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power electronics and devices vol _11_

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power electronics and devices vol _11_ Powered By Docstoc
					   TRENDS IN POWER
ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
              Dr.V.Kamaraj
                Professor
 Electrical and Electronics Engineering
      SSN College of Engineering




              Page: 1
            Introduction

 “Nearly 65% of the total electric energy
  produced in the USA is consumed by electric
  motors.”

- R. Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives Modeling,
   Analysis, and Control” Prentice Hall,Inc.,2001




               Page: 2
 Some Applications of Electric
Drives
  Hard Disk Drive, Treadmill, Air conditioner
  Pumps, fans, compressors
  Spindles and servos
  Appliances and power tools
  Cement kilns
  Paper and pulp mills; textile mills
  Automotive applications
  Conveyors, elevators, escalators, lifts



                Page: 3
     Drive System
Four distinct elements of a drive system are :
1.     The load
2.     The motor
3.     The Power Electronic Converter
4.     The Control Electronics
Drive system development challenges:
1.     Power Density
2.     Performance
3.     Energy Efficiency
4.     Cost
5.     Time to Market

                         Page: 4
      DRIVE SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

I     CONTROL ELECTRONICS

II    SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
      TECHNOLOGY

III   MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY

IV    CAD TECHNOLOGY


               Page: 5
    I       CONTROL ELECTRONICS
Functions to be implemented by Control Electronics

  Monitoring and Diagnostics

  Communication Interfaces

  Real time PWM Control

  Sensing

                    Page: 6
Need for a Controller




           Page: 7
System with Controller




           Page: 8
    Analog Controllers
Advantages:
1.Low cost if the controller is simple
2.Easy Interpretation
Disadvantages
1.Reconfigurability of the control is not possible
  without changing the hardware
2.Number of passive components used are more
3.More sensitive to variation in temperature
4.Reliability is low

                      Page: 9
     Digital controllers using DSP and
     Microcontrollers
Advantages:
1.Reconfigurability of the control without changing the
   hardware
2.Less passive components are used
3.Less sensitive to temperature variations
Disadvantages:
1.The hardware resources are fixed and it cannot be changed
   once the particular DSP/Microcontroller is selected
2.Design depends more on the hardware architecture of the
   processor


                        Page: 10
    FPGA Based Digital Controllers
Advantages:
1.Reconfiguarabilty of the hardware
2.The user is independent of the architecture of the
  device

These two advantages makes Digital Controllers with
  FPGA a better choice




                     Page: 11
Configuration of Cyclone FPGA




          Page: 12
 CONTROLLERS USING POWER
 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
PWM CURRENT REGULATING FECILITY

DECODING COMMUTATION LOGIC

HALL SENSOR

PROTECTIVE FEATURES

LM621,MC33034

                Page: 13
  II SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
  TECHNOLOGY
SEMICODUCTOR DEVICES ENHANCES
• PERFORMANCE
• RELIABILITY
• COST EFFECTIVENESS
  OF
DRIVE SYSTEM


                Page: 14
   SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE
   TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES
 TERMINAL                        MATERIAL PARAMETERS
 CHARACTERISTICS                 AND
                                 AMBIENT CONDITIONS


DC I-V                           GEOMETRY
AC STEADY STATE i,v              ENERGYGAP
TRANSIENT i,v                    DOPING
                                 MOBILITY
                                 LIFETIME
                                 DIELECTRIC
                                 CONSTANT
                                 TEMPARATURE
                                 ILLUMINATION

                      Page: 15
  ATLAS

ATLAS enables device technology
engineers to simulate the electrical, optical,
and thermal behavior of semiconductor
devices. ATLAS provides a physics-based,
easy to use, modular, and extensible
platform to analyze DC, AC, and time
domain responses for all semiconductor
based technologies in 2 and 3 dimensions.

