Resisting Globalization: Action & Critique by Um9k2f4W


									Resisting Globalization:
  Action & Critique
  Peter Evans (Ch. 54), International
   Forum on Globalization (Ch. 60),
  Charles Tilly, Paul Mason, Naomi
         Klein, The Yes Men

     GL, as it exists, is actually
  “neoliberal GL or “corporate GL”

 Evans (Ch. 54) argues that when people
 invoke GL, they usually mean the
 prevailing system of transnational
 domination – or hegemony – which is
 more accurately called "neoliberal
 globalization“ or "corporate globalization"

  Implicit in discourse is idea that GL is
 "natural," inevitable, beyond our control

 GL-as-juggernaut discourse is hegemonic
   such discourse enables deregulation, privatization,
    gov’t downsizing

 hegemony: domination, influence, or authority
  over another, especially one political group over
  a society or by nation over others
   when a discourse is hegemonic it conforms to the
    dominant ideology, which justifies the status quo
counterhegemonic globalization

 counterhegemonic globalization (CHG)
 challenges the prevailing system of
 transnational domination – and the
 ideologies that justify it

  Hegemonic ideological propositions are
 not simply instruments of domination, but
 also a toolkit that can be used for
 subversive ends
   Activists involved in CHG make up
     the "global justice movement"
 global justice movement is part of global civil
  society, but a more critical part that uses less
  conventional, more innovative strategies & tactics
    ultimate objective is “justice,” on a global scale
       reject GDP (nat’l or global) as measure of social well-being
 Formally organized movement participants work
  through transnational NGOs, often linked together
  in transnational advocacy networks
 Protests at the 1999 WTO mtg in Seattle & ongoing
  World Social Forum are key events in the movement                    5
    World Economic Forum vs
      World Social Forum
 World Social Forum: meeting of
 transnational social activists, especially
 from the global south, organized as a
 "counter-meeting" to the World Economic
 Forum (annual gathering of leaders in business
 and politics held in Davos, Switzerland)

       non-routine resistance
 contentious politics: interactions in which
  actors make claims that bear on s/o else’s
  interests, leading to coordinating efforts on
  behalf of shared interests or programs,
  which involve gov’ts, as targets, the
  objects of claims, or 3rd parties
   takes nonviolent or lethal forms
      e.g., social movements or terrorist groups)
     (Tilly & Tarrow, 2007, p. 202)
            Terrorists? Terrorism?

                                                    hacktivist network

WikiLeaks/Julian Assange

                           Anwar al-Awlaki, US-born Islamic
                           lecturer who is said to have inspired
                           anti-Western terrorism in his online
                           sermons; Al-Awlaki's “targeted killing”
                           has been approved by President
                           Obama, with the consent of the US
                           National Security Council, making him
                           the first US citizen ever placed on the
                           CIA target list.                              8
     Terrorism is a political strategy,
               not a creed

 “We can reasonably define that strategy
    as asymmetrical deployment of threats
    and violence against enemies using
    means that fall outside the forms of
    political struggle routinely operating within
    some current regime”
    (Tilly, “Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists,” 2002)
      A great variety of individuals &
         groups engage in terror
 A great variety of individuals/groups engage in terror, thus defined,
    from time to time, most often alternating terror with other political
    strategies or with political inaction
   Groups and networks specializing in terror and no other forms of
    political action do sometimes form, but they typically remain
    unstable and ephemeral
   Most groups and networks that engage in terror overlap extensively
    with gov’t-employed and gov’t-backed specialists in coercion –
    armies, police, militias, paramilitaries, and the like
   Even when they organize in opposition to existing gov’ts, specialists
    in coercion typically adopt forms of organization, external
    connections, and sources of supply resembling those of gov’t-
    employed specialists
   Most uses of terror actually occur as complements or by-products of
    struggles in which participants – often including the so-called
    terrorists – are simultaneously or successively engaging in other
    more routine varieties of political claim making

