseph Engleberger, an
           aerospace engineer met George Devol,
           an inventor and entrepreneur, for
           cocktails. They discovered they both
           loved the stories of Asimov and sci-fi.
           Devol told Engleberger about a patent
           he was trying to get involving a
           programmable manipulator.
           Engleberger immediately saw the
           potential and founded UNIMATION
           with Devol, the worlds first robot
           maker.
              UNIMATION

Universal Automation was born
  ad General Motors became the
  first company to install a
  UNIMATE in 1962. The
  Unimate was a robotic arm
  used to extract hot parts from
  a die-casting machine, a
  dangerous job for a human
  worker.                        Significant
                               moment in robot
                               history #1
             Dr. W. Grey Walter

• In 1948, Grey conducted
  some experiments on a
  mobile, autonomous robot.
  He was interested if they
  could model brain
  functions. He built 2 small
  robots he called tortoises
  and named them Elmer
  and Elsie. They were crude
  by today’s standards but a
  marvel of the day.
            Elmer and Elsie

• The most revolutionary thing
  about Elmer and Elsie is that
  they didn’t have any brains
  or pre-programming. They
  had basic analog circuits, 2
  vacuum tubes, a touch
  sensor, a light sensor, and
  they could even recharge      Significant
  their own batteries.          moment in robot
                            history #2
              SRI’s Intelligent Robot
• In the late 1960’s, researchers at the
  Stanford Research Institute (SRI)
  began work on the first “intelligent
  robot”. The robot, named SHAKEY,
  was designed to be mobile and
  reason on it’s own. It was built on a
  4 wheel base with 2 wheel drive. It
  had a tall camera, laser range
  finders, and a radio mast where it
  received information over a radio link
  from computers.
                         SHAKEY

•    Shakey was the world first mobile,
     autonomous, & programmable robot in
     that its programming used 3 layers.
1.   Basic moving, turning, and navigating.
2.   Information it strung together to build
     routines
3.   Receive instructions and plan the best
     course of action to execute the plan.

Problem: SHAKEY took TOO much time to
    contemplate the action needed (hours).
    When it finally moved it swayed and        Significant
    shaked to do its task.
                                               moment in
                                               robot history
                                               #3

				
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