                  Page: 16
TECHNOLOGY

ENERGY/MATERIAL/INFORMATION


          PROCESSING        PRECISE
          CONDITIONS        CONTROL




                            • HIGH
                            PERFORMANCE
PRODUCT                     • HIGH
                            RELIABILITY
                            • LOW COST

                 Page: 17
 POWER SEMICCONDUCTOR
 DEVICES
PWM SWITCHING FREQUENCIES ABOVE THE
AUDIBLE FREQUENCIES

CONVERTER EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY

IGBT

DEMISE OF GTO’S AND SCR’S

SILICON CARBIDE TECHNOLOGIES
            Page: 18
       III NEW MAGNETIC MATERIALS
       SMC (Somaloy500) Material Properties
                                                           Physical
          Mechanical
                                              Density                  7.37 g/cm3
  Compressive
                   340 Mpa
     Strength                              Specific heat               450 J/kg*K

Fatigue Strength   23 Mpa                Thermal expansion            11E-6 m/m*K

                                            Resistivity                70 uΩ*m
Young’s modulus    117 Gpa

Poisson’s Ratio        0.18                                Magnetic

 Impact Energy         1J                 B@4000A/m                      1.26 T

Damping Factor                            B@10000A/m                     1.51 T
                   1.1E-3
      (1/Q)                                     Hc                      270 A/m




                              Page: 19
Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC)


                                              Soft Magnetic Composites
                                              (SMC) are composed of
                                              surface-insulated iron powder
                                              particles.

                                              SMC can be compressed to
                                              form uniform isotropic
                                              components with complex
                                              shapes in a single step.
 Electrically Insulated Fe-powder Particles
                                              SMC makes it possible to
                                              define a magnetic field in three
                                              dimensions, thereby permitting
                                              the designer to build an electric
                                              motor beyond the restrictions
                                              set by the traditional
                                              lamination technology.



     Typical SMC micro-structure
                            Page: 20
SMC Parts Manufacturing




                     Page: 21
  Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) Magnetic Property




Technology improvement narrows the gap between steel and SMC.
                             Page: 22
      Advantages
Reduced eddy current loss
Increased efficiency
Reduction in materials
Potential for reduced air gap length as a result of the tight tolerances
maintained in manufacturing SMC material
Potential elimination of the ground wall insulation since the SMC stator
itself acts as an insulator
Reduced conducted EMI when machine is used with inverter supplies since
the stator SMC body acts as an insulator and does not conduct current to
ground,
Reduced bearing currents in the presence of PWM waveforms again
because of the use of SMC which acts as insulation against this type of
current flow,
Modular construction allows the possibility of easy removal of an
individual modular unit for quick repair or replacement,
Stator is easily recyclable since the stator can again be compressed back
into powered form with pressure and the copper windings readily removed.


                            Page: 23
   Disadvantages


Relatively high hysterisis loss (low frequency
loss),
Slight penalty a result of smaller saturation
flux density,
Relatively brittle material,
Lower relative permeability (700 vs roughly
3000)


                   Page: 24
  IV CAD TECHNOLOGY
Computer Aided Design is the technology concerned
with the use of computer systems in the
   »   CREATION
   »   MODIFICATION
   »   ANALYSIS
   »   OPTIMIZATION
OBJECTIVES
   »   Improve the performance
   »   Improve the power density
   »   Improve the reliability




                        Page: 25
      CAD ADVANTAGES
1. CAD methods doesn't require assumed flux paths or
   Empirical factor

2. Complex geometries can be designed

3. Design improvement is possible in the design stage itself.

4.   Weight of the material can be greatly minimized.

5. Design validation without resorting to expensive field
   tests.


                         Page: 26
CAD PACKAGES
     ORGANIZTION OF A CAD
          PACKAGE
Three identifiable Modules
      1.    Preprocessor
      2     Solver
      3.    Post Processor




                Page: 28
  PRE-PROCESSING


Modeling
Mesh Generation
Material Properties Specification
Boundary Condition Application
Excitation
Model Validation


                   Page: 29
  POST PROCESSING



Flux plots
Numerical values
Animation




                   Page: 30
MagNet
MagNet gives complete and accurate
electromagnetic field simulations.
Engineers can design, analyze and
optimize motors transformers
actuators or any electric or
electromechanical components
regardless of how complex.


            Page: 31
  MAXWELL
Ansoft offers the Maxwell SV to help engineering
students visualize electromagnetic fields and
broaden their understanding of electromagnetic
physics. The Maxwell SV is a subset of Ansoft's
commercially distributed Maxwell 2D. Students can
perform AC/DC electromagnetic and electrostatic-
field simulation without limitation




                 Page: 32
  ANSYS
ANSYS Emag software addresses the analysis needs
of the low-frequency electromagnetics industry,
including electric motors, relays, solenoids, toroids,
induction heating, accelerators,medical instruments
and magnet design.




