Why Are We Here?
Overview of LA Act 136
Purpose of Seminar
To provide school-based and district support personnel with a
systematic process for preventing and intervening problem
behaviors to ensure academic & social success of all
This seminar will provide:
An overview of the components of LA Act 136
Strategies to implement the components of LA Act 136
A standard guide to redeliver the informational
components of LA Act 136 to school-based personnel
This seminar does not serve as a substitute for the
comprehensive training content that may be required for
knowledge proficiency of the individual components presented.
Steps to LA Act 136
2003 – Juvenile Justice Reform Act (1225) -79 of the 143 legislators
coauthored this bill that was unanimously passed
Subpart C-1 The Education/Juvenile Justice Partnership Act
BESE (Board of Elementary & Secondary Education) would
formulate, develop and recommend a Model Master Plan for
improving behavior and discipline within schools that includes the
utilization of positive behavioral supports and other effective
Each city, parish, and other local public school board should be
responsible for the develop of school master plans for supporting
student behavior and discipline based upon the model master plan
developed and approved by BESE
LA Act 136-Senate Bill 527
Revised Statue 17:252(D) Sections: 1-2
LA Regular Session, Legislation passed 2010, Requires
school districts to provide:
(D-1) pre-service, ongoing grade appropriate classroom
management training for teachers, principals, and other
appropriate school personnel regarding:
• Positive Behavioral Interventions & Support (PBIS) and Reinforcement
• Conflict Resolution
• Cultural Competence
• Restorative Practices
• Guidance and Discipline
• Adolescent Development
Classroom Minor Behavior Tracking Form
Form assist in identifying the pattern of
behavior and determining interventions that
will be most effective for the student(s).
Forms’ use must be consistent school-wide
Emerging field of study:
Enables people to restore and build community in an
increasingly disconnected world.
Offers a common thread to tie together theory, research and
practice in seemingly disparate fields, such as education,
counseling, criminal justice, social work and organizational
Focuses on repairing the harm done to people and relationships
rather than on punishing offenders
Conventional vs Restorative
What rule was broken? Concern is broken relationship
Who did it? Problem-solving central
What is the punishment? Focus on future
Goal is reparation toward healing
Offender actively seeks solution
What is Classroom Management?
"Management refers to your role as a teacher in
creating a classroom environment where
success is possible. It refers to how order is
established and maintained in the classroom"
"Discipline is defined as the actions that
facilitate the development of self-control,
responsibility, and character"
Management versus Discipline
Management Versus Discipline
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT DISCIPLINE
deals with how things are done: deals with how people behave:
procedures, routines, classroom impulse management and self-
Is the teacher’s responsibility Is the responsibility of the student to
When procedures are learned, display self-management skills.
accompanied with teaching The teacher’s role is to provide a
expectations and rule, s routines classroom management structure
are established. Routines give that will encourage the students to
structure to instruction. display appropriate and acceptable
Classroom management is classroom and school-wide behavior
enhanced when procedures are:
1. explained to students,
2. practiced by students, and;
3. when necessary, periodically
reinforced by practicing again.
Four Essential Features
Classroom Management Checklist
Physical Setting: Organized in a manner that
promotes learning, and independence
Scheduling: Instruction Occurs in a manner that
Instructional Planning and Delivery: Teaching and
activities are planned and implemented
Classroom Discipline Plan: Plan demonstrates
responsiveness to problem behaviors
(Westling & Fox, 1995)
Establish smooth, efficient classroom routines
Provide frequent feedback
Review and re-teach material as necessary
Integrate skills needed for adulthood into instruction
(e.g., problem-solving skills)
Use homework primarily for fluency
Interact in a positive, caring manner
(Westling & Fox, 1995)
Carefully plan instruction
Manage behavior effectively
Design instructional groups that meet learning
Present instructional materials/directions clearly
Maintain a steady pace of instruction
Clearly communicate high (reasonable) expectations
“Students report that caring teachers
are those who talk with them, listen to
their concerns, help them
communicate fairness with their
work, and nurturance.
These teachers share their own
experiences, and their stories instill a
sense of confidence in their students.
They show interest in the students’ daily
lives and know about their celebrations
(Noblit, Dwight & McCadden, 1995; Noddings, 1992; Wentzel, 1997)
Qualities of Good Students
• Always eager, ready to learn, and motivated
• Works hard
• Takes pride in their work
• Is organized and prepared
• Is open to constructive criticism
• Is willing to learn from mistakes
• Is honest
• Attends class unless there’s a good excuse
• Respects the teacher
• Respects other students
• Respects the property: self and others
• Obeys class and school rules
both positive and negative has a
What is motivating the occurrence of the behavior?
