K00000LDP

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					                                                      Instructions




Instructions
Click on the links below to go to the specified subject matter.

Overview
History
Mathematics
NGS SPC Toolkit
Step-By-Step Procedure
Revisoin History


Overview

This spreadsheet is intended to automate the process of transposing State Plane Coordinates to the ODOT LDP
(Local Datum Plane) coordinate system. This version was developed to coincide with the deployment of survey-
grade GPS equipment to the Regions in August of 2005.
Below are a series of subjects that describe the history, math, and procedure applicable to this process. At the top
of this page is a table of contents composed of links that will take you to the topic or location listed.




History

For many decades, ODOT has employed the LDP or LDPC system. The agency adopted this process to provide a
compromise between conflicting objectives.

These competing objectives are…

1) Utilize a system of rectangular coordinates that has statewide relationships from one project to another...

and

2) Maintain a coordinate base that supports computing true ground distances, areas, and volumes.


These two objectives are at odds with each other because any grid coordinate system that covers as much of the
surface of the earth as the state of Oregon will by nature have distortions from projecting a spherical earth onto a
flat grid.

In the Lambert Conformal Conic Projection defined for the Oregon State Pane Coordinate System, the magnitude of
this distortion is directly related to the distance north or south of the "standard parallels", which are further described
in the "Mathematics" section of this document.

In addition, the distortion is compounded by the elevation at the location or project in question. Since the State
Plane is defined at sea level or the ellipsoid, depending on the datum, elevation above the datum increases the
distance between points on the ground as compared to that distance computed on the grid. It is simply farther
around the world or any part of it at ten thousand feet (or any other positive elevation) than it is at sea level.




Mathematics


                                                      Page 1 of 25
                                                       Instructions


It is important to note that the mathematic applied here is an effort to make a better fit between true ground
distances and those computed from the State Plane grid. There is an exact value applicable to each location and
elevation on a project. In other words, each point has a specific factor for both projection and elevation. In practice,
the ODOT procedure has been to develop a single factor for an entire project and apply that factor to all points.


As such, it should be understood that this is a approximation of the effects of projection and elevation. Therefore,
there is no one correct value for any project. Assumptions or generalizations are made regarding the average or
general latitude and elevation. Excessive effort at defining these values would be pointless when applied to the
entire project. One person might average the latitudes of the stations to be converted while another might split the
most extreme two points. Neither would be wrong. The same applies to determining the elevation to be applied.


The mathematics involved is simply the combining of two scale factors and then applying each to the coordinates of
each point. The result is a slight variation in the distance between points while maintaining the angular relationships.


As a byproduct of the rescaling, the entire group of points will be moved by some distance in a Northeasterly or
Southwesterly direction. The magnitude and the direction of the move will be determined by the scale factor. The
further from unity (the value "one") the scale factor is, the greater the shift. Scale factors greater than unity will shift
the point northeasterly while factors less than unity will shift the point southwesterly.


The two factors applied are the "Projection Factor" and the "Elevation Factor". The Projection Factor is a rather
complicated computation and is not undertaken in this spreadsheet. The Elevation Factor is computed here in either
metric or imperial units. The two factors are combined for the "Conversion Factor" and this applied to each
coordinate value.

The projection factor is determined by the stretching or shrinking required to depict a spherical world on a flat grid.
At the standard parallels of each projection, the scale is exactly one. Between the parallels, the scale will be
somewhat less than one while outside of these parallels, the factor will be greater than one. These parallels for both
NAD27 and NAD83 are 44-20 and 46-00 for the north zone and 42-20 and 44-00 for the south zone. Use of zones
is governed by the county in which the project is located.

The projection factor can be acquired from a number of sources. Traditionally, it has been interpolated from a
projection table, and that method is still valid if you have a table and know how to interpolate values. However,
there are more technologically advanced options commonly available today. Some software that displays projection
scale factors and are common within ODOT are "CorpsCon for Windows" by the US Army Corps of Engineers,
"CAiCE Visual Transportation" by Autodesk, "Leica Geo Office" by Leica GeoSystems, and "LISACD SEE" by
LisTech Limited if the latter is still available to you. One option that is currently available universally to anyone with
access to the internet is the National Geodetic Survey Geodetic Toolkit State Plane Converter. A link is provided in
the step-by-step instructions below.


