79194451 Energy Meter Report2

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					                                       REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING



                         INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this project is to remote monitor the Domestic Energy
meter. This system enables the Electricity Department to read the meter
readings regularly without the person visiting each house. This can be
achieved by the use of a microcontroller unit that monitors and records
the Energy Meter readings.
The conventional meter reading system for electricity is that an assigned
person visits each house and read the meter readings manually. Then the
collected meter readings are used for bill calculation. This manual
process can become very time consuming and tiresome. It can cause
human error and can open an opportunity for corruption done by the
human meter reader. Thus the conventional meter reading system can
become inaccurate and inefficient.
      This Microcontroller based system records the energy meter
readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity
department on request.




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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

                       BLOCK DIAGRAM
Transmitter Section




Receiver Section




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                                        REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

               BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


Transmitter section:

  1. Phone

  2. Decoder

  3. Microcontroller

  4. Energy meter

  5. Encoder

Receiver section:

  1. Phone

  2. Decoder

  3. Microcontroller

  4. LCD

TRANSMITTER SECTION

PHONE: Either a land phone or a mobile phone can be used.If we are
using a mobile phone we can connect it to the circuit using the head set.

DECODER: It is used for DTMF to BCD conversion. It converts the
incoming DTMF signals from phone into BCD format.

We are using a HT9170 Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) decoder. It
is integrated with digital decoder and band split filter functions. The
HT9170 series decoders use digital counting techniques to detect and
decode all the 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code output.Highly
accurate switched capacitor filters are employed to divide tone (DTMF)

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                                          REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

signals into low and high group signals.A built-in dial tone rejection
circuit is provided to eliminate the need for pre-filtering.

FEATURES:

Operating voltage: 2.5V~5.5V

Minimal external components

No external filter is required

Low standby current (on power down mode)

Excellent performance

Tristate data output for C interface

3.58MHz crystal or ceramic resonator

1633Hz can be inhibited by the INH pin

18-pin DIP package

MICROCONTROLLER: Microcontroller takes reading from energy meter
when the decoder output is a specified code.It is considered as the heart of
our project.we are using an AT89C51 microcontroller.

      A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the
CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or flash), volatile
memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O control unit.
Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units
(MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to
appliances to automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or
more microcontrollers.




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                                         REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

       The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller with 4K bytes of in-system programmable Flash
memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density
nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-
standard 80C52 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the
program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional
nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU
with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
AT89C51 is a powerful microcontroller, which provides a highly flexible
and cost-effective solution to many, embedded control applications. The
AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash,
256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three
16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full
duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. The hardware is
driven by a set of program instructions, or software.

  The following are some of the capabilities of 8051 microcontroller.

         Internal ROM and RAM
         I/O ports with programmable pins
         Timers and counters
         Serial data communication




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                                       REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING




The pin diagram of the 8051 shows all of the input/output pins unique to
microcontrollers:




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                                         REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features:

    16 bit PC &data pointer (DPTR).
    8 bit program status word (PSW).
    8 bit stack pointer (SP).
    Internal ROM 4k .
    Internal RAM of 128 bytes.
    4 register banks, each containing 8 registers.
    80 bits of general purpose data memory.
    32 input/output pins arranged as four 8 bit ports: P0-P3.
    Two 16 bit timer/counters: T0-T1.
    Two external and three internal interrupt sources Oscillator and
   clock circuits.

ENERGY METER: An energy meter is designed to measure the total
electrical energy consumed in a house, usually in kilowatt-hour
(kWh).Digital energy meter is used. It is connected to the ports of
microcontroller.
A counter can be used in place of energy meter for demonstration
purpose.In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores
(and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or
process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal.


ENCODER: Encodes the energy meter reading taken by the
microcontroller AND SENDS IT TO THE PHONE. UM91214 is used .It
is a single chip, silicon gate ,CMOS integrated circuit. It provides dialing
pulse(DP) or DTMF dialing.

