PREPARATION GUIDE FOR THE by 91K4n7

VIEWS: 29 PAGES: 76

									                         LANGUAGE CENTER
                      Muhammadiyah University of Jember



                        PREPARATION FOR THE

                          TOEFL
                   (Test of English as a Foreign Language)




                              PREPARED BY
                            MUHLISIN




                 LANGUAGE CENTER
 MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF JEMBER

Muhlisin, 2011                                               1
                             LANGUAGE CENTER
                          Muhammadiyah University of Jember


                             Berkenalan dengan TOEFL


TOEFL adalah singkatan dari Test of English as a Foreign Language. TOEFL umumnya
diberikan sebagai persiapan untuk meneruskan ke jenjang studi lanjut S2 dan S3 baik
di Indonesia atau terlebih lagi di negara-negara dimana Bahasa Inggris biasa
digunakan. Disamping itu, TOEFL juga biasa digunakan sebagai persyaratan kerja
terutama di lembaga-lembaga tingkat International.


Dalam TOEFL ada tiga keahlian berbahasa Inggris yang diujikan. Keahlian tersebut
meliputi kemampuan ‘mendengar, mengidentifikasi kesalahan yang ada pada teks
tulis serta membaca’ sejumlah wacana berbahasa Inggris.


Kemampuan mendengar (listening) wacana berbahasa Inggris merupakan bentuk tes
yang pertama diujikan dalam TOEFL. Kemampuan mendengarkan ini mencakup
kemampuan mendengarkan monolog pendek yang terdiri dari satu atau dua kalimat
hingga sebuah monolog yang cukup panjang seperti dalam bentuk materi
perkuliahan. Dalam bagian ini, kemampuan dasar yang harus dikuasai meliputi
kemampuan menafsirkan berbagai bentuk suara ujaran dari penutur asli bahasa
Inggris. Terlebih lagi, Anda harus mampu memaknai berbagai bentuk suara ujaran
tersebut.


Bagian kedua yang diujikan dalam TOEFL meliputi kemampuan ‘mengidentifikasi
kesalahan yang ada pada teks tulis’ (structure and written expression). Umumnya
bentuk uji yang diberikan dalam bagian ini meliputi kemampuan mengidentifikasi
kesalahan-kesalahan grammatikal yang ada di dalam wacana tertulis (written
expression) berbahasa Inggris. Dengan kata lain, kemampuan yang diujikan dalam
bagian kedua ini terkait erat dengan kemampuan analisa tatabahasa yang ada pada
teks-teks tulis tersebut. Oleh karenanya, kemampuan dasar yang diperlukan adalah
pengetahuan Anda tentang tatabahasa yang benar menurut kaidah penggunaan
bahasa Inggris. Dengan memiliki keahlian tersebut, Anda akan mampu mendeteksi
kesalahan (error) yang ada dengan lebih mudah.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                     2
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Kemampuan yang ketiga meliputi uji ‘kosa-kata’ serta uji ‘kemampuan membaca’
(vocabulary and reading comprehension) terhadap teks berbahasa Inggris. Materi yang
biasa disajikan dalam bagian ini meliputi teks yang mencakup berbagai pokok
bahasan. Namun demikian, TOEFL lazimnya memberikan materi bacaan yang lebih
sesuai dengan tujuan pembelajaran seperti jika kita akan melanjutkan ketingkat
pasca sarjana. Oleh karena itu, materi bacaan tersebut lebih berbetuk teks-teks
akademis. Selain kemampuan membaca secara umum, bagian ini juga menuntut
penghetahuan tentang kosa-kata yang bersifat teknis dan mnyeluruh. Selain itu,
kemampuan Anda dalam memaknai kata yang berimbuhan atau berbeda affixes baik
dalam prefixes atau suffixes nya juga sangat penting untuk mengetahui makna kosa-
kata yang diujikan.

Mengingat ada beberapa model dalam pelaksanaan TOEFL, Oleh karenanya dalam
modul ini model TOEFL yang disajikan berupa bentuk tes yang biasa diujikan dalam
TOEFL ITP (Institutional Testing Program). Tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan
sehubungan dengan bidang uji yang diberikan di antara beberapa jenis TOEFL
meskipun prosedur dalam mengerjakan tesnya berbeda seperti dalam TOEFL paper-
based dan computer-based.


Semoga modul ini bermanfaat bagi Anda dan saya ucapkan ‘Selamat Belajar”




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        3
                         LANGUAGE CENTER
                      Muhammadiyah University of Jember
                                DAFTAR ISI

      Sampul …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
      Berkenalan dengan TOEFL …………………………………………………………………………………. 2
      Daftar isi ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

MATERI 1 (Listening Comprehension)
   Part A ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
   Part B ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
   Part C ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
   Practice for the listening section …………………………………………………………………………. 13
MATERI 2 (Structure and Written Expression)
   English Grammar Review .……………………………………………………………………………………. 17
   Types of English Verbs …………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
   Classifying Verbs …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
   Verbs in Relation to Tenses ………………………………………………………………………………… 19
   English Sentence Structure …………………………………………………………………………………. 23
   English Tenses ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
   Introduction to the Usage of Tenses …………………………………………………………………. 24
   Simple Present Tense ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
   Present Continuous Tense ………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
   Present Perfect Tense …………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
   Present Perfect Continuous …………………………………………………………………………………. 36
   Simple Pas Tense ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
   Past Continuous Tense ………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
   Past Perfect Tense …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
   Past Perfect Continuous Tense …………………………………………………………………………… 41
   Simple Future Tense ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
   Future Continuous Tense ……………………………………………………………………………………. 43
   Future Perfect Tense …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
   Future Perfect Continuous Tense ………………………………………………………………………. 45
   Past Future Tense ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
   Past Future Continuous Tense ……………………………………………………………………………. 47
   Past Future Perfect ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
   Past Future Perfect Continuous …………………………………………………………………………. 48
   Mini-Test 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
   Structure Section ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
   Practice Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
   Written Expression ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
   Practice Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
MATERI 3 (Reading Comprehension)
   Sample Passage and Questions …………………………………………………………………………… 64
   Practice 1 ……………….………………………………………………………………………………………………... 65
   Practice 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
   Practice 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
   Practice 4 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73


Muhlisin, 2011                                                            4
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember




      To

      My wife Pratiwi Andriani

      My daughter Anatasya Iftihani

      and Tasya’s Grandparents



      “The ones who’ve been bestowing heaps of incredible momentous life to live in; the ones who’ll

      always be illuminating throughout the gloomy moments of my life for sure”




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                    5
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember

                                    MATERI 1
                             - Listening Comprehension -

Dalam bagian pertama ini Anda akan diperkenalkan dengan berbagai bentuk dan
instruksi yang biasa ada pada so’al yang terkait dengan uji kemampuan
mendengarkan wacana berbahasa inggris. Pelajarilah dengan seksama karena agar
supaya Anda bisa lebih familiar dengan bentuk tes yang nyata nantinya. Sebagai
informasi tambahan, bentuk uji yang diberikan di bagian pertama ini bertujuan untuk
mengukur kemampuan Anda dalam memahami ragam bahasa Inggris lisan.
Keseluruhan tes pada bagian pertama ini umumnya berlangsung antara 30 s/d 35
menit dengan 50 soal secara keseluruhan. Bagian listening comprehension ini terdiri dari
tiga bagian. Masing-Masing bagian dari tes tersebut akan disajikan sebagai berikut:


                                        PART A
Direction: In this part of the test, you will hear short conversations between two
           people. After each conversation, you will hear a question about the
           conversation. The conversations and questions will not be repeated. After
           you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and
           choose the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of
           the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the
           answer you have chosen.
Example: On the recording, you will hear a very short conversation between two
           speakers and followed by a question from a narrator, such as:
(Speaker 1)    : I don’t like this painting very much.
(Speaker 2)    : Neither do I.
Narrator       : What does the man mean?
And in your test book, you read such as:
     a. He doesn’t like the painting either.
     b. He doesn’t know how to paint.
     c. He doesn’t have any paintings.
     d. He doesn’t know what to do.
From the conversation, you can see that the implied meaning of the second speaker’s
utterance is that he doesn’t like the painting either. Therefore, the best answer to the
question is (A).



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                             6
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember


                            Practice Questions for Part A.
   1. You will hear:
      (Man)            : Shall I lock the computer lab now before I go home?
      (Woman)       : Don’t bother. I’m not leaving for a while – I can check it out on
                    my way out.
      (Narrator)    : What will the woman probably do?
      You will read :
                       (A) Lock the computer lab later.
                       (B) Leave the man.
                       (C) Buy a new lock for the computer lab.
                       (D) Show the man where the lab is.
   2. You will hear:
      (Man)            : Do you mind if I turn the television off?
      (Woman)          : Well, I’m in the middle of watching a program.
      (Narrator)       : What does the woman imply?
      You will read :
                       (A) The man should watch the program too.
                       (B) The man should leave the television on.
                       (C) The program will be over soon.
                       (D) She’ll watch television later.
   3. You will hear:
      (Woman)       : I heard the math requirements for graduation are being
                    changed.
      (Man)         : Yes. And I may be short one course.
      (Narrator)    : What does the man mean?
      You will read :
                       (A) He isn’t sure what course to take.
                       (B) The math course is too short.
                       (C) He may not meet the graduation requirements.
                       (D) The graduation date has been changed.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        7
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
                                        PART B
Direction: In this part of the test you will hear longer conversations. After each
          conversation you will hear several questions. The conversations and
          questions will not be repeated.
          After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book
          and choose the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number
          of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the
          answer you have chosen.
          Remember, you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.


                  Practice Conversation and Questions for Part B.
(Narrator)     : Question 4 through 7. Listen to a conversation about a trip.
(Man)          : Are you ready for “The Big Apple”?
(Woman)        : Excuse me?
(Man)          : You know, New York City. You are going to New York with us, aren’t
               you? I want to show everybody around my old neighborhood.
(Woman)        : Oh….Sure! I wouldn’t miss it – especially when the tour guide is a
               native New Yorker.
(Man)          : I thought we could start at the museum of Modern Art. Right now
               there’s an exhibit on twentieth century American painters.
(Woman)        : Fine with me….but what were you saying about….a big apple?
(Man)          : “The Big Apple.” It’s a nickname for New York. I think I heard once
               that it started with jazz musicians in the 20s.
(Woman)        : Oh.
(Man)          : Whenever they played a concert in a city, they called that city an
               “apple.” In those days, New York was the biggest city in the country,
               so they called it “The Big Apple.”
(Woman)        : Hey, I have an idea! Let’s go to a jazz club while we’re there.
(Man)          : Sounds good.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          8
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Questions:
   4. You will hear:
      (Narrator)       : What is the man planning to see?
      You will read: (A) An art exhibit.
                       (B) A Broadway play.
                       (C) A modern dance production.
                       (D) An opera.
   5. You will hear:
      (Narrator)       : What can be inferred about the man?
      You will read: (A) He is a jazz musician.
                       (B) He wants to join the woman’s club.
                       (C) He is in his twenties.
                       (D) He was born in New York.
   6. You will hear:
      (Narrator)       : What does the word “Apple” in the phrase “The Big Apple”
                       refer to?
      You will read: (A) An instrument
                       (B) A city.
                       (C) A theater.
                       (D) A concert.
   7. You will hear:
      (Narrator)       : Who gave New York its nickname?
      You will read: (A) Painters
                       (B) Tour guides
                       (C) Musicians
                       (D) Grocers




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                      9
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
                                         PART C
Directions: In this part of the test you will hear several talks. After each talk, you will
             hear some questions. The talks and questions will not be repeated.
             After you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test
             book and choose the best answer. Then, on your answer sheet, find the
             number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter
             of the answer you have chosen.


Here is an example.
On the recording, you will hear:
(Narrator)     : Listen to an instructor talk to his class about a television program.
(Man)          : I’d like to tell you about an interesting TV program that’ll be shown
               this coming Thursday. It’ll be on from 9 to 10 pm on Channel 4. It’s
               part of a series called “Mysteries of Human Biology.” The subject of the
               program is the human brain – how it functions and how it can
               malfunction. Topics that will be covered are dreams, memory, and
               depression. These topics are illustrated with outstanding computer
               animation that makes the explanation easy to follow. Make an effort to
               see this show. Since we’ve been studying the nervous system in class, I
               know you’ll find it very helpful.


A sample question and answer from the spoken monolog.
(Narrator)     : What is the main purpose of the program?
In your test book, you will read:
               (A) To demonstrate the latest use of computer graphics.
               (B) To discuss the possibility of an economic depression.
               (C) To explain the workings of the brain.
               (D) To dramatize a famous mystery story.


The best answer to the question, “What is the main purpose of the program?” is (C),
“To explain the workings of the brain.” Therefore, the correct choice is (C).




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                            10
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Here is another example.
You will hear:
(Narrator)       : Why does the speaker recommend watching the program?
In your test book, you will read:
       (A) It is required of all science majors.
       (B) It will never be shown again.
       (C) It can help viewers improve their memory skills.
       (D) It will help with course work.


The best answer to the question, “Why does the speaker recommend watching the
program?” is (D), “It will help with course work.” Therefore, the correct choice is (D).
Remember, you are not allowed to take notes or write in your test book.