Each of these tools will provide a projection scale for each individual point. We will be computing only one, and that
will be for some average or median latitude of the area of the project. Projection scale is not impacted by longitude,
so input of any reasonable value will satisfy the software and provide the necessary factor. An average or middle
latitude is generally appropriate. In some situations where the project extends a considerable distance in a north-
south direction and the dominant activity is at one end, it might be beneficial to select a latitude closer to that end,
but that would be unusual.




                                                       Page 2 of 25
                                                      Instructions



The elevation factor is determined as a ratio between the radius of the earth at the Datum (for example, sea level)
and the radius of the earth at the elevation of the project. The formula as shown in THE STATE COORDINATE
SYSTEMS (A manual for Surveyors) published originally in 1977 by the US Coast and Geodetic Survey is

F=1-(E/R)

Where: F is the factor, R is the nominal radius of the earth at the datum, and E is the elevation above the datum.




The earth radius used in this spreadsheet is 20,906,000 feet taken from the same federal publication. The radius
actually will vary for different locations, but the author states that this value is generally appropriate for survey work
in the United States. As this is clearly an approximate value, I have converted it to 6,372,000 meters (6372148.8
rounded to thousands) for the metric option.

It is worth noting at this point that there are specific definitions for each of the datums. NGVD29 was developed
based on sea level as determined by a series of tidal gauges. Later datums were developed using more
sophisticated technology until the latest datums are based on the center of gravity as evidenced by orbiting
satellites. However, as mentioned above, this entire LDP process is a generalization of project location, so datum
differences will not usually play a significant role in this process. NGVD29, NAVD88, and GPS derived ellipsoid
heights can differ on a given point by 30 meters.




Step-By-Step Procedure

1) Before proceeding with the calculations, save the file by selecting [File] [Save As..] and renaming the file. The
template file name is "K00000LDP.XLS". The default naming convention should be a matter of replacing "00000"
with the appropriate key number.

2) Click on the spreadsheet tab labeled "Conversion". For an example of a completed form, click on the tab labeled
"Sample". Only cells shaded in blue and orange are intended for user input. All other cells are locked. Pressing the
TAB key will move through the unlocked cells. Orange cells are required fields for computing the conversion while
blue cells are information only fields. Yellow cells are intermediate values and grey are repeated values from other
locations on the spreadsheet.

3) Fill in the date and project data. These are information fields only and do not impact the calculations.

4) The next six lines contain information about the projection, zone, and datum. The column titled "Notes" is a place
to annotate point names or other supplemental information. The column labeled "Enter Value" is intended
for the actual values. The first five lines are for documentation only but should be completed as a record of the
process. This will generally be "North Zone" or "South Zone" and "NAD88" for zone and datum. The next two lines
are a place to document the northern and southern limits of the project. The next line provides a place to document
the latitude for which the scale was computed, generally somewhere near the mean latitude. The sixth and last line
is the only one that impacts the results. Compute the projection factor and input the value here. The link below may
be used to compute the projection scale factor.

Click here to go to http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/spc_getpc.prl

5) Determine the elevation above the datum in either feet or meters as appropriate for the project. Input one or the
other but not both in the appropriate cell. If both are supplied, an error message will appear and no computations
will be allowed until the error is corrected.

6) Input your name in the cell labeled "Computed By" and supply the location and name of the file.


                                                      Page 3 of 25
                                                       Instructions


7) The final step is to provide the Oregon State Plane Coordinate values for the points to be converted. For a small
number of points, it might be practical to key in the identification, northing, and easting values for each point.
However, in most instances, that will be impractical due to time and error considerations. This spreadsheet will
compute up to 190 points at once. SPC coordinates will most likely have come from other software. Output in a
standard ASCII coordinate file will ease the process of getting data into this spreadsheet. To support import of data,
there is a separate tab for the raw input data. To key in data, select the tab labeled "SPC in ID, N, E" and key in
point ID, Northing, and easting in the first three columns.


7A) If the ASCII file has the values separated by tab characters and has no extra columns, the data can be selected
and copied from Notepad or PFE and pasted directly into the first cell of the "SPC in ID, N, E" worksheet.


7B) In some cases, the ASCII file will have other data such as the "@#" point code from Leica GPS or columns for
elevation, feature code, geoid separation, or other data. As an independent issue, the columns may be separated
by spaces rather than tabs, causing all of the data to paste into the first column of cells. In either case, there are a
few extra steps to import this data into Excel.