FEATURES

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                                       REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

    One touch redial operation

    32 digit capacity for redialing

    DTMF timing:

    Wide operating voltage range:2v to 5.5v

    Uses inexpensive ceramic resonator{3.58mhz}

    Two versions for different telephone systems

    Built in power up reset circuit

    Four extra function keys: flash,pause,redial,and DP (Dialing pulse) or
      DTMF (dual tone multiple frequency) mixed dialing

    Four by four (or 2 of 8 )keyboard can be used

    Low standby current



RECEIVER SECTION

MICROCONTROLLER: At the electricity board it is connected to
LCD where the reading is displayed.

DECODER:        Converts    the   DTMF     signal    from   phone   into
BCD format.

LCD: The energy meter reading is displayed on the LC display.




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                                         REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

                         CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


POWER SUPPLY




POWER SUPPLY

The components of a power supply are: rectifier, filter and voltage
regulator .A rectifier converts the a.c. supply voltage to pulsating d.c. The
filter circuit removes the a.c. component present in the rectified output so
that steady d.c. voltage is obtained. A voltage regulator is used to obtain
constant d.c. voltage irrespective of changes in a.c. mains or load.

Positive voltage regulator -7805

It provides an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5v.

It is encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC).It has only 3 terminals,
namely: Input voltage, Ground, Output Voltage. It is primarily designed
for a fixed-voltage output (5V).


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                                         REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

                     TRANSMITTER SECTION

                     RECEIVER SECTION
                       CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
TRANSMITTER SECTION
      The micro controller controls the overall working of our circuit as
per the code embedded in it and hence it can be considered as the heart of
our project.
      When the concerned person at KSEB side wishes to get the meter
reading of a consumer, he/she dials the consumer’s dedicated mobile
number. The mobile in auto answer mode connects the call and the caller
has to press a specified code say ‘*’ key once. The DTMF decoder
HT9170 decodes the data and feds it to the microcontroller. The
controller upon getting the DTMF verified signal compares the data and
if the data is for key * then it reads the energy meter/counter output
through port 0. After reading the data the controller switches on the
corresponding row and column of the encoder chip UM91215B through
the electronic switch CD4066.
      For example suppose the read value is 48 then we have to send the
value 4 and 8 to the caller side. For this the controller makes k4 high first
and then makes K8 high. For this controller makes the pin P2.3 high first
and then the pin P2.7. When K4 is made high the corresponding
electronic switch U7B gets activated and this in-turn shorts row 2 and
column 1 of encoder chip and hence the DTMF tone corresponding for
key 4 gets generated and like this when K8 is made high the
corresponding electronic switch U6C gets activated and this in-turn

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                                         REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

shorts row 3 and column 2 of encoder chip and hence the DTMF tone
corresponding for key 8 gets generated. These tones are transmitted
through the mobile phone.


RECEIVER SECTION
      The circuit at the receiver section i.e. the electricity board office
consists of a Phone, a Decoder, and a Microcontroller unit and a LCD
screen. The DTMF tone generated at the consumer side is transmitted
through mobile phone headset and it is received by the office telephone.
      The DTMF tone received by office telephone is decoded using a
DTMF decoder. The decoder IC used here is HT9170. This is used to
convert the DTMF tone received at office telephone to corresponding
BCD. The BCD output pin is connected to the input port of
microcontroller. Here the microcontroller used is AT89C51. The
microcontroller present in the receiver side reads the incoming data. The
microcontroller output is in BCD form.
      The BCD output is connected to the seven segment display driver
and output is connected to the terminals of LCD display. The output of
LCD thus displays the consumers meter reading.




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                                           REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

                              SOFTWARE

ALGORITHM

   1. DTMF output pins, DTMF verifier pin (pin no:15) and the energy
      meter output is connected to the ports of microcontroller.
   2. Check whether the DTMF verifier pin is high. If it is high read the
      DTMF output.
   3. If the DTMF output is a specified code then read the content of
      energy meter or else go to step 2.
   4. The meter reading is then transmitted to the encoder by shorting
      the required column and row.