Erick Erikson’s Developmental Stages
5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years
Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity
PBIS Tiers: A Continuum of Support
• Tier 3 – (Individual) Processes and procedures reflect school-
wide expectations for student behavior coupled with team-
based strategies to address problematic behaviors of individual
• Tier 2 – (Targeted Groups) Processes and procedures
designed to address behavioral issues of groups of students
with similar behavior problems or behaviors that seem to occur
for the same reasons (i.e. attention seeking, escape)
• Tier 1 & 2 – (Classroom) Processes and procedures that reflect
school-wide expectations for student behavior coupled with
pre-planned strategies applied within classrooms
• Tier 1 – (School-Wide) Procedures and processes intended for
all students, staff, in specific settings and across campus
• Adapted from Levels and Descriptions of Behavior Support
(George, Harrower & Knoster, 2003)
Blended Academic & Behavioral
Translating Academic &
Behavioral Systems to the
Expectations & behavioral skills are taught &
recognized in natural context
Acknowledge & Recognize
Establish Procedures for Establish Procedures for
Encouraging Rule Following Responding to Rule Violations
N u m b e r o f R e fe rra ls p e r S t u d e n t
Evaluate the effect of instruction
These are things you should Students any school environment!!!
Establish Behavioral Teach Rules in the
Expectations/Rules Context of Routines
Prompt or Remind Students of Monitor Student's Behavior in the
Expected behavior Natural Context
It’s Not All About the Buck
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards
Positive phone calls home
Preferred Activity Time
AR time on the sofa
Post a Reinforcement “Menu”
Coupons (purchased with established numbers of tokens) for the
Earned activity period for a preferred activity
Early release pass
Example Expectations &
Rules by Setting
Example of Expectations
(1)Promotes students’ social and academic readiness;
(2) Prevents the acquisition of generalized inappropriate and
unacceptable behaviors; and
(3) Incorporates school-wide and basic classroom materials and
interventions all students
Focus: Social Skills taught to ALL students
Content: Positive Behavior Support and School Climate, Student Code
of Conduct, School-wide Bullying Prevention, Safe and Drug Free
Schools, Character Education
Examples of Instruction/Intervention Programs
Second Step Social Skills Program
Too Good for Drugs and Violence
Steps To Respect: A bullying Prevention
The Bully-Proofing Program
PBIS Team Implementation Checklist (TIC)
and Action Plan
Designed to monitor activities for school-wide PBIS:
Establish Commitment to the Process
Establish & Maintain Team
Establish School-wide Expectations: Prevention Systems
Classroom Behavior Support Systems
Establish Information System
Build Capacity for Function-based Support
Secondary: Targeted Support
(1) Decreases access to situations where problem behaviors
(2) Establishes effective pro-social skills; and
(3) Incorporates more team members and more strategic
interventions and probes for a targeted group of students.
Focus: Extended lessons are planned for small groups of students
with similar deficits.
Content: Small Group Instruction, Targets Social Skills
Instruction, Counseling groups – Loss; Anger Management;
Problem Solving Process – Informal FBA to identify interventions
Progress monitoring: Follow District’s RtI Model: Minimally every
2 to 6 weeks
Secondary: Targeted Interventions
Examples of Instruction/Intervention Programs
Behavior Education Program-BEP Check in-Check-out
Social Skills Strategies Cueing and Group Social Skills Instruction
The Assist Series
One minute Skills Builder
Boystown Press: Teaching Basic Social Skills for Youth
Skillstreaming: The Elementary/Adolescent School Child
Why Try: Social Skills Resources
Research Press: Social Skills Resources
The Journey: A Group Counseling Intervention
Challenging Horizons Program
Anger Management Group: Using Animals
Solution-Focused Intervention for LD Students At-Risk of Behavior Problems
Examples of Instruction/Intervention Programs
Most Tier 2 social skills programs may also be
used at Tier 3, but are more intensive in their
Behavior Intervention Pan
Supervision, monitoring, social goals
(1) Reduce the intensity, frequency, and complexity of the problem
(2) Provides pro-social replacement behaviors
(3) Incorporates specialists, general education teachers, ESS teachers,
therapists, psychologists, and others to deliver more intensive
Focus: Extended lessons are planned for individual students
specifically designed to address the skill deficit(s).
Problem Solving Model: Formal FBA,
Behavior Intervention Plan Mentoring; Counseling; Big Brothers
Follow District’s RtI Model :Minimally, every 1-2 weeks
School-Based Strategy Tertiary Intervention
Wrap-Around Support System
Wraparound is a process for developing family-centered teams and
plans that are strength and needs based (not deficit based), across
multiple settings and life domains.
The wraparound process is a key component on the continuum of a
school-wide system of PBIS.
Youth with multiple needs across home, school, community
Youth at-risk for change of placement (youth not responding to current
The adults in youth’s life are not effectively engaged in comprehensive
planning (i.e. adults not getting along very well)
How we work to help
children repair mistakes
and make better choices is
a critical part of our social
It is not a waste of time; it is a
-Charney, Ruth Logical Consequences Teach Important
Conflict Prevention & Conflict Resolution: Strategies
by Jane Bluestein, Ph.D.