                 PRACTICE TALK AND QUESTIONS FOR PART C
(Narrator)       : Questions 8 through 10. Listen to a talk about animal behavior.
(Woman)          : Today’s discussion is about a common animal reaction – the yawn.
                 The dictionary defines a yawn as “an involuntary reaction to fatigue or
                 boredom.” That’s certainly true for human yawns. The same action can
                 have quite different meanings in different species.
                 For example, some animals yawn to intimidate intruders on their
                 territory. Fish and lizards are examples of this. Hippos use yawns
                 when they want to settle a quarrel. Observers have seen two hippos
                 yawn at each other for as long as two hours before they stop
                 quarreling.
                 As for social animals like baboons or lions – they yawn to establish the
                 pecking order within social groups, and lion often yawn to calm social
                 tensions. Sometimes these animals yawn for a strictly physiological
                 reason – that is, to increase oxygen levels. And curiously enough, when
                 they yawn for a physical reason like that, they do what human do –
                 they try to stifle the yawn by looking away or by covering their
                 mouths.
Questions:
   8. You will hear:
       (Narrator)       : What is the speaker’s main point?


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         11
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
       You will read: (A) Animals yawn for a number of reasons.
                        (B) Yawning results only from fatigue or boredom.
                        (C) Human yawns are the same as those of other animals.
                        (D) Only social animals yawn.
   9. You will hear:
       (Narrator)       : According to the speaker; when are hippos likely to yawn?
       You will read: (A) When they are swimming.
                        (B) When they are quarreling.
                        (C) When they are socializing.
                        (D) When they are eating.
   10. You will hear:
       (Narrator)       : What physiological reason for yawning is mentioned?
       You will read: (A) To exercise the jaw muscles.
                        (B) To eliminate fatigue.
                        (C) To get greater strength for attacking.
                        (D) To gain more oxygen.


       Dari contoh keterangan dan latihan listening section untuk TOEFL diatas, Anda
dapat memahami bentuk-bentuk so’al yang biasa diberikan dibagian pertama
tersebut. Sebagian gari so’al tersebut menuntut pemahaman Anda tentang wacana
yang diperdengarkan secara explicit (tersurat). Namun demikian, sebagian dari bentuk
so’al yang diberikan juga menuntut pemahaman Anda dalam menarik kesimpulan
dari wacana yang diperdengarkan tersebut. Dengan kata lain, jenis so’al yang kedua
ini lebih berbetuk pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang implicit (tersirat) mengenai wacana
yang diperdengarkan. Oleh sebab itu, pertanyaan jenis kedua ini umumnya sering
dirasa lebih sulit dari pada jenis perntanyaan pertama diatas oleh mayoritas peserta
TOEFL.
       Sebagai catatan mengenai kemampuan mendengarkan wacana yang
diperdengarkan dalam bahasa Inggris memang tidak bias serta-merta diperoleh
dengan mudah. Kemampuan mendengarkan wacana berbahasa Inggris secara
memadai hanya dapat diperoleh dengan latihan yang intensif dan berkelanjutan. Oleh
karenanya, dibawah ini disajikan beberapa wacana monolog berbahasa Inggris yang
sederhana –dari segi kompleksitas penutur asli– sebagai bekal latihan Anda dalam
memahami pengucapan-pengucapan bahasa Inggris. Anda bisa berlatih


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         12
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember
mendengarkan monolog-monolog tersebut sebanyak yang Anda perlukan untuk
melatih kemampuan Anda dalam memahami pengucapan penutur asli bahasa Inggris.


                     PRACTICE FOR THE LISTENING SECTION
Practice one (Latihan 1)
Listen to a monolog about “A high school offers single-sex classes to top students”.
Now check your understanding by answering the following questions.
1.    Where is in the U.S. the special single-sex classes program offered?
2.    Who can join the program?
3.    What is the aim of implementing the program?
4.    What do the students need to join the program?
5.    Who writes “The Call of the Wild”?
6.    What does Morgan Van Fleet say about boys and girls as they are together in a
      same classroom?
7.    What activity that the boys and girls can do together in the Academy?


Practice two (Latihan 2)
Listen to a monolog about “Women Edge Past Men in Getting Doctorates”.
Now check your understanding by answering the following questions.

1. What is the predicted average number of women attending graduate schools in
     US comparing with men?
2. What does the Census Bureau expect in response to the case?
3. How many percent of women earned master’s degrees in 2009?
4. What did the 2008-2009 report say as a change to the previous fact?
5. What was the largest share of all doctorate degrees attained by women in 2008-
     2009?
6. What fields of study constituted the fastest enrollment growth between 1999 and
     2009?
7. What did graduate schools report in 2009?
8. How many percents was the decrease of international students’ enrollment by
     that year?
9. When was the first drop of it?
10. What is the news all about?


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         13
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember

Practice two (Latihan 3)
Listen to a monolog about “After Brain Study, New Questions About Mobile Phones”.
Now check your understanding by answering the following questions.
1. Have there been any studies conducted proving that cellphones cause brain
   cancer or other health problems?

2. What did the scientist find concerning the use of a cellphone to our ear for at
   least fifty minutes?

3. Who is Dr. Nora Volkow?

4. What did Dr. Nora Volkow find in her research of the use of cellphone by anyone
   for around fifty minutes?

5. How did Dr. Nora Volkow and her team conduct the research?

6. What could be shown by the brain scans that were used by Dr. Nora Volkow in
   her research?

7. What did the brain scans show when people use cellphone?

8. Who is Dr. Giuseppe Esposito?

9. What did he say after many years of studies?

10. Where is the news from?




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                  14
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember

                                   MATERI 2
                        - Structure and Written Expression -

Pada bagian kedua ini Anda akan diperkenanalkan dengan dua bentuk pertanyaan
yang biasa disajikan pada bagian ke dua (section 2) TOEFL. Bentuk pertanyaaan
pertama (Part A) merujuk pada structure, sedangkan bentuk yang kedua (Part B)
berupa written expression. Pada bagian pertama so’al (Part A) Anda akan diuji untuk
melengkapi bentuk kalimat berbahasa Inggris dengan salah satu opsi pilihan jawaban
yang telah disediakan. Opsi yang Anda pilih haruslah sesuai dengan standar
penggunaan bahasa Inggris secara baku. Sedangkan untuk bagian kedua (Part B),
bentuk uji meliputi kemampuan Anda menteksi kesalahan yang ada pada sebuah
kalimat. Kesalahan tersebut sengaja dibuat sebagai bahan pokok ujian kemampuan
bidang ‘written expression’. Untuk mengerjakan keseluruhan bagian kedua (section 2)
dari TOEFL, waktu yang umumnya dialokasikan adalah sekitar 25 menit dengan
keseluruhan so’al sebanyak 40 pertanyaan.


Untuk menjawab so’al pada bagian kedua TOEFL ini, kompetensi yang Anda harus
kuasai meliputi pengetahuan yang memadai mengenai ‘tata bahasa Inggris’ yang
berterima (baku) sesuai dengan kaidah. Jika Anda telah memiliki kemampuan
tersebut maka kemampuan Anda untuk melengkapi bentuk kalimat berbahasa
Inggris dengan opsi jawaban yang tepat pada bagian pertama (Part A) serta untuk
mendeteksi kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal yang ada pada bagian kedua (Part B)
akan lebih mudah dilakukan.


Sehubungan dengan pokok bahasan “tata bahasa Inggris”, ada berbagai topik yang
perlu untuk Anda pelajari. Namun demikian, hal yang pertama yang perlu Anda
kuasai adalah konsep mengenai “Tenses”. Tenses adalah konsep ‘kala/waktu’ yang
melekat pada bentuk kata kerja dalam Bahasa Inggris untuk menunjukkan kapan
suatu aktifitas atau kejadian berlangsung. Tenses merupakan pokok bahasan yang
paling mendasar sebelum mempelajari pokok bahasan lain dalam tata bahasa Inggris
karena ada banyak sekali bahasan dalam tata bahasa Inggris yang terkait erat dengan
penggunaan Tenses tersebut. Sebagai contoh penggunaan Conditional Sentence I, II and
III, Reported Speech dan Question Tag serta beberapa pokok bahasan lain. Alasan yang
kedua tentang mengapa Tenses merupakan bahasan yang fundamental adalah


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         15
                             LANGUAGE CENTER
                          Muhammadiyah University of Jember
keterkaitannya dengan kemampuan menyusun ‘kalimat’ dalam bahasa Inggris secara
akurat. Sebagai mana telah diketahui bahwa kalimat (sentence) merupakan bentuk
fundamental dalam bahasa yang memungkinkan penyampaian makna diantara para
pengguna bahasa. Oleh karena itu, sebelum Anda dihadapkan pada contoh so’al yang
ada pada bagian 2 (section 2) dari TOEFL, dibawah ini akan disajikan sebuah materi
pembelajaran mengenai konsep kalimat (sentence) serta konsep kala/waktu (Tenses)
secara khusus dalam bahasa Inggris. Hal ini dimaksudkan sebagai bahan latihan bagi
Anda sekalian dalam memaknai bacaan berbahasa Inggris. Terlebih lagi, keperluan
untuk memperkaya jumlah kosa-kata (vocabulary) yang perlu Anda kuasai juga sangat
penting untuk keberhasilan Anda menggunakan bahasa Inggris dan khususnya untuk
bisa mengerti pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang ada pada ujian seperti TOEFL ini.


Pada bagian kedua modul ini juga Anda juga akan diperkenalkan kepada sample
pertanyaan yang biasa ada pada bagian dua (section 2) TOEFL. Pelajarilah dengan
seksama bentuk-bentuk instruksi yang ada beserta betuk pertanyaannya. Hal ini
akan mempermudah Anda ketika Anda telah berhadapan dengan uji TOEFL
sebenarnya – khususnya pada uji section 2.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                     16
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember

           #     ENGLISH GRAMMAR REVIEW                                       #

                         ENGLISH “VERBS AND TENSES”


       2.1. Types of English Verbs
       2.1.1. Classifying Verbs
      Before proceeding with discussion dealing with Tenses, a few annotations on
the production of the English verb system might be appropriate to present to make
us more uncomplicated in comprehending the subject matter. Even so, if we consider
about type of verbs in English, there is hardly, or even nothing, adequate definition of
the verbs classification in accordance with their use in English language, but
generally all of the uses can be classified broadly into two categories related to the
function. According to Randolph Quirk and Sydney Greenbaum (1985:26), verbs can
be classified related to the functions of items in the verb phrase. There are two kinds
which can be identified in classifying verbs in English, namely lexical verbs & auxiliary
verbs. Therefore, it is useful for distinguishing lexical verbs from the closed system of
auxiliary verbs here. As to making it more specific, the auxiliary verbs can be
subdivided again into two subcategories i.e. primary and modal auxiliary. The summary
and the example of the above discussion can be seen in the subsequent table.

      Lexical         walk, write, play, beautify, and so forth.
                      do, have, be, can, may, shall, will, could, might, should, would,
    Auxiliary
                      must, ought to, used to, need, dare to.

         The lexical verbs have two classifications in English, namely regular and
irregular verbs. To understand all kinds of verbs is essential for the study of Tenses
since the form of the verbs is dependable on when they are used in a sentence which
is typically varied contextually. In reference to the verb grouping, those verbs which
belong to “regular” form are ended with d or ed in the end of the words as they are
used in a past simple or past participle.
Example:
        Infinitive                    Past simple                  Past participle
           Walk                         Walked                        Walked
               Play                         Played                     Played



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                            17
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
           Talk                           Talked                             Talked

         The usage of those verbs is simple. It does not need too hard recalling.
However, as it was stated formerly that not every verb belongs to regular one. Some
of them, which are inevitably more frequently used, constitute the “irregular” ones i.e.
verbs whose extended forms cannot be formulated in terms of the ending d or ed since
the forms they take must be varied one from another.
Example:
         Infinitive                    Past simple                       Past participle
           Write                          Wrote                             Written
           Speak                          Spoke                             Spoken
           Read                            Read                              Read

As it can be seen from the table, irregular verb has no precise form when it is used in
past simple or past participle. Consequently, there is no way but to learn them all by
heart so as to know exactly the forms of the verbs respectively especially as they are
used in past simple or past participle.
         The second group of verbs, in terms of their function, is auxiliary verbs or
sometimes they are named helping verbs. Auxiliary verb has a function to express a
wide range of meanings (ability, permission, possibility, necessity, etc.) and most
auxiliaries have more than one meaning (Azar 1992; 94). In addition, Krohn
(1971:109) points out that most modal auxiliaries do not change their form for person
or number i.e. auxiliaries mentioned in the box below. That is, there is no –s form for
the third person singular – excluding do, be, have. The normal position for the modal
in a sentence is after the subject and before the rest of the sentence except in
question forms.
Will               future time ………………(be going to)
Can                ability …………………...(be able to)
May                permission………………(be permitted to, have permission to)
Might              possibility………………..(It is possible that…..)
Should             obligation………………...(ought to)
                   Desirability
Must               inference…………………(I conclude that…..)
Must               Conclusion
                   Probability………………..(It is very probable that….)
                   Necessity………………….(have to)

                       (See Rober Krohn’s: English sentence structure)


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                             18
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember
The auxiliary verbs can be changed to different form as shown in the right brackets
with only little varied in meaning.
Example:
     The teachers will teach outside the classroom.
                It can be changed into
     The teachers is going to teach outside the classroom,
     The students may leave the school earlier
                It can be changed into
     The students are permitted / have permission to leave the school earlier, and
        so forth.
      Having been familiar with the sentence structure of English and its verb forms
and classification, the better understanding is hoped to be more easily gotten of the
following discussion of Tenses.