                   Page: 33
CAD OF SWITCHED
RELUCTANCE MACHINE




        Page: 34
Torque Ripple




          Page: 35
Proposed Method to Reduce
Torque Ripple




          Page: 36
    Acoustic Noise
Source of the Problem




                        Page: 37
    Effect of Skewing on Acoustic Noise

Geometry       Displacement in μm   Stress Kg/m2



Standard       0.589                Max:31.477
Structure                           Min :0.233


Skewed rotor   0.624                Max:59.845
structure                           Min :0.134



                   Page: 38
  A Method to Reduce Acoustic
  Noise
POWDER MIX

COMPACTION

CURING OR HEAT
TREATMENT

NET SHAPE




                 Page: 39
  Future Scenario
Technology advancement, cost and size reduction are
promoting extensive application of drive system in
residential, Industrial and Transportation Systems
Boost in global industrial automation
Higher cost of energy and environmental regulation will
promote energy saving by Power Electronics
Wide growth of environmentally clean wind and PV Energy
Wide growth of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles as fuel cost
increases
Power Electronics will be a key technology like computers



                     Page: 40
  REFERENCES
M. Balaji, S. Ramkumar and V. Kamaraj
"Performance evaluation of switched reluctance machine using finite element analysis"
Proceedings of the 2nd National Conference on Cutting Edge Technologies In Power Conversion And
Industrial Drives, Sathyamangalam, India, 24 - 25 March, 2006, Paper No. PE72.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Shape optimization of switched reluctance machine for aerospace applications"
Proceedings of IECON '05, the 31st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society,
Raleigh, NC, USA, 6 - 10 November, 2005, pp 1748 - 1751.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Optimum pole arcs for switched reluctance machine with reduced ripple"
Proceedings of PEDS '05, the 6th IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive
Systems, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 28 November - 1 December, 2005, Vol. 1, pp 761 - 764.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Minimization of torque ripple in switched reluctance machine for direct drive applications"
Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies, Islamabad, Pakistan, 17 - 18 September,
2005, pp 388 - 392.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Modeling and design of shape optimized SRM with reduced ripple"
Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies, Islamabad, Pakistan, 17 - 18
September, 2005, pp 399 - 404.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Optimal design of switched reluctance machine"
Proceedings of ROVISP '05, International Conference on Robotics, Vision, Information and Signal
Processing, Penang, Malaysia, 20 - 22 July, 2005, Paper No. B3-5.




                                 Page: 41
     References
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Optimal design of switched reluctance machine using genetic algorithm"
Proceedings of EDPE 2005, International Conference on Electrical Drives and Power Electronics, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 26
- 28 September, 2005, Paper No. E05-11.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Optimal design of switched reluctance machine using genetic algorithm"
Proceedings of AEE '05, the WEAS 4th International Conference on Applications of Electrical Engineering, Prague, Czech
Republic, , 2005.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"Torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance machine (3 phase) using genetic algorithm"
Proceedings of SOSM 2005, the 15th International Conference on Soft Computing, Optimization, Simulation and
Manufacturing Systems, Cancun, Mexico, , 2005.
R.T. Naayagi and V. Kamaraj
"A comparative study of shape optimization of SRM using genetic algorithm and simulated annealing"
Proceedings of INDICON 2005, IEEE India Annual Conference, Chennai, India, 11 - 13 December, 2005, pp 596 - 599.
M. Balaji, C.A. Vaithilingam and V. Kamaraj
"Torque ripple minimization in switched reluctance motor drives"
Proceedings of PEMD '04, the 2nd International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, Edinburgh, UK,
31 March - 2 April, 2004, Vol. 1, pp 104 - 107.
K. Sivaprasad, P. Naveenkumar, M. Balaji and V. Kamaraj
"Performance prediction of switched reluctance machine using multilevel simulation"
Proceedings of EPE-PEMC 2004, the 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Riga, Latvia,
2 - 4 September, 2004, CDROM Paper No. A52627.
V. Kamaraj and C.A. Vaithilingam
"Modeling and simulation of switched reluctance machine (SRM) using MagNet6.0"
Proceedings of PEDS '03, the 5th IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, Singapore, 17
- 20 November, 2003, Vol. 1, pp 480 - 484.




                                          Page: 42

				
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