7B1) From Notepad, PFE, or other text editor, select only those lines with coordinate data. Do not include lines from
the header or column labels.

7B2) Copy and paste this data into the first cell of the "SPC in ID, N, E" worksheet. If it all comes into the first
column, select that column and then use the [Data] [Text to Columns...] wizard to extract the data needed.


7B3) In the first step of the Wizard, choose between "Delimited" and "Fixed Width" data type. For columns of data
that are lined up even, fixed width gives better control. If your columns are irregular and jagged, fixed width may not
work and you will need to work with delimiters.

7B3) At step two, identify the delimiter(s) or place and adjust fixed width separators. The objective is to isolate three
items, one in each column: Point ID, Northing, and Easting.

7B4) At step three, select each column that contains unwanted data and click on the radio button for "“Do not import
column (skip)”. Here we want to import only those three items. Once those selections have been made and the
[Finish] button selected, the point ID, Northing, and Easting should appear in the first three columns and also in the
appropriate locations on the "Conversion" worksheet.

7B5) In some situations, additional manipulation may be required. Conditions that will force this are a tab-delimited
files with extra columns to the right of the data or files with easting first. Such files will need to be modified in a text
editor or a separate Excel worksheet to remove unwanted data or rearrange columns before importing.


8) Once the data is imported into the "SPC in ID, N, E" tab, return to the "Conversion" tab for the finished report.
The entire sheet can be printed for project documentation showing all values used and the before and after
coordinates of each point.

9) The resulting LDP coordinate values are replicated into the sheet with the tab labeled "LDP Output in ID, N, E".
The results can be selected and copied to another spreadsheet or text file for further manipulation or processing or
it can saved as a TXT or SCV file using the "File" Save As" command for input into other software applications.


10) For further assistance, contact ODOT Geometronics Technical Support at 503-986-4098.

This version developed by
David Artman, PLS
ODOT Lead Photogrammetrist




                                                      Page 4 of 25
                                                    Instructions


Revision Notes

26 August 2005 -David Artman
Finallized creation of the process including instructions and sample.

12 July 2006 - David Artman
Modified cell protection settings to correct a couple of errors and to allow user to "Select" and "Copy and Paste"
cells in the "CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE" table. Added fifth tab labeled "LDP Output in
ID, N, E" that includes only final output in a separate spreadsheet.




                                                   Page 5 of 25
                                              Page 6


FACTOR COMPUTATION FOR LOCAL DATUM PLANE COORDINATES

DATE:     11-Apr-05                                               FILE NO:      K13892

PROJECT:        I-84 Burnt River Canyon Truck Safety Corridor
HIGHWAY:        Old Oregon Trail Highway
COUNTY:         Baker
                                                Notes                           Enter Values
     OREGON STATE GRID ZONE:                                                    North
                       DATUM:                                                   NAD83
        NORTHERLY LATITUDE:               Swayze Creek Bridge                   44-34
        SOUTHERLY LATITUDE:          Cavenaugh Creek/Huntington Int.            44-23
             MEAN LATITUDE:                    Mid-Point                        44 28 30
              SCALE FACTOR:                  From SKI-Pro                           0.99996735


          Average Elevation above datum (E) in feet                                      2400
                    20906000                 1-(E/R)                             0.9998852004

                              OR
          Average Elevation above datum (E) in meters:
                    6372000                  1-(E/R)                             1.0000000000

                                     Elevation Factor (Rounded to 8 places) =      0.99988520

CONVERSION FACTOR
            Scale Factor X Sea Level Factor (Rounded to 8 places) =                0.99985255




          Grid Coordinates/Conversion Factor = L.D.P. Coordinates



Computed By:           John Marshall
Checked By:            David Artman




         File saved as (Path and file name)   P:\K13982\fieldwork\save




                       f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls
                                        Page 7




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:   I-84 Burnt River Canyon Truck Safety Corridor
Highway    Old Oregon Trail

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                         0.99985255