        2.1.2. Verbs in Relation to Tenses
      Principally, the extended forms of verbs in English can be sorted out into
present form, past form, present participle and past participle. Those verb forms are the ones
applied in Tenses usage in accordance with a certain form of the Tenses itself which
are used within sentences. Concerning with the verb forms, the divergence as well as
the meaning relating to the forms should be known well. Yet, the category of the verb
formations seems to be a little bit perplexing for the reason that there are a number
of verbs having identical forms especially in the past simple form and in the past
participle. Moreover, there are also several verbs which only describe a mental state
which, in consequence, makes them implausible to be transformed into a progressive
form. To know better about this, it is advisable to consult grammar books.
Nevertheless, this problematical issue must not be regarded as a confusing matter for
the grouping of verb-formation looks neither misleading nor confusing.
      According to Hayden, et.al. (1956:59) the principal forms of verb used in the
construction of simple present, simple past, the progressive Tenses, and perfect
Tenses are the simple form, the past form, the present participle as well as the past
participle respectively. To see what the form of verbs depicted based on the above
category then it is likely to be worthwhile for us to see the following illustration
containing the verb write. The simple form of the verb is write, which is as the same as



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                              19
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember

prior-mentioned, while its past form is wrote, for its past participle form is written, and
lastly for its present progressive form is writing.
       The verb forms comprising past participle and present participle forms are
frequently used as an adjective which both of them have variance in meaning. The
past participle form is used to designate that a noun being modified is in a passive
state, i.e. it is under control of a particular variable / action. Conversely, the present
participle form is utilized to show that a noun being modified is in active state. In
other words, it brings out an action in accordance with the verb used as an adjective
in a form of present participle. To make the explanation clearer, consider the
following phrases containing both past participle (stolen) in the first phrase and
present participle (stealing) subsequently. A stolen robot; the phrase refers to a robot
which has been stolen by a burglar or anyone, for instance, from one place, although
its definite function is still unknown, meanwhile, a stealing robot refers to a robot that
is capable of stealing something. Thus, the function of the robot is to steal things from
people.
          Pertaining to the use of verb in all Tenses, which will be clarified one by one
subsequently, the four verb categories are always used in relation to the form of tense
being applied. The first one, that is the simple form, is always used with simple
present tense, but light conversions of the verb are made particularly when it is used
with a subject called third person singular. The other conversion is employed to the
verb be which is converted also in relation to the subject of a sentence. Some other
auxiliaries, however, do not include any alteration at all. To exemplify the above
details, the given example is bestowed below:


                                                       SUBJECT
VERB
                               Singular                     Plural
                               I walk                       They walk
Walk                           You walk                     You walk
                               He walks                     We walk
                               She walks
                               It walks

                               I am                           They are
Be                             You are                        You are
                               He, she, it is                 We are




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          20
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Notice the conversions of the verb used with subject containing third person
singular (he, she, it) as well as the changes of the verb be in account to each subject.
           Another used of simple verb form in relation to Tenses can be found in simple
future tense where both of the modal auxiliary, commonly composed of the auxiliary
will (sometimes shall), and the verb follows it must in the form of bare infinitive
(infinitive without to). For example: I will go, they will go, we will go, you will go, he/she/it
will go.
           Secondly, the past form of verb, whatever the form might be, is the same for all
subjects either plural or singular. However, the verb be is an exception now that the
verb has its own form referring to the subject it follows. Most of verbs are converted
from simple form (infinitive) to past form simply by adding d or ed, except those
which have no regular formation, and the verbs that belong to the latter are named
irregular verb. Referring to the irregular verbs, the memorization to know exactly
what form they take in the past or past participle form is crucial. For regular verb, on
the other hand, the verb is simply attached with d or ed in the end of the word itself
to form its past or past participle form. The rule of formation can be illustrated as the
following:
            The first one, we simply add d to the end of words when the simple form
(infinitive) ends in e or ee. For example: commence is converted to be commenced; agree
becomes agreed; divide becomes divided; and free becomes freed.
            The second one, ending ed is added to other verbs out of above criterion, often
the following alterations crop up in relation to the spelling of the simple form.
Words ended in y, preceded by a consonant (in other words, the letter y is used as
vocal), is changed to i before it is added ed. For example: study becomes studied, cry
becomes cried, try becomes tried, and empty becomes emptied. However, this is not
always solely the case especially when the letter y in the end of a word is used as a
consonant such as buy, convey, stay and so forth.
            The third one, the final consonant letter (except h, w, x, y), preceded by a
single vowel letter, is doubled in words accented on the last syllable. For example
permit is transformed into permitted, and occur becomes occurred. But for the words
attempt (ends in three consonant letters or it is usually known as consonant clusters)
becomes attempted. And gather (accent on first syllable) becomes gathered.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                 21
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
        Those are the categorization on the subject of the configuration of regular
verb given regarding to the regular verb formation. However, it does not include all
the way of the system to form the accepted regular verb in English language. There is
no such the best suggestion but to consult over and over again to a numerous
grammar books available.
       The subsequent elucidation refers to the use of verb form in terms of past
participle that is frequently applied to perfect Tenses. According to Hayden, et.al
(1956:62) the perfect tense constitutes verb phrase which is composed with the
auxiliary have + the past participle for the main verb of a sentence. There are many
Tenses which are composed with the combination of perfect tense either present,
past or future. Along with the present Tenses, the perfect tense is found in present
perfect and present perfect progressive. Along with the past Tenses, the perfect tense
is found in the past form of both of the Tenses as aforementioned namely past perfect
and past perfect progressive. Many varieties of perfect tense are also found in
combination with future Tenses including future simple and past future. In future
simple, for instance, the combination with perfect tense is connected with the use of
future perfect tense and future perfect continuous tense, whereas in the past future,
it is connected with past future perfect as well as past future perfect progressive.
       The past participle of verbs are mostly as the same as the past form of verbs
with the exception of some of the irregular ones; consider the following example to
make the explanation more apprehending pertaining to the usage of past participle
form of verb combined with perfect tense such as:
           The past form of verbs                    The past participle form of verbs
   I waited for you at the stall yesterday        I have waited for an hour
   She worked all day long last week              We have worked hard
   We studied Math just now                       You have studied the lesson
   They talked about her yesterday                They have already talked about the issue
   I visited the library two days ago             He has not visited his brother yet
   He accomplished the task last month            She has not accomplished the task



Some other examples with other Tenses include:
        She had gone before we arrived (had + Past participle)
        We will have lived (will have + past participle).


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                 22
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember


       The last form of verbs in refering to the usage of Tenses is the present
participle (-ing form). Present participle is composed of the auxiliary be + V1 + ing of
the main verb of either regular or irregular ones. There are several criteria to alter the
spelling of verbs when they are added –ing to the simplest form of the verb namely as
follows:
1. A final e letter in the end of a word that is not pronounced is dropped. For
   example: write becomes writing, take becomes taking, argue becomes arguing and so
   on. But for words with the final ee is retained. For instance: agree becomes
   agreeing, and free becomes freeing.
2. A final consonant letter (except h, w, x, y), preceded by a single vowel letter, is
   doubled in words of one syllable. For example: beg becomes begging, stop becomes
   stopping. But for fix (ends in x) becomes fixing, and greet (two vowel letters before
   consonant) becomes greeting.
3. A final consonant letter (except h, w, x, y), preceded by a single vowel letter, is
   doubled in words accented on the last syllable. For instance: begin becomes
   beginning and permit becomes permitting. But for suffer (stress on the first syllable)
   becomes suffering.
4. A few verbs end in ie. The ie in some of these verbs changes to y when the –ing
   ending is added. For example: die becomes dying, and lie becomes lying (Hayden et
   al. 1956:63).
       In sum, the present participle (-ing form) is the form used in progressive
Tenses of either present, past, future, or even past future.


       2.2. English Sentence Structure
       Basically, all of us have already known well that a combination of words can
be named a sentence if it consists of at least one word as a subject (noun phrase) and
another one word as a predicate (verb phrase). It is as the same as Palmer’s concept
of sentence. He points out:
       A traditional view (and one that is implicit in much of modern
       theoretical linguistics) divides the sentence into two parts, subject and
       predicate. Thus in the sentence below the boy is the subject and chased
       the dog is the predicate.



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          23
                                 LANGUAGE CENTER
                              Muhammadiyah University of Jember
                                   The boy chased the dog.
        The subject is notionally “what is being talked about” and the predicate
        ‘what is being said about it’ (Palmer 1998:2)
        Another concept of sentence structure is given by a distinguished linguist,
Noam Chomsky. To a simple extent, he mentions a view of theoretical linguistics
concerning a sentence structure where the first rule is
                          S           NP+VP (Chomsky 1957:26)
       This states that the sentence consists of a noun phrase and a verb phrase,
which correspond closely to Palmer’s view of traditional grammar involving the
subject-predicate aspect. For that reason, it can be stated again that a combination of
words can be labeled a sentence if it covers at last two words which one of them
stands for a subject position (NP) and the other stands for predicate position (VP)
although it is not obviously illustrated whether the a verb is referred to ‘intransitive’
or ‘transitive’.
          Relating to the above discussion, transitive verb can be defined as verbs that
can be understood well if they are followed with object. Intransitive, on the other
hand, is verbs that do not require objects to make the meaning intelligible. The verbs
that belong to intransitive are often said to be verbs which need no object.
               e.g. Intransitive sentences
                               The man cried,
                               The woman laughed,
                               The dog died.
                    Transitive sentences
                               The boy played football,
                               The girls ate the cake,
                               The cat climbed the tree.
Not all languages can be drawn for the similar rule, though, as the abovementioned,
for not all subjects are placed preceded the predicate. There must be different rules in
different languages but since they are not the concern here, we will overlook to
discuss them all.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        24
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
       3. English Tenses
       3.1. Introduction to the Usage of Tenses
      Before setting off for the parts on verb of Tenses, the students should be
certain at the first stage that they do not perplex the term tense and time. It seems
necessary to clarify again here in more detail, although it has been bestowed above in
different section, concerning the difference between time and tense in which the two
should never be thought similar. One of the definitions dealing with the distinction
of Time and Tense is given by Hornby (1975). The same concept is also stated by
Hayden together with Pilgrim and Haggard. According to them Tense refers to the
form of the verb used; for example, he goes (simple present), he went (simple past),
he has gone (present perfect) etc. on the other hand, time is not a grammatical
structure; time is a concept that exists in the mind of the speaker (Hayden et.al,
1956:71). Hence, when we talk about an activity or any other occasions to another
person, we have clear idea in our mind about the time when the activity or the
occasion takes place. It so happens because there is a correlation between what we
are talking and the sentence being used to transmit our message to our interlocutors.
However, it is important to note that the correlation is not merely in time but
something more abstract that cannot be explained clearly as has been noted before.
Accordingly, Time and Tense must not be considered alike.
         Basically, Time and Tense are different in the essence since one Tense
occasionally point toward more than just one particular time. Even sometimes some
of the Tenses do not refer to the exact time as they should do in reference to the
pattern used. Now consider the following sentence to make clear depiction of what
the difference is about.
       “John leaves for Melbourne next Monday.”
The sentence contains present simple which is usually asserted as a tense referring to
the repeated time as habitual action or the like. But obviously the condition is absent
as it neither refers to habitual nor general truth as the Tense should cover. Instead
the sentence refers to an activity that will happen in the future or it refers to future
action not the habitual action.
      Another accentuation to differentiate between Tense and Time is clearly
demonstrated in the use of conditional sentence. It has been commonly stated that
conditional sentence is more related to state of affair or special condition being
talked rather than focusing itself on the time of the situation. Accordingly, it is


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        25
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
important to take into account that the Time does not match with the Tense used in
conditional sentences as it should do in the regular use.

e.g. John would fly to New York for vacation today if he were not sick.

          The tense above does not refer to the action happened in the past time, as it
is shown with the use of the two past tenses, in fact it refers to the present time
which does not fulfill the condition being wanted.
          In short, Tenses refer to the verb forms which indicate time of the action
mentioned. In English there are sixteen Tenses altogether. In this draft all the sixteen
Tenses will be clarified using patterns / formula to make them more intelligible; most
of the patterns are made based on lots of grammar books as mentioned in the
reference.


        3.2. Simple Present Tense
        We use present simple to talk about thing in general circumstances. Hence, it
happens repeatedly either in the past, present, or most likely to continue in the
future. Hence, we are not thinking only about a time while we are speaking at the
moment. Present simple can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true
before, is true now, and will still be true in the future. It is not necessary whether the
speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people
or thing (Lado, 1986:2).
        Further function of present simple is to express daily or habitual activities as
well as eternal truth. According to Allen in his book Living English Structure the simple
present tense is used to express eternal truth; it has the least definite time aspect, as
it frequently includes past, present, future (Allen, 1974:75). The use of present simple
refers to the timeless activity, especially when it pertains to the eternal truth since it
happens at anytime without any time span.

                 e.g. the Earth goes around the sun.

        From the example stated above we can see at whatever time it takes place. It
is seemingly that the earth will not defy to another rotation at any time. That is why
it can be said that present simple has least definite time aspect as most of the activity
conveyed using present simple is indefinite as to when it is brought to an end.


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         26
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember
       Another comprehensive principle pertaining to the use of present simple
derives from Alter; he says that Present simple does not refer to present time alone.
We can show actions in the past and future as well as it is to express habitual action
or to state general truth. (Alter, 1992:36)
       Sometimes speakers use present simple to tell that an action is going on or is
not going on at the moment of speaking. It is possible to do it only when the sentence
or the expression contains non-continuous verb such as: understand, remember,
forget, etc. This is commonly known as non-progressive verbs and it will be discussed
more detail in the present progressive tense section.
       In addition, the illustration of present simple formula (as well as others
Tenses formula subsequently) is also given in all sections regarding each tense usage
in this draft in order to make the each tense elucidation more comprehensible.
       Verbs other than be have two forms in simple present tense, that is a simple
form and –s form. The –s form is used with third person singular subjects (He, She,
It, John, Mary, Book, etc). Otherwise, the simple form is used with other subjects
such as they, we, I, and you. So, all sentences in simple present tense with subjects of
either they, we I, you is followed with bare infinitive but for sentences of which third
person singular (he, she, it) is the subject, the verb ought to be added with s or es
which depends on the verb ending. The verbs which are usually followed with es are
those ended with letter of either s, ch, x, z, o, etc. in the end of the verb-word.
         To show the clear usage of the above role, notice the singular and plural
forms of the nouns and the forms of the verb.
     SINGULAR /                 SUBJECT                      VERB        ADVERBIAL
       PLURAL
       Singular                     I                     Study       Every night
       Singular                  He, She                 Works        Every day
       Singular                    It                     Sleeps      Every morning
       Singular                   You                       Eat       Every day
        Plural                    We                     Practice     Every afternoon
        Plural                    They                     Sing       Every night
        Plural                    You                      Read       Every morning



Some additional examples that include affirmative, negative and interrogative
sentences in simple present tense are as follow:
         The affirmative ones:
              Sun rises in the east and sets in the west.