Frequent sources of conflict
Unresolved crisis (frequently family, relationship, financial, or
Unmet need for power or attention; perceived inability to meet
these needs in healthy or constructive ways
Perceived inability to succeed (frustration, despair, boredom)
Unmet need for physical, emotional and/or academic safety
Boundary issues, including:
Lack of boundaries (on part of the adult)
Unclear, undefined or ambiguous boundaries
Unenforced boundaries (no follow-through)
Boundaries with built-in loop-holes (ex: “...unless you have a good
Violations of student’s boundaries
STRATEGY: BOUNDARY SETTING
Tools to help us take care of ourselves in our
relationships with others
Attempt to accommodate the needs or
desires of others
Build “win-win” power structures
Encourage cooperation and mutual respect
without depending on fear, disempowerment,
Create a success-oriented, reward-oriented
Allow outcomes (consequences, positive
and negative) to occur in non-punitive
Make others accountable for their own
behavior (as long as we follow through)
Leave the door open for the other person to
change his or her behavior in order to get
Support emotional safety in relationships
Dealing with parents and community:
Maintain regular positive contact. Let people know
what their kids are doing right.
Document. Document. Document. Many conflicts
can be avoided when teachers can substantiate
decisions regarding choices such as academic
placement, particularly with regard to
accommodating student academic or learning style
Maintain healthy boundaries. Do not ask parents to
solve problems between a teacher and a child.
Support parents’ problem solving skills without
taking responsibility for the solution. Attack
problems, not people.
With staff, students, administrators, other
If something isn’t working, talk to the person
Stick to the issues.
Leave your feelings out of the equation and
simply ask for what you want!
Conflicts between students, staff, staff and
students, others (when you’re not personally
involved in the conflict):
Get clear on your role.
Distinguish between feelings and behaviors. All
feelings are OK.
Accept: Make no judgments about anyone’s
feelings or their right to be upset.
Validate the reality of their experience, and
support their right to their feelings.
Maintain your boundaries.
In helping others find solutions, ask–don’t tell.
Resist the urge to give advice or get in the
middle of someone else’s conflict..
Leave the door open for future discussion.
Other Conflict Resolution Strategies
Establish a “Win-win” power dynamic (authority
Goal: How can we both get what we want?
Means: Offering choices (in which any of the choices
you offer is acceptable); requesting and considering
students’ input in decisions that affect them
Allows for student empowerment within limits
established by the teacher/parent/authority.
Reduces the need for rebelliousness, acting out.
Create a Success-Oriented Environment
Goal: Make success possible for every student in the
Means: Giving clear directions; Identify and attempt
to accommodate individual learning styles and needs;
Establishing, communicating, and maintaining clear
Focus on the Positive
Restructure reactive environments to proactive environments
(emphasis on prevention)
Restructure punishment-oriented environments to become more
Express contingencies as promises rather than threats
Use the examination and review of a student’s work to identify what
that student still needs to learn, rather than as an excuse to simply
mark errors, flaws, omissions.
In giving feedback, emphasize positive performance, achievement
Eliminate Double Standards
Hold self to same standards as expectations for students
Make sure your behaviors, language, attitude, tone of voice, body
language, etc. are congruent from what you want from students
Avoid making a big deal out of things kids do just because they’re
Remember that kids need and respond to positive motivation–just
like you do.
Peer mediation is both a program and a
Students of the same age-group facilitate resolving
disputes between two people or small groups.
Proven effective in schools changing the way students
understand and resolve conflict in their lives.
Changes include improved self-esteem, listening and
critical thinking skills, and school climate for learning, as
well as reduced disciplinary actions and less fights.
These skills are transferable outside of the classroom.
The process is voluntary for both sides
Peer mediators do not "make decisions"
Work towards a win-win resolution for both
sides in order to avoid further trouble.
Administrators in charge of discipline
Incorporate this conflict resolution process
into their strategies as well.
Types of problems include:
Social media improprieties
Rumor and gossip
Cheating and stealing
Racial and cultural confrontations
Classroom or extracurricular disputes
Bullying, minor assaults and fighting
More serious problems require professional
referral and are not appropriate for peer
problems that require law enforcement
Step 1: Identify and Analyze the Problem
What’s the problem and why is it happening?
Step 4: Evaluate the Plan Step 2: Develop the Plan
Is it working?
What do we do about it?
Step 3: Implement the Plan
How do we do it?