PROGRAM

PROGRAM FOR READING ENERGY METER CONTENT

Org 100

L1: jnb p0.0, L1

Mov r0, p1

Anl r0, #0fh

Cjne r0, #01h, l1

Mov r1, p2

Cjne r1, #00h, l1

Setb p3.0

Lcall delay

Clr p3.0

L3: cjne r1, #01h, l4
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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

Setb p3.1

Lcall delay

Clr p3.3

L4: cjne r1, #02h, l5

Setb p3.2

Lcall delay

Clr p3.2

L5: cjne r1, #03h, l6

Setb p3.3

Lcall delay

Clr p3.3

L6: cjne r1,#04h,l7

Setb p3.4

Lcall delay

Clr p3.4

L7: cjne r1, #05h,l8

Setb p3.5

Lcall delay

Clr p3.5

L8: cjne r1, #06h, l9

Setb p3.6

Lcall delay

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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

Clr p3.6

L9: cjne r1, #07h, l10

Setb p3.7

Lcall delay

Clr p3.7

L10: cjne r1, #08h, l11

Setb p0.1

Lcall delay

Clr p0.1

L11: cjne r1, #09h, l12

Setb p0.2

Lcall delay

Clr p0.2

L12: sjmp, l1

Delay: mov r2, #05h

W: djnz r2, w

RET

PROGRAM FOR DISPLAYING THE ENERGY METER READING ON
THE LCD DISPLAY

Org 100h

wait:jnb p1.7,wait

mov a,p1


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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

anl a,#01h

lcall check

wait1:jnb p1.7,wait1

mov a,p2

L1: jnb p0.0, L1

Mov r0, p1

Anl r0, #0fh

Cjne r0, #01h, l1

Mov r1, p2

Cjne r1, #00h, l1

Setb p3.0

Lcall delay

Clr p3.0

L3: cjne r1, #01h, l

Setb p3.1

Lcall delay

Clr p3.3

L4: cjne r1, #02h, l5

Setb p3.2

Lcall delay

Clr p3.2

L5: cjne r1, #03h, l6

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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

Setb p3.3

Lcall delay

clr p3.3

L6: cjne r1,#04h,l7

Setb p3.4

Lcall delay

Clr p3.4

L7: cjne r1, #05h,l8

Setb p3.5

Lcall delay

Clr p3.5

L8: cjne r1, #06h, l9

Setb p3.6

Lcall delay

Clr p3.6

L9: cjne r1, #07h, l10

Setb p3.7

Lcall delay

Clr p3.7

L10: cjne r1, #08h, l11

Setb p0.1

Lcall delay

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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

Clr p0.1

L11: cjne r1, #09h, l12

Setb p0.2

Lcall delay

Clr p0.2

L12: sjmp, l1

Delay: mov r2, #05h

W: djnz r2, w

display:a call ready

mov p,a

set p3.2

clr p3.3

setb p3.4

clr p3.4

RET

ready:clr p3.4

mov p1,#0ffh

clr p3.2

setb p3.3

wait:clr p3.4

setb p3.4

clr p3.4

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                                          REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

RET END




             PCB FABRICATION AND SOLDERING
PCB fabrication involves the following steps:

1.    The layout of the PCB is drawn on ORCAD.This is transferred to a
Mylar sheet.This sheet is touched with black ink.

2.    The solder side of the Mylar sheet is placed on the shiny side of the
five star sheets and is placed in a frame.It is then exposed to sunlight.

3.    The exposed five star data sheet is put in hydrogen peroxide
solution. It is then put in hot water and shook till unexposed region
becomes transparent.

4.    This is then put in cold water and then the rough side is stuck on to
the silk screen. This is then pressed and dried well.

5.     The plastic sheet of the five star sheets is removed leaving the
pattern on the screen.

6.   A copper clad is cut to size and cleaned. This is placed under the
screen.

7.   Acid resistant ink is spread on the screen so that pattern of the tracks
and pad is obtained on the copper clad sheet. It is dried.

8.   The dried sheet is then etched using ferric chloride solution till all
the unwanted copper is etched away.

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                                          REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

9.   The unwanted resist ink is removed using the sodium hydroxide
solution. Holes are then drilled.




                              SOLDERING
Soldering is the process of joining two or more similar or dissimilar
metals by using a low melting point metal or alloy with the joining
surfaces.