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          27
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember

              We go to dentist twice a month.
         The negative ones:
              Ann does not drink tea very often.
              We do not play football every week.
         The interrogative ones:
              Do you go shopping everyday?
              Do you play basketball every afternoon?


         Further example with verb be in simple present tense that includes the
affirmative, negative, as well as interrogative sentences are as follows:
         The affirmative ones:
              The hat is red.
              The cat is hungry.
              The man is a teacher.
              She is my wife.
              The rose is beautiful
         The negative ones:
              John is not happy.
              Max is not a student anymore.
         The interrogative ones:
              Is Mary sick?
              Are they bored?
         Present simple is often used with adverb of frequency as well. The following
adverbs of frequency are placed in the present simple sentences as the example.
Notice the position of the adverbs in the sentences below and compare their
meanings:
        SUBJECT             ADVERB OF                 MAIN VERB         ADVERB OF
                           FREQUENCY                                        TIME
John                      Always                    Studies           At night.
Mary                      Usually                   Studies           At night.
Bob                       Often                     Studies           At night.
Bill                      Sometimes                 Studies           At night.
Alice                     Seldom                    Studies           At night.
Tom                       Never                     Studies           At night.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                      28
                                     LANGUAGE CENTER
                                  Muhammadiyah University of Jember
           The illumination of all the adverb of frequency below is in a line with the
criteria the is set after each of them, i.e. always means all of the time, usually means
most of the time, often means much of the time, sometimes means some of the time,
seldom means almost never, whereas never means not at any time.
           The position of adverb of frequency always with the following verbs (study
and be) describes its difference in usage respectively as it is applied with the two
verbs. The difference can also be generalized as to using the other adverbs of
frequency with the equal different types of verbs.
           The use of adverb of frequency with a verb other than be.
       SUBJECT                     ADVERB OF                   MAIN VERB                     ADVERB OF
                                   FREQUENCY                                                    TIME
           John                       always                        studies                    at night


         The use of adverb of frequency with verb of be.
     SUBJECT                         BE                   ADVERB OF                      ADJECTIVE
                                                          FREQUENCY
         Mary                         is                     always                           busy


           In the first table, the adverb of frequency comes before the main verb of a
sentence. On the contrary, the adverb of frequency comes after forms of be (am, is,
are, etc) in the succeeding table.
           The adverbial phrases, which are frequently used in present simple are:
always, usually, often, frequently, sometimes, everyday, every night, every morning,
every week, generally, twice a week, once a week, rarely, seldom, never, and so forth.
        Present simple can also be used to express future time when events stated are
in restricted schedule or happen in specific time. Nonetheless, not solely all verbs
which are commonly used in the present simple can also be used to express future
time. Some of the following verbs are much more common in comparison with other
verbs for use to indicate future time in present simple without including future tense
aspect: to leave, to arrive, to begin, to start, to end, to finish, to open, to close, be.
e.g. The plane leaves at 8 a.m. next Monday.
       We start taking new course next month.
       The Bank closes at 1 p.m. tomorrow.
       There is a discussion about politic of this country on TV tonight.



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                            29
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember


       The exemplifying sentences above express an occasion which neither habitual
activity nor eternal truth, which are usually noted as the common functions of
present simple. Still, the future activities are being told regardless the common
functions of the tense.


       3.3. Present Continuous Tense
       Present continuous tense, or as it is sometimes called present progressive tense,
expresses an activity which is still in progress at the moment of speaking. It began in
the recent past, is continuing at present, and probably ends at some point in the
future (Azar, 1989:11). Another elucidation of the present continuous tense is offered
by Hall. According to him, the action in the present progressive tense is taking place
at the same time that it is being talked about. In other words, it is contemporary or
simultaneous with the utterance (Hall, 1992:164).
       In dealing with the propositions stated above, this Tense type is generally
used to express an action or activity which is carried out in the period of speaking,
though it is not compulsory that it takes place precisely in the time of speaking. The
other function of present continuous tense which has not yet been mentioned is to
express an activity that is likely to take place in the future. This latter function will
be explained in more detail successively.
       The following illustration shows the difference between the use of simple
present tense and present continuous tense.
                                 PAST TIME      PRESENT        FUTURE
SIMPLE PRESENT                   write write write write write write write


                                 yesterday…………today…………tomorrow


PRESENT PROGRESSIVE                                    NOW
                                       to be (am) writing……………………
       In accordance with illustration above, the present simple is used to indicate a
repeated, habitual, or customary action or event. Therefore, it continuously happens
in the past, present, and future time. Nevertheless, the present continuous, which is
made with a form of be and the –ing form in the end of verb, indicates the action or



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         30
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
event which is actually in progress at the present moment and is likely to terminate at
any time. In addition, the action or event is not related to any past occurrence.
        This present continuous tense is formed with be + present participle or it is
also more known as an –ing form. The use of the verb be of either is, am, or are must fit
the subject of a sentence. Some examples of present continuous tense including its
use in affirmative, negative as well as interrogative sentences are:


        (+) We are watering the flowers now.
        (+) *Harry is reading novel at present.
        (-) I am not doing anything at this moment.
        (-) She is not sleeping now.
        (?) Is he working in the office today?
        (?) *Are you taking an English course this month?


        The common adverbial phrases which are frequently used to indicate present
continuous tense are: now, still, at present, at this moment, etc. Yet, as stated in the
above examples with the asterisk, the action in present continuous tense is not
necessary to take place precisely in the time of speaking. To make it clear, notice the
conversation below which takes place in a café when both Tom and Ann are having
lunch together. Tom says to Mary: “I am reading an interesting book now. I can lend you when I
finish reading it.” (Murphy, 1994:2) In the statement, it is quite obvious that Tom is not
reading the book while he is having dinner in the café with Ann. It is only to show
that he is in the period of reading the book. What he means to say, instead, is to tell
her that he has started reading the book but not finished it yet. He is in the process of
reading it.
        Regarding the other function of present continuous tense which is to tell an
action or event that will happen in the future, some examples are also provided below
so as to make it clearer.


        I am leaving for London tomorrow morning.
        She is going to the party tonight.
        We are conducting the duty of English study next moth.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                             31
                                   LANGUAGE CENTER
                                Muhammadiyah University of Jember
         In some cases, present continuous tense is used to tell future activity when
the sentence itself concerns with following the features, namely: a definite plan, a
definite intention, a definite future activity either indicated by adverbial of time of
future tense or implied by the context of the sentence.


e.g.:    I am staying home tonight
         is as the same as
         I am going to stay home tonight.


         In another case, sometimes a speaker uses the present progressive tense as
future activity when he or she wants to make the statement very strong or emphatic.
         e.g.: I am flying to London next week; I have made up my mind. There is nobody -whoever
they are- can stop me, that is it. I don’t want to talk about it anymore.
         Nonetheless, there are some of verbs in English cannot be applied for
progressive tense, which are usually named non-progressive verb. Thus, Instead of
expressing activities or action that are in progress, the non-progressive verbs are more
likely used to express condition or state of something.
         e.g.:      John understands English grammar well.
                  * John is understanding English grammar well.
The first sentence above describes a mental state of John’s of being understand
something. It does not signify any activity at all, while the second similar sentence
with the asterisk is not possible English sentence and always considered
ungrammatical. To shed light on the difference, compare the sentence above with
sentence below.
         e.g.: Kim is writing a letter now.
         The latter tells that Kim is in the middle of doing something, undoubtedly the
verb to write entails the activity of writing. Hence, the use of present continuous tense
indicates that she is in the progress of her writing activity. The progressive sentence
is used with verbs like to take, to eat, to write, to read, and so forth all of which
indicate the completion of a certain activity, whereas it is not used with the verbs like
to understand, to know, etc which all does not signify action or activity.
         There are some non-progressive verbs listed below, with some of them can
also be used in progressive tense which surely entails different meaning from their


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                               32
                                      LANGUAGE CENTER
                                   Muhammadiyah University of Jember

use in the non-progressive one including to think, to have, to taste, to smell, to feel, to see, to
look, to appear, to weigh, and to be. The difference simply refers to the existing state for
non-progressive usage and an activity which is in progress for progressive usage.


                   COMMON NON-PROGRESSIVE VERBS IN ENGLISH
                                            MENTAL STATE
        know, believe, imagine, want, realize, feel, doubt, need, understand, suppose,
                         remember, prefer, recognize, think, forget, mean.
                                          EMOTIONAL STATE
                    love, hate, fear, mind, like, dislike, envy, care, appreciate.
                                               POSSESSION
                                    possess, have, own, and belong.
                                         SENSE PERCEPTION
                                     taste, hear, see, smell, and feel.
                                      OTHER EXISTING STATE
         seem, cost, be, consist of, look, owe, exist, contain, appear, weigh, include.


                                                                                        (see Azar)
           The comparison of the following example will make the difference even
clearer.
e.g.:      I think she is a good girl (mental state).
           I am thinking about my future (activity in progress).
           He has a lot of money (existing state for possession).
           She is having a private discussion with him (activity in progress).


           Still in the present progressive tense, it is also possible to insert an adverb of
place between be and present participle of the sentence.
           e.g.:    William is in his room sleeping.
                    Sally was in bed reading a magazine when I entered.


           3.4. Present Perfect Tense
           Instantaneously, this section is to pertain with the usage of present perfect
tense in which all is interrelated with the following criteria. When we talked about



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                  33
                                 LANGUAGE CENTER
                              Muhammadiyah University of Jember
something that occurred in the past, and we do not specify precisely when it
happened though for the reasons that we do not know or it is less important to say
when it took place, then present perfect tense is used (Hewings, 1999:6). Similarly,
present perfect is used to express the completion or ‘perfection’ of an action by now.
Therefore it is, to some extent, a kind of present tense, because we are not interested
in when the action took place, we are only interested in present state of completion;
i.e. its effect now (Allen, 1974:78). Accordingly, as we use present perfect tense, we
mean to talk about an action which took place at unspecified time before now, yet we
are usually more interested in the result of the action rather than in the action itself
(Allsop, 1989:159). In sum, the Tense is used to notify an action or event which has
been already completed and whose result still affects the present condition.
                          Time Signal of Present Perfect Tense

                                     PRESENT TIME



                 PAST TIME                                 FUTURETIME


                                 The
                                Action




                                   Moment of Speaking

        Present perfect tense is constructed with have or has after subject and
followed with past participle. Have is used for a sentence where the subject is either
of they, we, I, or you. Whereas, has is used for subject of either he, she, or it i.e. the so-
called third person singular.

        e.g.:   John has talked to Bill twice this week.
                Max has bought four new books this month.
                We have answered two questions today.

        The example above illustrates that the events have initiated before the
moment of speaking. However, it prolongs up to the present moments such as today,



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                             34
                                 LANGUAGE CENTER
                              Muhammadiyah University of Jember
this week, and this month. Thus, preset perfect tense is used. In other words, it is
used whenever a speaker whishes to indicate that the event is relevant or is still
related to the present moment.
        The example also shows that the adverb of time today, this week, and this month
all refer to the present time to each particular context. The adverb of time indicating
past time such as yesterday, last night, a minute ago, etc, cannot be used with present
perfect. Therefore, the following sentence is grammatically improper.
        *I have opened the window a minute ago.
By contrast, although the stated activity terminates not long before the utterance,
still this sentence refers to PAST TIME activity since there is no relation between the
activity that the speaker did a minute before with the activity he is doing as he is
reporting it. Therefore, in referring to the expression past tense is used instead of
present perfect tense.
        I opened the window a minute ago (and now I am reading a book).
        Some additional examples of the present perfect which cover its use in
affirmative, negative, and interrogative sentence are as the following:
        (+) They have ever gone to Jakarta.
        (+) Susan has met her sister already.
        (-) They have not taken English course yet.
        (-) We have not had breakfast yet.
        (?) Have you ever been to Singapore?
        (?) Has she lived here already?
           The common adverbial phrases which are frequently used in present
perfect tense are: since, during, recently, never, lately, already, for, just, ever, not yet,
up to now, etc.
        In contrast with past tense, which denotes completely the completed past
time occasions, this present perfect tense expresses indefinite time that begins in the
past and extends to the present. It is special of past time that ends with the moment
of speaking. An event may continue beyond the present moment of speaking, but the
statement is not concerned with this segment of time (Frank, 1972:78).
        Another function of present perfect tense is almost similar to the present
perfect progressive (see following topic), that is to express the duration refers to
past-to-present time span.



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                            35
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember


       e.g.:   I have lived in Chicago for three years.
               I have lived in Chicago since 2004.

       Regarding to the above examples, the use of For, in the tense, expresses the
extended time expressed as quantity, often with numeral, and Since, also in the tense,
expresses the beginning point of an extended period which is sometimes expressed as
a date (Frank, 1972:79).


