ted nelson by ro2Qcqg


									     hypertext: as we may write

              fdm 20c introduction to digital media
                            lecture 12.01.2005

warren sack / film & digital media department / university of california, santa cruz
last time
•   waiting list

•   course objectives

•   syllabus and course requirements

•   can we take your picture?

•   two key points for the course

    – when technologies connect or separate people, they become

    – technologies embody social, political, cultural, economic and
       philosophical ideas and relationships.

•   discussion: what are the politics of technology?

•   activities: social networks & (human) boolean circuits

•   some questions about the reading, bush’s essay “as we may think”
• what are digital media?

• two more key points for the course

• tristan tzara, william burroughs, david bowie and the method
  of “cut-ups” + overview of mini-project one

• revisiting vannevar bush and his essay “as we may think”

• who is douglas engelbart?

• a reading of “augmenting human intellect”

• douglas engelbart’s famous demo

• who is ted nelson?

• hypertext as a new form of reading and writing
waiting list
•   principles of ordering
    – transfers have preference over non-transfers
    – majors have preference over non-majors
    – juniors have preference over sophomores
    – sophomores have preference over frosh
    – those who came the first day of class have
      preference over those who did not
    – within categories, people have been randomly
      assigned a position
•   important!!! if you are going to miss section,
    notify your ta. if you miss section, you risk
    losing your place in the course.
waiting list (currently space for top twenty)

1.    Michael Jacobs
2.    Andy Hamilton
3.    Diana Tsuchida
4.    Idil Tabanca
5.    Katie Bethune
6.    Krystle de Mesa
7.    Harish Pobbathi
8.    Catherine Gutierrez
9.    Mark (Marek) Belshki
10.   Sebastian Burke
11.   Craig Marlwaki
12.   Tyler Keeley
waiting list (currently place for top twenty)

13. Markos Moreno
14. Ronit Moreh
15. Colin Pitta
16. Aaron Scholl
17. Kristen McCurley
18. Pavan Chopra
19. Lamek Mehzum
20. Takis Kyriakopoulos
21. Mary Lieth
22. Michael Green
23. Cara Hipskind
24. Stacy Jung
25. Eugene Leonov
26. Ashley Lindquist
27. Andrew Peth
28. John Remigio
29. Timothy Huang
two key points

1. When technologies connect or separate
   people, they become media.
2. Technologies embody social, political, cultural,
   economic and philosophical ideas and
what does “digital media” mean?

• When a medium is new, it is often used to
  simulate old media.
• New media do not replace old media, they
  displace them.

  – both of these points are paraphrases of ideas from
    Marshall McLuhan’s book Understanding Media.
today’s focus

• Hypertext: One way that digital media has been
  understood is as new forms of writing, reading
  and thinking.
Tristan Tzara's recipe for composing a poem

    –   To make a dadaist poem:
    –   Take a newspaper.
    –   Take a pair of scissors.
    –   Choose an article as long as you are planning to
        make your poem.
    –   Cut out the article.
    –   Then cut out each of the words that make up this
        article and put them in a bag.
    –   Shake it gently.
    –   Then take out the scraps one after the other in the
        order in which they left the bag.
    –   Copy conscientiously.
    example “cut-ups”
• William Burroughs, excerpt from Naked Lunch

• William Burroughs,“Origin and Theory of the Tape
  Cut-Ups” (3:43) http://www.ubu.com/sound/burroughs.html
• William Burroughs, longer lecture by Burroughs. An
  example of cutting together newspaper stories starts
  at 7 minutes 20 seconds (1:16:13): note that
  Burrough’s doesn’t start his talk until the 4 minute
  mark (thanks for finding this Abram!)
•   http://www.archive.org/audio/audio-details-db.php?

• David Bowie, e.g., “The Jean Genie” (or not?)
• Sawad Brooks, Global City
mini-project one

• write a short, narrative, preferably
  autobiographical hypertext as a series of
  webpages using the cut-up method of
  burroughs et al.
• more information:
engelbart: cv

• education
     • ph.d. electrical engineering, uc berkeley
     • b.eng., electrical engineering, uc berkeley
     • b.s., electrical engineering, oregon state university
• employment
     •   director of the bootstrap institute
     •   director of the bootstrap project (stanford)
     •   senior scientist, mcdonnell douglas
     •   senior scientist, tymshare, inc.
     •   director, augmentation research center, sri
     •   researcher, stanford research institute (now sri international)
     •   assistant professor, electrical engineering, uc berkeley
     •   electrical engineer, naca ames laboratory (now nasa)
     •   electronic/radar technician, us navy
engelbart: cv (continued)

• “firsts” of the augmentation research center
     •   the mouse
     •   2d display editing
     •   hypermedia & hypermedia email
     •   outline processing
     •   multiple window displays
     •   document version control
     •   shared-screen teleconferencing
     •   computer-aided meetings
     •   distributed client-server architecture
     •   virtual terminal protocols
     •   remote procedure call protocols
• more information
     • www.bootstrap.org; and,
     • sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite
computing of the 1960s