SOLDERING EQUIPMENTS
SOLDER: Solder is used for joining two or more metals at temperatures
below their melting point. The popularly used solders are the alloys of tin
(60%) and lead (40%) that melts at 190 degree Celsius and solidifies
when it cools. Most of the solder wires are flux cored type. When such
soldering wires are used, no extra soldering flux is needed.

FLUX: In order to make the surface accept the solder readily, the
component terminal should be free from oxides and other obstructing
films.The soldering flux cleans the oxides from the metal surface. The
leads should be cleaned chemically or by abrasion using blades or knives.

SOLDERING IRON: It is the tool used to melt the solder and apply at
the joints in the circuit. It operates in 230V A.C supply. The power
ratings of the soldering iron are 10W, 25W, 35W,65W, 125W etc. The
iron bit at the tip of it gets heated up within a few minutes.




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                                          REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING

SOLDERING GUN: It is a gun shaped soldering tool used especially
when more heat is required. Its trigger is a switch that controls the A.C
voltage to the bit.

SOLDERING STATION: It is equipment that provides an iron and a
control console that controls the temperature. The tip temperature is
maintained by a feed back control loop.

                      SOLDERING PROCESS

1. Make the layout of the components in the circuit. Plug in the cord of
the soldering iron into the main to get it heated.

2. Straighten and clean the component lead using a blade or a knife.
Apply a little flux on the leads. Take a little solder on the soldering iron
and apply the molten solder on the leads. Care must be taken to avoid the
components getting heated up.

3. Mount the components on the PCB by bending the leads of the
components. Use nose pliers.

4. Apply flux on the joints. Soldering must be done in minimum time to
avoid dry soldering and heating up of the components.

5. Wash the residue using water and brush.




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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING


                          PCB LAYOUT
MC CARD




GSM SWITCHING CARD




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                                        REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING




                         APPLICATIONS
The remote meter monitoring system can be used to determine the meter
reading of industrial areas where human entry is restricted. It can also be
used to obtain the meter reading of far off places where the officials are
difficult to reach.




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                                          REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING




                             ADVANTAGES
The advantages in using remote energy meter monitoring system are:

    No human intervention, hence the chances of human errors and
      corruption are less.

    Adverse weather conditions like heavy rain, snowfall etc will
      not hamper on collecting data.

    Periodic trips to each physical location to read the meter is not
      needed. Hence the travelling expense of utility providers is
      reduced.

    Increased speed of meter reading.

    Billing can be made based on near real time consumption.
      Hence more accurate.

There are a number of advantages in using a cellular network for data
transmission. A few are sited below:

    Utilizing an existing cellular network for data transportation
      requires no additional equipment or software, resulting in
      significant saving of both time and capital.

    Cellular technology utilizes an encryption technique to prevent
      an outside source from receiving the transmitted data.

    The cellular network provides full two-way communication
      between transmitter and receiver.



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                                      REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING




                 LIST OF COMPONENTS



    MICROCONTROLLER IC-AT89C51

  ENCODER IC-UM91214B.

  DECODER IC-HT9170.

  VOLTAGE REGULATOR– IC 7805

  ELECTRONIC SWITCH- CD 4066

  LC DISPLAY

  CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR

  RESISTORS

  CAPACITORS




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                                       REMOTE ENERGY METER MONITORING




                         CONCLUSION

Accurate measurement of energy meter reading is possible and also the
chances of human errors and corruption can be avoided using our project.
With the help of GSM modem SMS based energy meter reading can be
taken. Solar powered energy meter monitoring systems can be used.




                       BIBLIOGRAPHY
     Program Interfacing 8051 Microcontroller - Kennath.J.Ayala

     8051 Microcontroller -M.A.Mazidi & J.G Mazidi.

     www.electronicsforyou.com

     www.fairchildsemi.com

     www.datasheetcatalog.com

     www.wikipedia.com

     Embedtronics, “http://www.embedtronics.com”,2005

     Archnet, “http://www.archnet.com”,2007




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