       3.5 Present Perfect Continuous
       To know evidently in terms of the use of present perfect continuous tense, let
us consider to the following quotations thoroughly. The first one is stated by Azar,
she says that this kind of tense is used to be a sign concerning the duration of an
activity that commenced in the past and continues up to the present moment. When
the tense signifies this meaning, it is used with time words such as for, since, all
morning, all day, all week (Azar, 1989:36). The second notion illustrates that present
perfect continuous tense is applied when we are talking about something which
began but did not necessarily finish in the period between before now and now. In
particular, we are interested in the process of the action (Allsop, 1989:160). The third
one says that present perfect continuous tense emphasizes the continuity of an action
that has not been interrupted at all. It is often used with a time expression (Alter,
1992:48). In short, all of the elucidations stated above is similar in the essence, that is
to say that the tense is used to convey that an action took place in the past and it is
still continuing up to the present moment of speaking and possibly will be
proceeding in the future.
       The use of the present perfect progressive is illustrated below.

 1) George has studied.                              Have + participle

 2) + George is studying.                            To be + Present participle

 3) George has been studying.                        Have + been + present participle


       The first sentence states that George has started to study (present perfect
tense) and that his activity is still relevant to the present activity, which means that
he is still studying now. This activity of the second sentence is depicted by the use of



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          36
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember
present progressive tense. Sentence 3 as the summary of the two relevant activities of
both the first and second sentences states that George’s studying began in the past
and is still continuing up to the present and that is dealing with the use of present
perfect continuous tense i.e. the fact that this studying continues or is in progress up
to the present time emphasized.
       This sentence is composed with additional have or has after the subject of the
sentence and followed directly with been + present participle. Some additional
examples in sentences are as the following.

       e.g.:   (+) They have been reading the newspaper all morning.
               (+) We have been studying English more than six years.
               (-) He has not been living here for long.
               (-) I have not been working for a month.
               (?) Have you been discussing the problem for a week?
               (?) Have you been watching television all day?


       The adverbial phrases which are usually used in present progressive tense are
almost the same as present perfect tense, namely: since, during, for, etc.


       3.6 Simple Past Tense
       Several explanations of the simple usage of this kind of tense are stated as
follows: Simple past tense is used to refer to a completed action or condition in the
past, it is also used to refer to an action or condition that was habitual or repeated in
the past (Furrey and Menasche, 1992:16). From Furrey and Menasches’s statement
above we are clearly exemplified that past simple is used to express any occasions
which happened in the past, though they were what someone habitually carried out.
However, it is important to note that the habit itself or whatever it might be called
must take place in the past as it is indicated with the use of simple past tense.
       Another explanation is given by Allsop, he states that in using of simple past
tense we see a completed act one which began in the past and ended before now
(Allsop, 1992:54). Thus, as English native speaker uses past tense in conveying their
mean, it indicates that a definite past time is being discussed which means that the
thing denoted completed before the present moment and the completion has no
particular effect to present circumstance. However, it is worth committing to


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        37
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
memory simple past in English is not as specific as the past in some other languages
as to whether the action took over a long or short period of time, or whether it was a
single or repeated action (Hall, 1992:172). To summarize, this simple past tense is
used to indicate an action or activity which was done completely in the past time and
has no relation to present occurrence.
                                  Time Signal in past simple

                      PAST TIME                                    FUTURE
                                                                    TIME


                       The action




                                              The moment
                                              of Speaking



       Past tense is constructed using past form of verbs after the subject of a
sentence. The following examples are presented to differentiate between present
tense and past tense. Note the differences from the verb-forms and time signals.
       I study English everyday.                      (simple present tense)
       John studied English yesterday. (simple past tense)
       At the first sentence-example, the expression indicates that the action (study)
occurs as habitual action. So the action recurs over a period of time at either past,
present, or future. In the second sentence-example, on the other hand, the expression
indicates that the action was completed before the moment of speaking. The adverb
of time yesterday, which is used in enlightening the sentence, indicates that the
action has no relation with today’s activity.
       The followings are some more examples of the tense usage in sentences.
       e.g.:   They had a lot of trouble this morning.
               The police arrested the thief yesterday.
                 They did not come to work last week.
                 I did not watch television last night.
               Did you play basketball yesterday?
               Was she sick last month?



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                     38
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
       The adverbial phrases which are frequently used to tell simple past are:
yesterday, this afternoon, last night, this morning, a minute ago, etc.


       3.7 Past Continuous Tense
       The use of past continuous is clearly concerned as there were two occasions in
which one of them happened before another and was still in progress when the other
took place. Surely, both of the occasions proposed necessarily took place in the past
time. Thus, the use of past continuous tense came about at the time of a past action,
which is defined in relation to another action happening also in the past. The one of
the two occasions set up as the background to the other is put into past continuous
tense. We use it to show the time notion of the action as it was taking place, but we
are not interested in its completion. Therefore, past continuous is the tense for use to
indicate wherever the action was in the progress in the particular period in the past.
It can also be said to be alike to present continuous but merely distinct in the matter
of time.
       Further stance in terms of the usage of the tense itself is cited by Murphy.
According to him we use past continuous tense to say that somebody was in the
middle of doing something at certain time in the past. The action or occurrence had
already started before a certain time in the past but had not finished (Murphy,
1998:12). He further states that we often use the past simple and the past continuous
together to say that something happened in the middle of something else. In sum, this
tense is used to express an action or event that was happening in a particular time in
the past.
                        Time signal of past progressive tense

                      PAST TIME           PRESENT          FUTURE TIME


                        Past continuous


                           Past tense



       Past continuous tense is constructed with was or were after the subject of a
sentence, then followed with present participle. Was is used with third person
singular, otherwise, Were is used with subjects of either they, we, I, or you.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                       39
                                 LANGUAGE CENTER
                              Muhammadiyah University of Jember

e.g.:   While they were doing some shopping, a beggar asked them for money.
        She was studying Physics yesterday when you arrived.
        I saw Jane having breakfast this morning while I was waiting for you.


        The underlined phrases of the example above show that someone was in the
middle of doing something while they encountered other events or actions which also
happened in the past time.
        Some additional examples concerning with the use of the tense are as the
following:


        Susan was sleeping as I came to her house.
        I was having my lunch while you broke the glass.
        Mark was not singing as you entered the room.
        Brian was not studying when the lamp went out.
        Were they going out when you phoned them?
        Was Ronald watching TV while someone called him?


        Adverbial phrases which are frequently used in past progressive tense are: at
(time), when, while, as, and so forth.


        3.8 Past Perfect Tense
        Straightforwardly, we use past perfect tense in reference to one of two actions
which had necessarily been completed ahead of the other action, and both of the two
actions happened in the past. The concept presented is as the same as what Azar
mentions in terms of the tense usage. Past perfect tense expresses an activity that was
completed before another activity or time in the past (Azar, 1989:39). In addition, we
can also trace back to Allsop’s account. We use past perfect tense when we want to
make it clear that action A took place in a time before and separate from the time
when action B took place (Allsop 1992:161).




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                      40
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
                              Time Signal of Past Perfect Tense

                                             NOW
               PAST PERFECT
                                                              FUTURE



                            PAST TENSE



        Past perfect is constructed with had + past participle. For example: After we
had worked all day, we stopped for a rest. Before you went home, I had already waited for you. As
soon as you had finished studying we went to the concert.
        Three of the sentences contain both of past perfect and past tense. The
underlined verbs indicate that the action had happened before the other one, they are
called past perfect tense as the reason mentioned above. Both of the events (past
perfect and past tense) must happen in the past time which has no relation with the
present activity.
        Some examples in sentences are provided to make the use of the tense even
clearer, such as:

        (+) After I had already studied English, I began to study in the University.
        (+) After she had slept last night, she went out.
        (-) Arthur had not studied the lesson before he did the lesson.
        (-) We had not had dinner before we went to sleep.
        (?) Had you finished doing your homework before you went to school yesterday?
        (?) Had not they prepared it before they left?

        The adverbial phrases which are usually used in past perfect tense are:
already, after, before, and so forth.


        3.9. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
        To pertain to the use of the past perfect continuous tense, I hereby quoted
Hewing’s words extensively for conferring lucid designation as to when and why we
use the tense. In accordance with his view we use past perfect continuous to talk
about an activity that happened over a period up to particular past time, or until


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                41
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
shortly before it (Hewings, 1999:20). Alternatively, we use the tense when we talk
about the continuity or duration of a situation or activity in the past time; that is to
say that we use this tense to describe an activity that had been going on in the past
before another and was still in progress (Allsop, 1989:60).
                          Time signal of past perfect progressive

                         PAST                PRESENT                 FUTURE




               Past perfect
               continuous



        Past perfect progressive tense is made by adding had + been + present
participle after the subject of a sentence.
e.g.:   He was wet because he had been swimming.
        I was tired although I had just been resting.
        I had been living in California for two years three months ago.


        3.10 Simple Future Tense
        The use of the future tense can be taken with the allusion to Alter’s. He
affirms we use simple future tense to show future actions which are usually
unplanned in advanced (Alter, 1992:70). Further enlightenment of the tense usage is
provided by Allen in relation with the auxiliaries used to tell future simple. He posits
the different meanings of the future simple in referring to the auxiliaries commonly
used; namely shall and will. He mentions that the auxiliary shall correlates with the
meaning of command, compulsion, or obligation; while the auxiliary will means want
or wish (Allen, 1974:125).
                                 Time signal of simple future

                                                        Future tense



                                         Present time




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                       42
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
        Simple future tense is constructed by adding auxiliary will or shall after
subject in a sentence and followed by bare infinitive.


e.g.:   We shall travel by train tomorrow morning.
        I shall finish my booklet next month.
        They will come to see us tonight.


        In the examples above, all sentences indicate future time in which the actions
do not take place in the period of speaking. In other words, the actions mentioned
refer to the future accomplishment. The verb shall is used only with subjects I and we.
See both sentence 1 and 2; whereas, will can be used for all subjects.
        Some additional examples about the use of simple future tense are as follows:
                 Daniel will visit my parents next week.
                 I will go to Australia next year.
                 I will not watch television tonight.
                 Jeremy will not come tomorrow.
                 Will you read the book tonight?
                 Shall we go to Surabaya by bus?
        The adverbial phrases which are often used in future simple are: tomorrow,
next week (month, year, etc), tonight, two more days, etc.
        Apart from using will or shall to express future tense, we can also use be
going to and be about to to tell future simple. Be going to and will are the same when
they are used to make predictions about the future. To tell an action or occasion that
hasn’t happened in the time of speaking, but it is probably coming to be real in the
future time.
e.g.:   Jane is going to be successful person because she always studies hard everyday.
        Jane will be successful person because she always studies hard everyday.
        Both of the sentences have the same meaning; namely to mention the
prediction about Jane’s fate in the future. Be going to; however, can not be used when
the speaker is going to express willingness or volunteer. Here, will is used.
e.g.:   This luggage seems too heavy for you to carry alone. I’ll help you to carry them all.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                  43
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember

        In the expression the speaker is willing to give a hand. Similarly will; however,
cannot be used to express a preconceived plan, here be going to is preferred.
e.g.:   I sold my old computer because I am going to buy a new one.
        From the statement, we can see that the speaker is planning to buy a new
computer.
        Another form of future simple is expressed by using be about to to designate an
activity which will happen after the present moment. Be about to expresses an activity
that will happen in the immediate future, usually within five minutes (Azar, 1992:65).

e.g.:   Ann’s bags are packed, and she is wearing her coat. She is about to leave for the airport.
        Please be quiet, the movie is about to begin.

        Those contextualized events above are going to happen in the next few
minutes even though the time-signals are not mentioned.


        3.11 Future Continuous Tense
        The future continuous / progressive expresses an activity that will be in
progress at a certain time in the future. Sometimes there is little or no difference
between the future progressive and the simple future, especially when the future will
occur at an indefinite time in the future (Azar, 1989:51). When we use the future
progressive tense, we immediately mean to talk about an action or activity that is in
progress at a particular time in the future. Sometimes, there is no difference between
the future simple and the future progressive but the time applied to make the use the
tense in context; however, as the same tract as Azar’s statement, both of the tenses
are quite hard to distinguish one from another whilst the time of the activity is
indefinite.
        e.g.:    Don’t get impatient, she will be coming soon,
                 and
                 Don’t get impatient, she will come soon.
                          Time signal of future progressive tense

                                                              Future
                                                            progressive




                        PAST                PRESENT                   FUTURE
Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                       44
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember


        3.12 Future Perfect Tense
        According to Hayden et.al, future perfect expresses activities that exist or
occur before another activity or point of time in the future (Hayden, et.al, 1956:95).
More complete explanation dealing with future perfect tense is granted by Frank, he
says that in general future perfect tense may be characterized as future-before-future
time. This kind of tense emphasizes the fact that one future time is completed before
another future time or, to put it another way, that one future time is past in relation
to a second future time. Normally, the event marked by the future perfect tense
actually begins in the past and terminates in the future; we may then speak of past-
to-future time (Frank, 1972:85).
                             Time signal of future perfect tense

                                                              future perfect




                       PAST                 PRESENT                 FUTURE

        Future perfect tense is constructed by adding shall or will after the subject of
sentence + have + past participle.
e.g.:   I will already have studied when they visit me.
        I will have graduated from this University by the end of this year.
        The farmer will have harvested their crops when this season ends.
        The students will have studied in Senior High School by the end of this month.


        The above sentential examples point toward the completion of an activity or
occasion before another activity in the future or by the coming of particular time in
the future.


        3.13 Future Perfect Continuous Tense
        I simply mean to mention two elucidations interconnected with the use of the
tense, the first one is granted by Azar who posits that the use of the future perfect
continuous / progressive emphasizes the duration of an activity that will be in
progress before another time or event in the future (Azar, 1989:53). Secondly, future


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                           45
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
perfect progressive expresses activities similar to those in the future perfect tense but
emphasis their continuous nature (Hayden, et.al, 1956:95). Both of the elucidations
share the common sense of the use linked to the tense being discussed here, though
the clarifications are seemingly disconnected.