• common technologies of the 1960s
  – standard computer i/o of the 1960s was hollerith
    cards and paper printouts
  – standard computer-human interaction of the 1960s
    was batch processing
• research prototypes included...
  – Ivan Sutherland’s MIT Dissertation, the Sketchpad
    system (1963)
  – MIT Project MAC’s Compatible Time-Sharing System
    (1961) and later the Multiplexed Information and
    Computing Service (1969)
engelbart’s 1968 nls demo

• demo given to 1000 at the Fall Joint Computer
  Conference in San Francisco with computers
  and support staff in Menlo Park
questions: augmenting human intellect

    •   what is the stated motivation of the research?
    •   what problem does this research address?
    •   who funded this research?
    •   what is the economics of the work (i.e., who will buy it?, sell
        it?, use it?)
    •   what is the stated genealogy of the technology?
    •   who are the “dramatis personae” of the article?
    •   what narrative strategies are employed in the article?
    •   othering: who are “we”? who are “they”?
          – or, more specifically, how is a machine un/like a person?
    • what is “thinking”?
    • what is “reading”?
    • what is “writing”?
engelbart: motivation

• “Man’s population and gross product are increasing at a
  considerable rate, but the complexity of his problems grows still
  faster, and the urgency with which solutions must be found
  becomes steadily greater… Augmenting man’s intellect, …, would
  warrant full pursuit by an enlightened society…” [p. 95]
engelbart: stated problem

• “augmenting human intellect”
  better & faster comprehension
  better & faster & more solutions to problems
  [see p. 95]
engelbart: funding

• stanford research institute
• air force office of scientific research
• arpa projects
   – see j.c.r. licklider
   – see also arpa contractors meeting letter from ivan
     sutherland (7-8 april 1966)
      • sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers/Contents.html
engelbart: economics

• short term
  – uses of the system could be envisioned with
    engelbart’s framework, but the multidisciplinary
    nature of the framework also made the uses of the
    system difficult to understand
• long term
  – engelbart >> xerox parc >> apple
  – engelbart >> personal computer industry and the
    products and companies involved in computer-
    supported cooperative work
engelbart: genealogy

• bush’s memex [p. 98]
• engelbart’s note and file system [p. 99-102]; cf.,
  hollerith cards
• general references to psychology, computer
  programming, “physical technology,” “display
  technology,” industrial engineering,
  management science, systems analysis,
  information retrieval [p. 104]; and, “dozens of
  disciplines in engineering, mathematics, and the
  social life, and physical sciences” [p.95]
• but note how -- except for bush’s work -- all of
  the prior work is only vaguely referenced
englebart: dramatis personae

  – “man”
  – humans
  – diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists,
    physical scientists, attorneys, designers [p. 95]
  – architect (a man) and “his clerk” [pp. 96-97]
  – vannevar bush [pp. 98-99]
  – douglas engelbart (in a first person narrative) [pp. 99-
  – “professional problem solvers” [p. 102]
  – “you” and “joe” (in a hypothetical narrative) [pp. 102-
engelbart: narrative strategies

• “graphic vision”/science fiction narrated in the
  second person
• reporting style
• personal reflection
• speculative voice
• demo: don’t forget the demo, the strongest
  rhetoric in new media
engelbart: othering: the
man/machine dichotomy
• H-LAM/T system: human using language,
  artifacts, methodology, in which he is trained
  – “There are two separate domins of activity within the
    H-LAM/T system: that represented by the system, in
    which all explcit-human processes occur; and that
    represented by the artifacts, in which all explicit-
    artifact processes occur. ... Exchange across this
    [man-artifact] interface occurs when an explicit-
    human process is coupled to an explicit-artifact
    process. [p. 96]
  – see diagram on page 96.
engelbart: what is thinking?

    • thinking as symbolic processing [see pp. 98-99; i.e., his
      comments on the Memex]
        – cf., Herbert Simon and Allen Newell’s understanding of humans
          and computers as symbolic processors
    • thinking as writing: see p. 104 of his fictional narrative:
        – “You are quite elated by this freedom to juggle the record of
          your thoughts, and by the way this freedom allows you to work
          them into shape. You reflected on this cut and try process
          really did appear to match the way you seemed to develop your
          thoughts. Golly, you could be writing math expressions, ad
          copy, or a poem, with the same type of benefit. You were
          ready to tell Joe that now you saw what he had been trying to
          tell you about matching symbol structuring to concept
          structuring...” [p. 104]
engelbart: what is reading?

• reading as rendering and restructuring: “...after
  a few passes through a reference, we very
  rarely go back to it in its original form. It sits in
  the archive like an orange rind with most of the
  real juice squeezed out.” [p. 108]
engelbart: what is writing?

• writing as thought/symbol (re)structuring: see,
  for instance, p. 101: “It became apparent that
  the final issuance from my work, the memo
  itself, would represent but one facet of a
  complex symbol structure that would grow as
  the work progressed
ted nelson: cv

• education
  – b.a., philosophy, swarthmore
  – m.a., sociology, harvard
  – ph.d., media and governance, keio university
• inventor of hypertext
conclusion for today

• Hypertext: One way that digital media has been
  understood is as new forms of writing, reading
  and thinking.
next time

• tim berners-lee
• the world-wide web
• web artists including lisa jevbratt, the rsg
  collective, mark napier

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