What’s new about the recent global
         cycle of protest?
 Paul Mason identifies 3 new features:
   Demographics
      “youth bulge,” “graduates without a future”
   Technology
      networked, non- or anti-hierarchical
   Behavior
      crowd-driven, decentralized, ‘do-it-yourself’
      e.g., DDOS
innovative forms of political activism
 mobilization via social media
   e.g., “citizen journalism,” informing public about
    injustice, coordinating resistance via Facebook,
    YouTube, twitter
 media activism
   watchdog groups; alternative media
 anticorporate activism such as “culture jamming”
  & “brand bombing”
 hacktivism
 whistle-blowing (using new, hi-tech tactics)
 hacktivism: the nonviolent use of illegal or legally
  ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends
    promoting a political agenda by hacking, especially by defacing
     or disabling websites
    hacktivists use the same tools and techniques as hackers, but
     do so in order to disrupt services and bring attention to a political
     or social cause
    e.g., “Anonymous,” which employs DDoS attacks
       distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack: attempt to make a
         computer resource unavailable to its intended users. Although the
         means to carry out, motives for, and targets of a DDoS attack may
         vary, it generally consists of the concerted efforts of individuals to
         prevent an internet site or service from functioning efficiently or at
         all, temporarily or indefinitely.

 whistle-blower: a person who tells the public or
  s/o in authority about alleged dishonest or illegal
  activities occurring in an organization (gov’t
  agency, public or private organization, or a
   alleged misconduct may be classified as a violation of
    a law, rule, regulation and/or a direct threat to public
    interest, such as fraud, health/safety violations, and
   e.g., Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked the Pentagon
    Papers; some consider PFC Bradley Manning, an
    alleged leaker, and WikiLeaks whistle-blowers
 Resisting the “commodification
        of the commons”
 commodification of the commons: is the process
  of privatizing, monopolizing, and commodifying
  common heritage resources and turning public
  services into corporate profit centers and the
  promotion of this process within global trade
  agreements (Ch. 60)
  (“A Better World is Possible!” International Forum on Globalization,
  Ch. 60, pp. 482-493 (Excerpted from IFG, A Better World is
  Possible!, report summary, 2002)

              culture jamming
 culture jamming: the practice of parodying
 advertisements and hijacking billboards in
 order to drastically alter their messages
   The Yes Men are culture jamming activists
   Even old-fashioned “jamming” was a
    contentious political act: to interfere with or
    prevent the reception of radio signals
      e.g. "Jam the Voice of America"; "block the signals
       emitted by this station"

Brands add value, but depend on image
  and reputation for success – making
 brands vulnerable to “brand bombing”
 Consider this satirical take on
  MasterCard’s promo line circulating on
  Twitter and other social networking sites
  after MC stopped processing transactions
  for WikiLeaks:
    “Freedom of speech? Priceless. For
     everything else, there’s MasterCard”
Naomi Klein on Brands vs Products
 Brands are products, plus the “added value” of
  ‘identity,” the idea or story behind the brand
 Brands sell a kind of “pseudo-spirituality,” a
  sense of belonging, even community
    This fills a gap that citizens, not just consumers, used
     to get elsewhere, whether from religion, or genuine
     community involvement
    Behind these brand meanings is “a privatized concept
     of what used to be public”

    CHG from the Yes Men --
demanding justice for Bhopal victims
 Bhopal catastrophe: known as the world’s worst
  industrial disaster
   In December 1984, the Union Carbide pesticide plant
    in Bhopal began leaking gas & other chemicals that
    harmed hundreds of thousands of ppl
   Estimated death tolls vary; a government affidavit in
    2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries
    including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately
    3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries
 Civil and criminal cases are pending
 Dow purchased the plant in 2001, and claimed
  they inherited no liabilities
      The Yes Men Dow hoax
 The Yes Men claimed that dealing with the
  consequences of the accident was Dow’s
 On the 20th anniversary of the Bhopal disaster,
  a Yes Men member posing as "Dow
  representative" "Jude Finisterra," went on BBC
  World TV to announce that the company was
  finally going to compensate the victims and
  clean up the mess in Bhopal
 The story shot around the world, and by the time
  the original story was discredited, Dow's stock
  had declined in value by $2 billion
                 US Uncut
 US Uncut is a grassroots movement taking
 direct action against corporate “tax cheats”
 and unnecessary and unfair public service
 cuts across the US
   Modeled on UK Uncut, which has been
    protesting against austerity in Great Britain
   Recently teamed up w/ the Yes Men to
    expose “tax dodging” by GE


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