                         Time signal of future perfect progressive

                                                  PRESENT

                           PAST                                             FUTURE




                                                                  Future perfect
                                                                   progressive


        This kind of tense is constructed by adding shall or will + have + been +
present participle.


e.g.:   I will have been playing football for two hours by the time my friends come.
        John will have been living in this town for six years by the end of this year.
        Luna will have been conducting the research for two weeks when this semester ends for the
        next one.
        The above activities will have been in a particular period or duration before
another. To add, the cogent difference of present perfect progressive with present
perfect tense is the activities expressed using present perfect continuous tense seem
to continue subsequently.


        3.14 Past Future Tense
        Past future tense is mainly known as having two functions; the first one is to
express an action that would be accomplished in the past time. The second one is for
the use in conditional sentence type two. The functions are discussed one by one in
this subtopic.
        Past future tense is constructed by adding would or should as the past form of
auxiliary will and shall, and then followed by bare infinitive. To make it apparently



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                46
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
understandable, the functions of the tense are provided from some quotation from
Krohn and Simanjuntak.
        According to Simanjuntak (2003:44) past future tense is past form of future
simple, that is, it expresses an action or event which was going to be performed in the
past time.
e.g.:   Jane would buy a car the previous day.
        I thought that they would go to Bali.
        Past future tense is also used to describe a hypothetical situation, one that is
contrary to the real facts of the present, or unlikely to occur in the future (Krohn,
1986:257).


e.g.:   He would buy a car if he had enough money.
        It implies that he will not buy a car as he has not enough money.
        If she knew the fact, she would tell you.
        It implies that she doesn’t know about the fact so she doesn’t tell you
        anything about it.


        3.15 Past Future Continuous Tense
        In accordance with Hartanto’s concept, past future continuous or progressive
is expressed as the past form of present future progressive tense, that is to indicate
that an action was about to be accomplished in a certain time in the past (Hartanto,
et.al, 1996:262).
        This kind of tense is constructed by adding would or should + be + present
participle.
e.g.:   I should be taking an examination at this time last week.
        Stephanie would be working in the factory at this moment yesterday.


        3.16 Past Future Perfect Tense
        To make the use of the past future perfect, the following explanation cited by
Krohn seems to be valuable to take into account; he points out that past future
perfect is used to describe a hypothetical situation of past time, one which did not
occur (Krohn, 1986:257).




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                       47
                                 LANGUAGE CENTER
                              Muhammadiyah University of Jember
        Past future perfect tense is constructed by adding would or should + have +
past participle.
e.g.:   I should have gone to Malang if I had had a car.
        It means that I did not go to Malang for I did not have a car.
        Tom would have visited her if she had been at home.
        It means that Tom did not visit her as she was not at home.


        3.17 Past Future Perfect Continuous
        Alluding to Hartanto’s idea in relation with the use of the past future
continuous / progressive, we can find its use as the past form of future perfect
progressive, that is, it expresses an action or activity that would be in progress before
another time in the past (Hartanto, et.al 1996:264).
        This tense is formed by adding would or should after the subject of sentence,
then it is followed by have + been + present participle.
e.g.:   By last summer I should have been living in this town for four years. By the end of this month
        last semester, Kathryn would have been studying in University of Chicago for three years.
        In addition to the use it self, this tense can also be used in conditional
sentence to express an action of which was not completed in a certain time in the
past.
e.g.:   Brian told me that he would have been playing football in that time if it had not started to
        rain.
        By now, we all have grasped description about the usage of “Tenses” with its
manifestation also in “sentences” despite its complexity to discuss the all in detail due
to its very big coverage as a part of English grammar. Therefore, it is not all adequate
to mention up to their molecular facet totally in this limited page. Yet, the above
explanations are supposed to be sufficient to give us general description about the
common use of Tenses. All right, now let’s check your understanding of the concepts
by referring to the mini-test in the following section.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                      48
                                  LANGUAGE CENTER
                               Muhammadiyah University of Jember
                                           Mini-Test 1


Part I. In this section of the test, there are simple and uncompleted conversations. The questions are
        given in multiple choice. Choose the right answer for each.

1. “Are Alice and Tom still living in New York?”
   “No, they…………to Dallas.”
         a. are just moved                   c. have just moved
         b. had just moved                   d. will just moved

2. “Why is Teddy so sad?”
    “Because his bird …………..away.”
       a. flown                                      c. fly
       b. flew                                       d. had flown

3. “Can I come by for my check tomorrow?”
    “Yes, by then I ……………..time to go to the bank.”
        a. will have had                      c. will has had
        b. will had                           d. have

4. “Why were you hurrying?”
    “We were hurrying because we thought that the bell……………”
      a. had already rang                 c. Had already rung
      b. has already rang                 d. have already ringing

5. “Did you go to Hawaii for vacation?”
    “I ………….. to go, but I got sick at the last minute.”
        a, was planned                   c. had been planning
        b, had planning                          d. have planned

6. “When was Michael Caine born?”
  “In Britain, but now he ……………….in the United States.”
        a. has lived                       c. lives
        b. living                          d. is living


7. “Where are Ken and Margaret?”
    “They were hungry, so they …………….to the grocery store.”
       a. go                              c. went
       b. had gone                        d. were gone

8. “Betty told me that you have a cottage on Lake Superior.”
    “Yes, we…………there since we first moved to Michigan.”
        a. had gone                           c. are going
        b. have been going                    d. had been going
9. “You and Carl seem to be getting along well.”
  “Yes, I……………him better than before.”
        a. Liking                             c. liked
        b. like                               d. have liked



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                    49
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
10. “How are you feeling?”
     “I’ve been feeling better since………”
         a. the doctor has came               c. the doctor had come
         b. the doctor will came              d. the doctor came

11. If only we had needed vacation at the time, we…………to Florida.
         a. would have been going             c. have been going
         b. would be to go                    d. was going to go

12. “It was regretful that I couldn’t joint the party.”
     “We wish that you…………..such a lot of work, because we know that you would
     have enjoyed the party.”
         a. hadn’t had                           c. didn’t have had
         b. hadn’t                               d. hadn’t have

13. “Did you meet Ann here at the University?”
     “No, we …………..we started college.
        a. have already met                 c. had already been meeting
        b. had already met                  d. had already meet

14. “Where is the new stove that you brought yesterday?”
     “The color didn’t match, so I ……………….it to store.”
        a. return                             c. returned
        b. had returned                       d. did return

15. “When are you planning to send the memo to the staff?”
     “I ……………..it already.”
         a. send                          c. have sent
         b. had sent                      d. was to send

16. “Do you always go to the barber to have you hair cut?”
     “Yes, I ……………..to the same barber since 1950?
        a. am going                           c. go
        b. have been going                    d. had going

17. I ……………many famous museums at this time if we stopped in Florence.
        a. have been visiting    c. would be visiting
        b. are visiting          d. was visiting

18. “Would you like to go to the band concert?”
     “Thanks, but I …………… it already.”
        a. had seen                            c. have seen
        b. have been seeing            d. did see

19. “Isn’t hard to drive down town to work?”
     “Yes, that’s why I ………….to work by train.”
         a. have been going                   c. have been gone
         b. have went                 d. going

20. The man ……………hard today if he came here.
       a. would be working         c. was being worked


Muhlisin, 2011                                                             50
                                    LANGUAGE CENTER
                                 Muhammadiyah University of Jember
         b. will e working                              d. would have been working.

21. “How long have you been with the company?”
     “I ……………….there for two years by January.”
         a. will work                       c. will have
         b. was working                     d. will have worked


Part II. In this part of section, you will be exposed to questions in a form of sentences consisting of five
         options. The questions are in the same multiple choice form as above.


22. By the end of the century, it is likely that the oceans of the world ………..by all the
    rubbish poured into them.
        a. will polluted                       d. would have being polluted
        b. will be polluting                   e. are being polluted
        c. will have been polluted

23. Why was peter absent yesterday? He ………….bad cold.
      a. have                      d. was having
      b. having                           e. had had
      c. had

24. Where are my books? One of those boys …………them now.
      a. have                      d. had
      b. has                              e. are having
      c. is having

25. I went to collect my car but it was not ready, when I went to the service station it
    ………..still……….
        a. was….. servicing                   d. had been …..serviced
        b. was….. serviced                    e. was being ……serviced
        c. was…... servised

26. If you are selfish, you …………..the lives of many people.
         a. would endanger                      d. are endangered
         b. will endanger                       e. were endangered
         c. might endanger

27. I didn’t know he……….in three months’ time.
         a. will promote                     d. will be promoting
         b. was going to be promoted e. had been promoting
         c. has been promoting
28. If you had not forgotten your key, you…………able to get in the house easily.
         a. were                      d. would have been
         b. will be                          e. will have being
         c. have been.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                           51
                                    LANGUAGE CENTER
                                 Muhammadiyah University of Jember
29. He told us he would ………………the fan in ten minutes.
        a. repair                          d. to repair
        b. repaired                        e. have repair
        c. repairing

30. If it were not for his kindness, you ………….in hospital now.
          a. are                              d. would be
          b. will be                          e. had been
          c. were

31. Sometimes I get up before the sun …………..
       a. rising                             d. had risen
       b. rise                               e. rises
       c. rose

32. I doubt …………..to your letter before the end of the week.
        a. he will reply              d. whether will be reply
        b. that he will reply                 e. whether he will reply
        c. he is replying

33. If you had been more careful, you ……………the car.
         a. would not damaging               d. had not damaged
         b. were not damaged          e. would not have damaged
         c. will not damaging

Part III. In this part of the test you are assigned to put the verbs in the brackets in the correct form.

34. I ………….(work) in a car factory during the summer of 1976.
    Answer:

35. For the time being, Mr. Smith………..(act) as manager of this department.
    Answer:

36. The painter said that he ……….(work) on the picture at the time if it hadn’t started
    to rain.
    Answer:

37. She………….(interfere) with my work now if she were here.
    Answer:

38. By next month I ………….(write) this book for 3 years.
    Answer:

39. We ………….(meet) you in Grand Central Station tomorrow.
    Answer:

40. If you come before six, I ………….(work) in my garden.
    Answer:

41. At this time next month, he………..(study) at Columbia University.
    Answer:


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                                              52
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember


42. Listen! I think the telephone………….(ring).
    Answer:

43. We ………….(look) at the painting for about ten minutes before we realized who the
    artist was.
    Answer:

44. At ten o’clock tomorrow morning, I ………….(have) music lesson.
    Answer:

45. Next Saturday, they…………(live) in this house for a year.
    Answer:

46. His brother ………….(study) in the University for three years at this time being last
    month.
    Answer:

47. I ……….(go) to James Town in Virginia if I had had a car.
    Answer:

48. Next year, my father…………..(work) in the company for 30 years.
    Answer:

49. I ………….(work) hard, so I felt that I deserved a holiday.
    Answer:

50. At present they…………..(travel) in South America.
    Answer:




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                     53
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember

            ~ Section 2–Structure and Written Expression ~
This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is
appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this
section, with special direction for each type.


Structure
Directions: Questions 1-4 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will
see four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the one word or
phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number
of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you
have chosen.
Look at the following examples.
Example I
Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes . . . . they both emit hot liquids from
below the earth surface.
   (A) due to
   (B) because
   (C) in spite of
   (D) regardless of
The sentence should read, “Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes because
they both emit hot liquids from below the earth surface.” Therefore, you should
choose answer (B).
Example II
During the early period of ocean navigation, . . . . any need for sophisticated
instruments and techniques.
   (A) so that hardly
   (B) where there hardly was
   (C) hardly was
   (D) there was hardly
The sentence should read, “During the early period of ocean navigation, there was
hardly any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques.” Therefore, you should
choose answer (D).




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                           54
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1. Refrigerating meats _____the spread of bacteria.
   (A) retards
   (B) retarding
   (C) to retard
   (D) is retarded
2. Throughout the animal kingdom, _____bigger than the elephant.
   (A) whaler is only the
   (B) only the whale is
   (C) is the whale only
   (D) only whale is the
3. The fact _____money orders can usually be easily cashed has made them a popular
   form of payment.
   (A) of
   (B) that
   (C) is that
   (D) which is
4. The first article of the United States Constitution gives Congress _____to pass
   laws.
   (A) the power
   (B) has the power
   (C) the power is
   (D) of the power
5. What year did you _____ university?
   (A) graduate
   (B) graduate from
   (C) graduating
   (D) graduating from
6. It seems to be getting worse. You had better _____ a specialist.
   (A) consult
   (B) consult to
   (C) consult with
   (D) consult by




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                 55
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
7. Chicago is a large city, _____?
    (A) aren't it
    (B) doesn't it
    (C) won't it
    (D) isn't it
8. Don't leave your books near the open fire. They might easily _____.
    (A) catch to fire
    (B) catch the fire
    (C) catch on fire
    (D) catch with fire
9. Do you enjoy _____?
    (A) to swim
    (B) swimming
    (C) swim
    (D) to swimming
10. I have trouble _____.
    (A) to remember my password
    (B) to remembering my password
    (C) remember my password
    (D) remembering my password
11. Do you have _____ to do today? We could have a long lunch if not.
    (A) many work
    (B) much work
    (C) many works
    (D) much works
12. My brother will _____ for a few nights.
    (A) provide us up
    (B) provide us in
    (C) put us up
    (D) put us in
13. When will the meeting _____?
    (A) hold on                 (C) take on
    (B) hold place              (D) take place




