Chapter 10 Measuring a Nations Income

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					 Chapter 10 Measuring a Nation’s Income

• The Economy’s Income and Expenditure
• The Measurement of Gross Domestic
  Product (GDP)
• The Components of GDP
• Real Vs. Nominal GDP
• GDP and Economic Well-being

Macroeconomics Vs. Microeconomics
Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole.
 Its goal is to explain the economic changes that affect many
 households, firms, and markets at once. For example, the
 study of economy-wide phenomena, including inflation,
 unemployment, and economic growth
Microeconomics is the study of how individual households
 and firms make decisions and how they interact with one
 another in markets.

The Economy’s income and expenditure
• When judging whether the economy is doing well or poorly,
  it is natural to look first at the total income that everyone in
  the economy is earning.
• This is the task of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
• GDP measures two things at once:
   – the total income of everyone in the economy &
   – the total expenditure on the economy’s output of goods
      and services.
• For an economy as a whole, income must equal expenditure.
• Why? Every transaction has two parties: a buyer and a
  seller. Every dollar of spending by some buyer is a dollar of
  income for some seller.
• Another way to see the equality of income and expenditure
  is with the circular-flow diagram in Figure 10-1(page 207)  3
• We can compute GDP for this economy in one of two ways:
   – by adding up the total expenditure by households or
   – by adding up the total income( wages, rent, and profit)
      paid by firm.
• The actual economy is more complicated than the one
  illustrated in Figure 10-1.
   – In particular, households do not spend all of their
      income. Households save and invest some of their
      income for use in the future.
   – In addition, households do not buy all goods and services
      produced in the economy. Some goods and services are
      bought by governments and some are bought by firms
      that plan to use them in the future to produce their own
      output.                                               4
The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
GDP: is the “market value” “of all” “final” “goods and
  services” “produced” “within a country” “in a given
  period of time.”
• “Market value…”: Because market prices measure the
  amount people are willing to pay for different goods, they
  reflect the value of those goods.
• “Of all…”: GDP tries to be comprehensive. It includes all
  items produced in the economy and sold legally in markets.
  GDP excludes such as illegal drugs, most items that are
  produced and consumed at home (never enter the market
• “ final…”: GDP includes only the value of final goods. An
  important exception: when an intermediate good is
  produced and rather than being used, is added to a firm’s
• inventory of goods to be used or sold at a later date.
• “goods and service…”: GDP includes both tangible goods
  (food, clothing, cars) and intangible services (haircuts,
  dentist visits).
• “ produced…”: GDP includes goods and services currently
  produced. It does not include transactions involving items
  produced in the past.
• “ within a country…”: GDP measures the value of
  production within the geographic confines of a country.
   – EX: Assume an American lives in Canada, his production
     is part of (American or Canadian) GDP?
• “ in a given period of time.”: Usually that interval is a year
  or a quarter (3 months)
Four Other Measures of Income
Gross National Product (GNP): The total market value of all
  final goods and services produced during a given period of
  time by the nation’s residents, regardless of the place
Net National Product (NNP): Total income of residents of a
  nation after subtracting capital consumption allowances.
  (GNP minus losses from depreciation.)
Personal Income:
   – The income that households and non-corporate
     businesses receive.
Disposable Personal Income:
   – The income that households and non-corporate
     businesses have left after taxes.                    7
The Components of GDP
GDP (Y) is the sum of:
  – Consumption (C)
  – Investment (I)
  – Government Purchases (G)
  – Net Exports (NX)
                   Y = C + I + G + NX

Consumption (C): 57%
  – Is the spending by households on goods and services
     e.g. buying clothing, food, movie tickets
Investment (I): 17%
  – Is the purchases of capital equipment and structures
     e.g. factory, houses, etc.                         8
Government Purchases (G): 21%
 – Includes spending on goods and services by local,
   provincial and federal governments (e.g. roads, police,
 – Does not include transfer payments, because it is not
   made in exchange for currently produced goods or
Net Exports (NX): 5%
 – Exports minus imports.

See Table 10-1 on page 212
See Table 10-2 on page 213

Real Vs. Nominal GDP
GDP is the market value of the economy’s current
  production, referred to as Nominal GDP.
Real GDP measures any given year’s total output in
  “constant” prices.
An accurate view of the economy requires adjusting
  nominal to real GDP, using the GDP Price Deflator.
The GDP Price Deflator is a price index that uses a bundle
  of all final goods and services.
   – A measure of the price level calculated as the ratio of
     nominal GDP to real GDP times 100.
Converting Nominal GDP to Real GDP:
Real GDP20xx = (Nominal GDP20xx ) ÷ (GDP deflator20xx)
See Figure10-2 on page 216
GDP and Economic Well-Being
GDP Per Person tells us the income and expenditure of the
 average person in the economy.
  – It is a good measure of the material well-being of the
    economy as a whole.
  – More Real GDP means we have a higher material
    standard of living by being able to consume more goods
    and services.
  – It is NOT intended to be a measure of happiness or
    quality of life.
  – GDP reflects the factory’s production, but NOT the harm
    that it inflicts on the environment.
Some factors and issues not in GDP that lead to the “well-
 being” of the economy:
  – Factors that contribute to a good life such as leisure.
   –   Factors that lead to a quality environment.
   –   The value of almost all activity that takes place outside of
       the markets, e.g. volunteer work and child-rearing.

See Table 10-3 on page 219
• These data show a clear pattern. In rich countries, such as
  Canada, US, Japan, and Germany, people can expect to live
  into their late seventies and almost all of the population can
  read. In poor countries, such as Nigeria, Bangladesh, and
  Pakistan, people typically live only until their fifties or early
  sixties, and only about half of the population is literate.


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