Peer Mediation Scenario/Activity
Jane and Jill are 5th graders at ABC Middle School. They have been friends
since the 1st grade. Lately, Jane has been hanging out more with another
group of 5th grade girls. The group of girls don’t care for Jill, so at recess Jill
goes to the library. Yesterday while in the lunch line, Jill watched as Jane was
given an invitation to a sleep over for Saturday night. Jill was furious because
Jane was supposed to go to her house. Jill walked up to Jane, shoved her
against the wall and called her a F-ing B-ch. The girls were throwing punches
until teachers were able to break them up and get them to the front office.
Step 1: Identify and Analyze the Problem. What’s the problem and
why is it happening? Describe the conflict.
Step 2: Develop the Plan. What do we do about it?
Step 3: Implement the Plan. How do we do it?
Step 4: Evaluate the Plan. Is it working?
How does the developmental stage influence:
the intervention process
Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (CRCM)
A pedagogical approach to running classrooms with all children, not
simply for racial/ethnic minority children in a culturally responsive
way, to guide the management decisions that teachers make.
Natural extension of culturally responsive teaching - uses students’
backgrounds, social experiences, prior knowledge, and learning styles in
Teachers, recognize their biases and values
Reflect on how these influence their expectations for behavior and their
interactions with students as well as what learning looks like.
Recognize goal of classroom management is not to achieve compliance or
control but to provide all students with equitable opportunities for learning
Understand that CRCM is “classroom management in the service of social
(Weinstein, Tomlinson-Clarke and Curran 2004,
Cultural Competence Strategies
The Educator must possess:
The recognition of one’s own cultural lens and biases
The knowledge of the students’ various cultural backgrounds
An awareness of the broader, social, economic and political
context of how biases are formed and permeated
An ability and willingness to use culturally appropriate
A commitment to building caring classroom communities
Culturally Appropriate Classroom Management
Strategies Through Instruction
1. Reflect on how your own cultural assumptions and attitudes and consider where these come
from and how this can lead to you treating students based on your own expectations, rather
than on their individual abilities.
2. Learn about your students’ cultural backgrounds. Work with students on a students project to
explore their individual family histories and have them share these with the class. Discuss
cultural background with parents and use this knowledge to gain insight.
3. Maintain an awareness about broader political, social, and economic contexts that may affect
your students. Certain behaviors that may appear disrespectful in one culture, may not be
disrespectful in another. Students from other cultures may also be affected by events in the
wider world. Discuss classroom and school behavior and expectations with your students, and
discuss current events and how they may affect different students.
4. Use culturally appropriate management strategies to support academic goals. Think about
ways your classroom can be organized to encourage cultural awareness. Highlight students’
countries of origin on world maps. Put up welcome signs in different languages used by the
students. Display books and posters reinforcing ideas of diversity. Whenever possible, have
students work in groups that are culturally mixed.
5. Establish clear expectations for the type of behavior expected from students. Encourage
students to discuss rules and norms. Provide them with opportunities to practice and model
good behavior. Apply discipline consistently. Offer family members the opportunity to assist in
Guidance and Discipline
The word discipline comes from the word
Meaning: To teach
Guidance and Discipline
Basis for effective discipline:
A Developmental Approach (Incorprate Ericksen’s Stages)
Must possess a good understanding of children and
Guidance and discipline of children are ongoing processes
Guidance and Discipline
seem so grown up, their social skills are not yet well developed
enjoy being "older" but may not like the responsibility that goes with
have to be reminded to carry out homework responsibilities or
often set standards for themselves that are frustratingly high or
Limited experience in setting and achieving goals or in measuring
their own strengths and weaknesses.
Adults to provide experiences that are challenging yet achievable.
Learning social skills: how to make friends, trust others, work in a
team, resolve conflicts, use good manners, ask for help, negotiate
Learning self-discipline is an ongoing process that improves each
Adolescent Development Strategies
Understand Emotional and Physiological Changes
Very social stage
Unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among
peers, present perceptual serious problems in terms of
competence & self-esteem
Most significant relationships: school & neighborhood
Struggle to discover and find own identity
Developing a sense of morality and right from wrong
Withdrawal from responsibilities
Unsuccessful at this stage tends to experience role
confusion & upheaval
Developmental Theory 12-18 Years
Development now depends primarily upon what a
An adolescent must struggle to discover & find his
or her own identity, while negotiating & struggling
with social interactions & “fitting-in”, and
developing a sense of morality and right from
Erikson’s Stages of Development
Pro-social behaviors emerge and conflicts
are diminished in classrooms where there
are open discussions of students’ ongoing
activities, problems, and celebrations.
In addition to providing valuable practice
in social problem solving, classroom
meetings about peer conflicts, as well as peer
mediation, makes the varying viewpoints of
classmates explicit and so provide students
with direct instruction in perspective taking
(Doll, 1996; Mulvey & Cauffman, 2001).
The Big Picture
– Academic Learning Outcomes
– Social & Emotional Learning
Both sets of learning outcomes are inter-
related and require systems of
intervention and support.