Muhlisin, 2011                                                           56
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
14. The board meeting was held _____.
   (A) at Tuesday
   (B) on Tuesday
   (C) with Tuesday
   (D) in Tuesday
15. Why don't you _____ us?
   (A) go to the house party with
   (B) go together the house party with
   (C) go the house party with
   (D) together the house party with
16. That awful accident occurred _____.
   (A) before three weeks
   (B) three weeks before
   (C) three weeks ago
   (D) three weeks past
17. They didn't _____ John when he explained his decision.
   (A) agree to
   (B) agree with
   (C) agree
   (D) agree about
18. The social worker _____ the two old sisters who were ill.
   (A) called to the house of
   (B) called on the house of
   (C) called to
   (D) called on
19. Tomorrow is Paul's birthday. Let's _____ it.
   (A) celebrate
   (B) praise
   (C) honor
   (D) congratulate
20. If you don't understand the text, don't hesitate _____.
   (A) ask a question           (C) to ask a question
   (B) asking a question               (D) to asking a question




Muhlisin, 2011                                                    57
                                   LANGUAGE CENTER
                                Muhammadiyah University of Jember
21. It's snowing. Would you like to _____ on Saturday or Sunday?
   (A) skiing
   (B) go to ski
   (C) go skiing
   (D) go ski
22. Our company didn't pay _____ for that banner advertisement.
   (A) much funds
   (B) many funds
   (C) many money
   (D) much money
23. Do you feel like _____ now?
   (A) swimming
   (B) to swim
   (C) swim
   (D) to go swimming
24. Tom was thrilled to be _____ such a beautiful and interesting lady.
   (A) introduced
   (B) introduced at
   (C) introduced with
   (D) introduced to
25. "What happened to them last night? They look depressed"
   "I don't think _____ happened."
   (A) nothing
   (B) everything
   (C) something
   (D) anything
26. "It is not very cold. I don't think we need these big jackets."
   "I don't think so, _____."
   (A) anyway
   (B) neither
   (C) either
   (D) too




Muhlisin, 2011                                                            58
                                LANGUAGE CENTER
                             Muhammadiyah University of Jember
27. "Bill is not doing well in class."
   "You must _____, that he is just a beginner at this level."
    (A) keep minding
    (B) keep to mind
    (C) keep in mind
    (D) keeping in mind
28. "Excuse me. Do you know where the bus terminal is?"
   "It is _____ the large police station."
    (A) opposite of
    (B) opposed to
    (C) opposite with
    (D) opposite to
29. "Those students will perform the annual school play."
   "Yes, it is _____ for next week."
    (A) due
    (B) scheduled
    (C) time-tabled
    (D) put on
30. "Where do you live now?"
    "I live in Utah; my _____."
    (A) parents too do
    (B) parents do
    (C) parents do, too
    (D) parents also do




Muhlisin, 2011                                                   59
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
Written Expression
Directions: in the following questions, each question has four underlined words or
phrases. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked (A), (B), (C), and (D).
Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the
sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question
and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
Look at the following examples:
Example I
Guppies are sometimes call rainbow fish because of the males’ bright colors.
                      A             B     C                    D
The sentence should read, “Guppies are sometimes called rainbow fish because of the
males’ bright colors”. Therefore, you should choose answer (A).
Example II
Serving several term in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United
  A               B                                             C
States politician.
          D
The sentence should read, “Serving several terms in Congress, Shirley Chisholm
became an important United States politician.” Therefore, you should choose answer
(B).
Now begin work on the questions.


PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1. Electrical disturbances on Earth are frequently caused with storms on the surface
      A                                   B                C               D
   of the sun.
2. Inventor Granville Woods received him first patent on January 3, 1884, for a steam
                                      A               B                    C      D
   boiler furnace.
3. A deficient of folic acid is rarely found in humans because the vitamin is contained
       A                            B                    C
   in a wide variety of foods.
   D
4. The gopher digs with the big strong claws of its two front foot with its
               A                                 B             C
   overhanging front teeth.
       C


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        60
                             LANGUAGE CENTER
                          Muhammadiyah University of Jember
5. As two nuclei move closer together, their mutual electrostatic potential energy
   A                                          B
   becomes more large and more positive.
      C       D
6. The study of these animals are truly fascinating, and many books have been
                 A             B                                     C
   written about them.
          D
7. After George had returned to his house, he was reading a book.
                    A             B          C    D

8. Many contractors having proposed a new model on conserving the purity of
       A                    B                          C
   water, but not one has been as widely accepted as this one.
                                     D

9. Raging tropical storm which later develops into a hurricane destroyed
                          A            B              C
   hundreds of houses and other buildings.
          D

10. We wish today was sunny so that we could spend the day in the country
                  A           B          C                      D
  communing with nature.

11. The food that mark is cooking in the kitchen is smelling delicious.
      A                    B                        C           D

12. The professor has wrote the book to meet the needs of our students to join
                    A                             B                      C
    the course.
         D

13. After John eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed.
                A              B           C                 D

14. The manager has finished working on the report last night, and now she will
                      A          B       C
    begin to write the other proposal.
             D

15. A thirty-minute discussion and a number of objections have repealing the
           A                             B                     C
    proposal for it fails to include our district.
             D

16. The work performed by these officers are not worth our paying them any longer.
                              A          B              C               D




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                       61
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
17. The bank was robbed with three burglars who first came to steal the money put
                              A                        B             C
    inside the building.
      D

18. The president went fishing after he has finished with the conferences.
     A                   B      C           D

19. The professor divided his class into two sections to prevent overcrowding
     A                B                   C                           D
    in his classroom for the subsequent meeting.

20. Mary and I play tennis every morning whereas Peter and Tom plays tennis every
        A                                   B                      C
    afternoon.
        D

21. The administrator been canceling the class because too few students taking it this
                            A                     B           C            D
    semester.

22. There was a time that I used to swim five laps every day, but I did not
            A                      B                   C                 D
    have enough time now.
            D

23. Regarding the change in plans of our weekend trip, we should be informed Janis
       A                      B                                    C
    about it.
     D

24. When the telephone rang, He drunk a cup of coffee.
                  A               B C           D

25. If a crisis would occur, those unfamiliar with the procedures would not know
                    A             B                 C
   how to handle the situation.
           D

26. We called yesterday our friends in Boston to tell them about the reunion that
         A                 B                     C        D
   we are planning.

27. The political candidate always talks as if he has already been elected to the
    A                                              B               C          D
   presidency.

28. My brother doesn’t care how much does the car cost because he is going to buy
        A                                   B             C            D
   it anyway.



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                      62
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
29. Marie’s cousin is studied law at one of the ivy-league universities in the East.
                         A        B     C                                     D

30. Mary and her sister study Biology last year, and so did Jean.
          A                B                C             D

31. The problems that discovered since the initial research was completed cause
                          A        B                              C
    the committee members to table the proposal temporarily.
                              D

32. If Monique did not attend the conference, she will never meet her old friend Dan,
                               A                         B
   whom she has not seen in years.
     C              D

33. Pete had already saw that musical before he read the reviews about it.
                  A                     B         C                 D

34. Jennifer has been living in this town for 10 years when George left.
                  A                        B             C           D

35. The committee members examined the materials now for the competition next
                A            B           C            D
    Friday.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                         63
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember

                                     MATERI 3
                             - Reading Comprehension -

Bagian ketiga dari TOEFL ini merupakan bentuk uji yang paling familiar bagi para
pesertanya. Pemahaman materi bacaan bukanlah hal yang baru dalam uji kompetensi
kemampuan bahasa. Namun demikian, perlu diperhatikan juga bahwa materi reading
comprehension yang ada pada TOEFL cukup berbeda dengan materi reading
comprehension yang biasa kita temui di uji kompetensi bahasa Inggris di sekolah-
sekolah umum atau bahkan di tingkat pendidikan tinggi.


Topik dan gaya materi yang biasa disajikan untuk uji reading comprehension dalam
TOEFL lebih condong kepada jenis yang biasa ditemui di kampus atau universitas di
Amerika. Dengan kata lain, Anda sebagai peserta TOEFL akan disajikan berbagai
jenis teks yang berhubungan dengan konteks akademis. Masing-masing dari teks
tersebut akan dilanjutkan dengan pertanyaan-pertanyaan pemahaman seputar isi
teks baik secara explicit maupun implicit. Sebagai tambahahan, untuk menghindari
terfokusnya materi bacaan pada salah satu bidang studi saja, topik atau materi
bacaan umumnya mencakup bahan-bahan kajian yang tidak menjurus pada
spesifikasi bidang ilmu tertentu. Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan contoh instruksi
dan materi reading comprehension yang disajikan sebagai berikut:


Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by a
number of questions about it. You are to choose the one best answer (A), (B), (C),
and (D), to each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the
question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have
chosen.
Answer all questions about the information in a passage on the basis of what is
stated or implied in that passage.


                      SAMPLE PASSAGE AND QUESTIONS
       The rail road was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to
draw attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchant
have set out their wares at day break and communal festivities have been celebrated,
people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of the day.


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          64
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public
acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the
massive daily transfer of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and
starts; the very fabric of modern society would begin to unravel.
Example I
What is the main idea of the passage?
    (A) In modern society we must make more time for our neighbors.
    (B) The traditions of society are timeless.
    (C) An acceptance way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning
        of society.
    (D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.
The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is
measured in order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose answer (C).


                  NOW LET’S GO TO THE PRACTICE PASSAGE
Passage 1
        The Alaskan pipeline starts at the frozen edge of the Artic Ocean. It stretches
southward across the largest and northernmost states in the United States, ending at
a remote ice-free seaport village nearly 800 miles from where it begins. It is massive in
size and extremely complicated to operate.
        The steel pipe crosses windswept plains and endless miles of delicate tundra
that tops the frozen ground. It weaves through crooked canyons, climbs sheer
mountains, plunges over rocky crags, makes its way through thick forests, and passes
over or under hundreds of rivers and streams. The pipe is 4 feet in diameter, and up to
2 million barrels (or 84 million gallons) of crude oil can be pump through it daily.
        Resting on H-shaped steel racks called “bents”, long sections of the pipeline
follow zigzag course high above the frozen earth. Other long sections drop out of
sight beneath spongy or rocky ground and return to the surface later on. The pattern
of the pipeline’s up-and-down route is determined by the often harsh demands of the
artic and subartic climate, the tortuous lay of the land, and the varied composition of
soil, rock, or permafrost (permanently frozen ground). A little more than half of the
pipeline is elevated above the ground. The remainder is buried anywhere from 3 to 12
feet, depending largely upon the type of terrain and the properties of the soil.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                           65
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
       One of the largest in the world, the pipeline cost approximately $8 billion and
is by far the biggest and most expensive construction project ever undertaken by
private industry. In fact, no single business could raise that much money, so 8 major
oil companies formed a consortium in order to share the costs. Each company
controlled oil rights to particular shares of land in the oil fields and paid into the
pipeline-construction fund according to the size of its holdings. Today, despite
enormous problems of climate, supply shortages, equipment breakdowns, labor
disagreements, treacherous terrain, a certain about mismanagement, and even theft,
the Alaskan pipeline has been completed and is operating.
                                       QUESTIONS
1. The passage primarily discusses the pipeline’s
       (A) Operating cost
       (B) Employees
       (C) Consumers
       (D) Construction
2. The word “it” in line 3 refers to
       (A) Pipeline
       (B) Ocean
       (C) State
       (D) Village
3. According to the passage, 84 million gallons of oil can travel through the pipeline
   each
       (A) Day
       (B) Week
       (C) Month
       (D) Year
4. The phrase “Resting on” in line 10 is closest in meaning to
       (A) Consisting of
       (B) Supported by
       (C) Passing under
       (D) Protected with
5. The author mentions all of the following as important in determining the
   pipeline’s route EXCEPT the
       (A) Climate


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                           66
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
        (B) Lay of the land itself
        (C) Local vegetation
        (D) Kind of soil and rock
6. The word “undertaken” in line 20 is closest in meaning to
        (A) Removed
        (B) Selected
        (C) Transported
        (D) Attempted
7. How many companies share the costs of constructing the pipeline?
        (A) Three
        (B) Four
        (C) Eight
        (D) Twelve
8. The word “particular” in line 23 is closest in meaning to
        (A) Peculiar
        (B) Specific
        (C) Exceptional
        (D) Equal
9. Which of the following determined what percentage of the construction costs
    each member of the consortium would pay?
        (A) How much oil field land each company owned
        (B) How long each company had owned land in the oil fields
        (C) How many people worked for each company
        (D) How many oil wells were located on the company’s land
10. Where in the passage does the author provide a term for an earth covering that
    always remains frozen?
        (A) line 4
        (B) line 12
        (C) line 15
        (D) line 21
Passage 2
        The next few decades we will see great changes in the way energy is supplied
and used. In some major oil producing nations, 'peak oil' has already been reached,
and there are increasing fears of global warming. Consequently, many countries are


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                        67
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
focusing on the switch to a low carbon economy. This transition will lead to major
changes in the supply and use of electricity. [A] Firstly, there will be an increase in
overall demand, as consumers switch from oil and gas to electricity to power their
homes and vehicles. [B] Secondly, there will be an increase in power generation, not
only in terms of how much is generated, but also how it is generated, as there is
growing electricity generation from renewable sources. [C] To meet these challenges,
countries are investing in Smart Grid technology. [D] This system aims to provide
the electricity industry with a better understanding of power generation and demand,
and to use this information to create a more efficient power network.
       Smart Grid technology basically involves the application of a computer
system to the electricity network. The computer system can be used to collect
information about supply and demand and improve engineer's ability to manage the
system. With better information about electricity demand, the network will be able
to increase the amount of electricity delivered per unit generated, leading to potential
reductions in fuel needs and carbon emissions. Moreover, the computer system will
assist in reducing operational and maintenance costs.
       Smart Grid technology offers benefits to the consumer too. They will be able
to collect real-time information on their energy use for each appliance. Varying tariffs
throughout the day will give customers the incentive to use appliances at times when
supply greatly exceeds demand, leading to great reductions in bills. For example,
they may use their washing machines at night. Smart meters can also be connected to
the internet or telephone system, allowing customers to switch appliances on or off
remotely. Furthermore, if houses are fitted with the apparatus to generate their own
power, appliances can be set to run directly from the on-site power source, and any
excess can be sold to the grid.
       With these changes comes a range of challenges. The first involves managing
the supply and demand. Sources of renewable energy, such as wind, wave and solar,
are notoriously unpredictable, and nuclear power, which is also set to increase as
nations switch to alternative energy sources, is inflexible. With oil and gas, it is
relatively simple to increase the supply of energy to match the increasing demand
during peak times of the day or year. With alternative sources, this is far more
difficult, and may lead to blackouts or system collapse. Potential solutions include
investigating new and efficient ways to store energy and encouraging consumers to
use electricity at off-peak times.