Conversion by:        John Marshall
Date:                 11-Apr-05

Station Name          Northing        Easting       Northing LDP Easting LDP
103                        287490.886   9036005.967     287533.283 9037338.523
107                        299547.646   9030847.716     299591.821 9032179.511
7092                       276841.006   9037814.798     276881.832 9039147.620
DIX                        310035.717   9026938.390     310081.439 9028269.608
PI151                      327890.221   9012265.136     327938.576 9013594.190
POTE11                     318541.530   9019085.138     318588.506 9020415.198
POTEB1400                  336317.503   9004764.961     336367.100 9006092.909
R489                       347020.358   8994730.219     347071.534 8996056.688
U701                       229604.147   8966328.105     229638.007 8967650.385
X254RES                    322405.721   9017892.378     322453.267 9019222.262




                     f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls
                                        Page 8




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:   I-84 Burnt River Canyon Truck Safety Corridor
Highway    Old Oregon Trail

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                            0.99985255

Conversion by:        John Marshall
Date:                 11-Apr-05

Station Name          Northing          Easting            Northing LDP    Easting LDP
103




                     f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls
                                        Page 9




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:   I-84 Burnt River Canyon Truck Safety Corridor
Highway    Old Oregon Trail

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                            0.99985255

Conversion by:        John Marshall
Date:                 11-Apr-05

Station Name          Northing          Easting            Northing LDP    Easting LDP
103




                     f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls
                                       Page 10




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:   I-84 Burnt River Canyon Truck Safety Corridor
Highway    Old Oregon Trail

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                            0.99985255

Conversion by:        John Marshall
Date:                 11-Apr-05

Station Name          Northing          Easting            Northing LDP    Easting LDP
103




                     f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls
                                       Page 11




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:   I-84 Burnt River Canyon Truck Safety Corridor
Highway    Old Oregon Trail

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                            0.99985255

Conversion by:        John Marshall
Date:                 11-Apr-05

Station Name          Northing          Easting            Northing LDP    Easting LDP
103




                     f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls
                                            Page 12


FACTOR COMPUTATION FOR LOCAL DATUM PLANE COORDINATES

DATE:                                                   PROJECT or KEY #:

                  PROJECT NAME:
               HIGHWAY NAME & #:
               ROUTE (OR, US, or I):
                         COUNTY:
                                                         Notes                  Enter Values
      OREGON STATE GRID ZONE:
                       DATUM:
          NORTHERLY LATITUDE:
          SOUTHERLY LATITUDE:
               MEAN LATITUDE:
     PROJECTION SCALE FACTOR:


          Average Elevation above datum (E) in feet
                     R=20,906,000             1-(E/R)                            1.0000000000

                              OR
          Average Elevation above datum (E) in meters:
                     R=6,372,000              1-(E/R)                            1.0000000000

                                     Elevation Factor (Rounded to 8 places) =      1.00000000

COMBINDED (LDP) SCALE FACTOR
             Scale Factor X Sea Level Factor (Rounded to 8 places) =               0.00000000




          Grid Coordinates/Conversion Factor = L.D.P. Coordinates

Remarks




Computed By:
Checked By:

           File saved as (Path and file name)




                      f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls                          Revision 25 January 2006
                                 Page 13




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:
Highway

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                              0

Conversion by:
Date:

Station Name      SPC Northing    SPC Easting    LDP Northing       LDP Easting




                 f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls                   Revision 25 January 2006
                                 Page 14




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:
Highway

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                              0

Conversion by:
Date:

Station Name      SPC Northing    SPC Easting    LDP Northing       LDP Easting




                 f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls                   Revision 25 January 2006
                                 Page 15




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:
Highway

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                              0

Conversion by:
Date:

Station Name      SPC Northing    SPC Easting    LDP Northing       LDP Easting




                 f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls                   Revision 25 January 2006
                                 Page 16




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:
Highway

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                              0

Conversion by:
Date:

Station Name      SPC Northing    SPC Easting    LDP Northing       LDP Easting




                 f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls                   Revision 25 January 2006
                                 Page 17




CONVERSION OF POINTS TO LOCAL DATUM PLANE
Project:
Highway

CONVERSION FACTOR:                                              0

Conversion by:
Date:

Station Name      SPC Northing    SPC Easting    LDP Northing       LDP Easting




                 f39b3a12-5e0b-4790-b7c4-6802d4917dbf.xls                   Revision 25 January 2006
LDP Coordinate Values From ODOT Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet
Project Name:               #REF!
Project or Key #:           #REF!
Computed By:                #REF!
Date:                       #REF!

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