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                            68
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
       A second problem is the fact that many renewable power generation sources
are located in remote areas, such as windy uplands and coastal regions, where there is
currently a lack of electrical infrastructure. New infrastructures therefore must be
built. Thankfully, with improved smart technology, this can be done more efficiently
by reducing the reinforcement or construction costs.
   Although Smart Technology is still in its infancy, pilot schemes to promote and
test it are already underway. Consumers are currently testing the new smart meters
which can be used in their homes to manage electricity use. There are also a number
of demonstrations being planned to show how the smart technology could practically
work, and trials are in place to test the new electrical infrastructure. It is likely that
technology will be added in 'layers', starting with 'quick win' methods which will
provide initial carbon savings, to be followed by more advanced systems at a later
date. Cities are prime candidates for investment into smart energy, due to the high
population density and high energy use. It is here where Smart Technology is likely
to be promoted first, utilising a range of sustainable power sources, transport
solutions and an infrastructure for charging electrically powered vehicles. The
infrastructure is already changing fast. By the year 2050, changes in the energy
supply will have transformed our homes, our roads and our behaviour.
11. According to paragraph 1, what has happened in some oil producing countries?
       (A) They are unwilling to sell their oil any more.
       (B) They are not producing as much oil as they used to.
       (C) The supply of oil is unpredictable.
       (D) Global warming is more sever here than in other countries.
12. Where in paragraph 1 can the following sentence be placed?
   There is also likely more electricity generation centres, as households and
   communities take up the opportunity to install photovoltaic cells and small scale
   wind turbines.
       (A) A                   (C) C
       (B) B                   (D) D
13. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of Smart Grid technology to consumers?
       (A) It can reduce their electricity bills.
       (B) It can tell them how much energy each appliance is using.
       (C) It can allow them to turn appliances on and off when they are not at home.
       (D) It can reduce the amount of energy needed to power appliances.


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                           69
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
14. According to paragraph 4, what is the problem with using renewable sources of
    power?
        (A) They do not provide much energy.
        (B) They often cause system failure and blackouts.
        (C) They do not supply a continuous flow of energy.
        (D) They can't be used at off-peak times.
15. In paragraph 5, what can be inferred about cities in the future?
        (A) More people will be living in cities in the future than nowadays.
        (B) People in cities will be using cars and buses powered by electricity.
        (C) All buildings will generate their own electricity.
        (D) Smart Grid technology will only be available in cities.
16. The word 'remote' in paragraph 5 could be best replace by:
        (A) isolated
        (B) crowded
        (C) attractive
        (D) alone
Passage 3
        No student of a foreign language needs to be told that grammar is complex.
By changing word sequences and by adding a range of auxiliary verbs and suffixes, we
are able to communicate tiny variations in meaning. We can turn a statement into a
question, state whether an action has taken place or is soon to take place, and
perform many other word tricks to convey subtle differences in meaning. Nor is this
complexity inherent to the English language. All languages, even those of so-called
'primitive' tribes have clever grammatical components. The Cherokee pronoun
system, for example, can distinguish between 'you and I', 'several other people and I'
and 'you, another person and I'. In English, all these meanings are summed up in the
one, crude pronoun 'we'. Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no
matter how widespread it is. So the question which has baffled many linguists is -
who created grammar?
        At first, it would appear that this question is impossible to answer. To find
out how grammar is created, someone needs to be present at the time of a language's
creation, documenting its emergence. Many historical linguists are able to trace
modern complex languages back to earlier languages, but in order to answer the
question of how complex languages are actually formed, the researcher needs to


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          70
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
observe how languages are started from scratch. Amazingly, however, this is
possible.
       Some of the most recent languages evolved due to the Atlantic slave trade. At
that time, slaves from a number of different ethnicities were forced to work together
under colonizer's rule. Since they had no opportunity to learn each other's languages,
they developed a make-shift language called a pidgin. Pidgins are strings of words
copied from the language of the landowner. They have little in the way of grammar,
and in many cases it is difficult for a listener to deduce when an event happened, and
who did what to whom. [A] Speakers need to use circumlocution in order to make
their meaning understood. [B] Interestingly, however, all it takes for a pidgin to
become a complex language is for a group of children to be exposed to it at the time
when they learn their mother tongue. [C] Slave children did not simply copy the
strings of words uttered by their elders, they adapted their words to create a new,
expressive language. [D] Complex grammar systems which emerge from pidgins are
termed creoles, and they are invented by children.
       Further evidence of this can be seen in studying sign languages for the deaf.
Sign languages are not simply a series of gestures; they utilise the same grammatical
machinery that is found in spoken languages. Moreover, there are many different
languages used worldwide. The creation of one such language was documented quite
recently in Nicaragua. Previously, all deaf people were isolated from each other, but in
1979 a new government introduced schools for the deaf. Although children were
taught speech and lip reading in the classroom, in the playgrounds they began to
invent their own sign system, using the gestures that they used at home. It was
basically a pidgin. Each child used the signs differently, and there was no consistent
grammar. However, children who joined the school later, when this inventive sign
system was already around, developed a quite different sign language. Although it
was based on the signs of the older children, the younger children's language was
more fluid and compact, and it utilised a large range of grammatical devices to clarify
meaning. What is more, all the children used the signs in the same way. A new
creole was born.
   Some linguists believe that many of the world's most established languages were
creoles at first. The English past tense –ed ending may have evolved from the verb
'do'. 'It ended' may once have been 'It end-did'. Therefore it would appear that even
the most widespread languages were partly created by children. Children appear to


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                          71
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
have innate grammatical machinery in their brains, which springs to life when they
are first trying to make sense of the world around them. Their minds can serve to
create logical, complex structures, even when there is no grammar present for them to
copy.
17. In paragraph 1, why does the writer include information about the Cherokee
   language?
        (A) To show how simple, traditional cultures can have complicated grammar
           structures
        (B) To show how English grammar differs from Cherokee grammar
        (C) To prove that complex grammar structures were invented by the
           Cherokees.
        (D) To demonstrate how difficult it is to learn the Cherokee language
18. What can be inferred about the slaves' pidgin language?
        (A) It contained complex grammar.
        (B) It was based on many different languages.
        (C) It was difficult to understand, even among slaves.
        (D) It was created by the land-owners.
19. All the following sentences about Nicaraguan sign language are true EXCEPT:
        (A) The language has been created since 1979.
        (B) The language is based on speech and lip reading.
        (C) The language incorporates signs which children used at home.
        (D) The language was perfected by younger children.
20. In paragraph 3, where can the following sentence be placed?
        It included standardized word orders and grammatical markers that existed
        in neither the pidgin language, nor the language of the colonizers.
        (A) A
        (B) B
        (C) C
        (D) D
21. 'From scratch' in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:
        (A) from the very beginning
        (B) in simple cultures
        (C) by copying something else
        (D) by using written information


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                       72
                                   LANGUAGE CENTER
                                Muhammadiyah University of Jember

22. 'Make-shift' in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to:
        (A) complicated and expressive
        (B) simple and temporary
        (C) extensive and diverse
        (D) private and personal
23. Which sentence is closest in meaning to the highlighted sentence?
    Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how
    widespread it is.
        (A) All languages, whether they are spoken by a few people or a lot of people,
            contain grammar.
        (B) Some languages include a lot of grammar, whereas other languages
            contain a little.
        (C) Languages which contain a lot of grammar are more common that
            languages that contain a little.
        (D) The grammar of all languages is the same, no matter where the languages
            evolved.
24. All of the following are features of the new Nicaraguan sign language EXCEPT:
        (A) All children used the same gestures to show meaning.
        (B) The meaning was clearer than the previous sign language.
        (C) The hand movements were smoother and smaller.
        (D) New gestures were created for everyday objects and activities.
25. Which idea is presented in the final paragraph?
        (A) English was probably once a creole.
        (B) The English past tense system is inaccurate.
        (C) Linguists have proven that English was created by children.
        (D) Children say English past tenses differently from adults.
26. Look at the word 'consistent' in paragraph 4. This word could best be replaced by
    which of the following?
        (A) natural
        (B) predictable
        (C) imaginable
        (D) uniform
Passage 4



Muhlisin, 2011                                                                      73
                               LANGUAGE CENTER
                            Muhammadiyah University of Jember
        Humans are uniquely smart among all the other species on the planet. We are
capable of outstanding feats of technology and engineering. Then why are we so
prone to making mistakes? And why do we tend to make the same ones time and
time again? When Primate Psychologist Laurie Santos from the Comparative
Cognition Lab at Yale University posed this question to her team, they were thinking
in particular of the errors of judgment which led to the recent collapse of the financial
markets. Santos came to two possible answers to this question. Either humans have
designed environments which are too complex for us to fully understand, or we are
biologically prone to making bad decisions.
        In order to test these theories, the team selected a group of Brown Capuchin
monkeys. Monkeys were selected for the test because, as distant relatives of humans,
they are intelligent and have the capacity to learn. However, they are not influenced
by any of the technological or cultural environments which affect human decision-
making. The team wanted to test whether the capuchin monkeys, when put into
similar situations as humans, would make the same mistakes.
        [A] Of particular interest to the scientists was whether monkeys would make
the same mistakes when making financial decisions. [B] In order to find out, they had
to introduce the monkeys to money. [C] The monkeys soon cottoned on, and as well
as learning simple exchange techniques, were soon able to distinguish 'bargains' – If
one team-member offered two grapes in exchange for a metal disc and another team-
member offered one grape, the monkeys chose the two-grape option. [D]
Interestingly, when the data about the monkey's purchasing strategies was compared
with economist's data on human behavior, there was a perfect match.
        So, after establishing that the monkey market was operating effectively, the
team decided to introduce some problems which humans generally get wrong. One of
these issues is risk-taking. Imagine that someone gave you $1000. In addition to this
$1000, you can receive either A) an additional $500 or B) someone tosses a coin and if
it lands 'heads' you receive an additional $1000, but if it lands 'tails' you receive no
more money. Of these options, most people tend to choose option A. They prefer
guaranteed earnings, rather than running the risk of receiving nothing. Now imagine
a second situation in which you are given $2000. Now, you can choose to either A)
lose $500, leaving you with a total of $1500, or B) toss a coin; if it lands 'heads' you
lose nothing, but if it lands 'tails' you lose $1000, leaving you with only $1000.
Interestingly, when we stand to lose money, we tend to choose the more risky choice,


Muhlisin, 2011                                                                             74
                              LANGUAGE CENTER
                           Muhammadiyah University of Jember
option B. And as we know from the experience of financial investors and gamblers, it
is unwise to take risks when we are on a losing streak.
       So would the monkeys make the same basic error of judgment? The team put
them to the test by giving them similar options. In the first test, monkeys had the
option of exchanging their disc for one grape and receiving one bonus grape, or
exchanging the grape for one grape and sometimes receiving two bonus grapes and
sometimes receiving no bonus. It turned out that monkeys, like humans, chose the
less risky option in times of plenty. Then the experiment was reversed. Monkeys
were offered three grapes, but in option A were only actually given two grapes. In
option B, they had a fifty-fifty chance of receiving all three grapes or one grape only.
The results were that monkeys, like humans, take more risks in times of loss.
The implications of this experiment are that because monkeys make the same
irrational judgments that humans do, maybe human error is not a result of the
complexity of our financial institutions, but is imbedded in our evolutionary history.
If this is the case, our errors of judgment will be very difficult to overcome. On a more
optimistic note however, humans are fully capable of overcoming limitations once we
have identified them. By recognizing them, we can design technologies which will
help us to make better choices in future.


27. What was the aim of the experiment outlined above?
       (A) To investigate whether monkeys could learn to use money
       (B) To investigate where human mistakes come from
       (C) To find out whether it is better to take risks in times of loss
       (D) To determine whether monkeys make more mistakes than humans
28. Where in paragraph 3 could the sentence below be best placed?
   The team distributed metal discs to the monkeys, and taught them that the discs
   could be exchanged with team-members for food.
       (A) A
       (B) B
       (C) C
       (D) D
29. Which of the following statements is the best paraphrase of the highlighted
   sentence?




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                             75
                             LANGUAGE CENTER
                          Muhammadiyah University of Jember
   On a more optimistic note however, humans are fully capable of overcoming
   limitations once we have identified them.
       (A) Hopefully, humans will soon be able to solve these problems.
       (B) Fortunately, humans can solve problems that we know about.
       (C) Luckily, humans do not have many limitations which have been
           identified.
       (D) We are happy to note that we can solve the problem which we have
           identified.
30. The words 'cottoned on' are closest in meaning to:
       (A) learnt
       (B) knew
       (C) completed
       (D) concluded
31. Which paragraph addresses why monkeys were chosen for the experiment?
       (A) Paragraph 2
       (B) Paragraph 3
       (C) Paragraph 4
       (D) Paragraph 5
32. What can be inferred about Laurie Santos?
       (A) She thinks that both humans and monkeys are greedy.
       (B) Her job frequently involves working with monkeys.
       (C) She believes that humans should never take risks.
       (D) She prefers monkeys to humans.




Muhlisin, 2011                                                                 76

								
To top