Puritan Age and Augustan Age by M8P293


									                                         From the Renaissance
       11            1\                  to the Puritan Age (1485-1660)
                     The English Civil War and the Commonwealth
        Opposing There was a struggle for supremacy between two opposing factions, those who supported the king
          factions and those who supported Parliament. In 1642, a civil war was declared between these two factions -
                     the Royalists or Cavaliers, who supported the king, and the Roundheads, the parliamentary faction led
                     by Cromwell. The latter took their names from the fact that they had their hair cut short because they
                     considered long hair sinful. In fact, the parliamentary faction were Puritan in outlook, descendants of
                     the Elizabethan reformists, and were supported by the new gentry along with small landowners and
                     In January 1647, the defeated King Charles was imprisoned by Parliament. There was some
                     disagreement within the parliamentary forces but the king was brought to London in August 16 17.
                     Cromwell then took control of London and arrested over 100 members of Parliament loyal to the
                     king. The members that remained formed the so-called Rump Parliament, who voted for Charles I's
                     execution. On 30 January 1649, King Charles I was executed.
       Cromwell After a period of transition, monarchy was abolished and Cromwell established a sort of republic
         takeover known as the Commonwealth. However, this was actually little more than a dictatorship, and in 1653
                     Cromwell made himself Lord Protector, a position he held until his death in 1658. During
                     Cromwell's rule, the Commonwealth tried to consolidate its commercial power. In 1651 he resumed
                     the Navigation Acts, which imposed a limit on the introduction of goods into English ports by
                     foreign ships. This led to a war with Holland (1652-54), in which the Dutch we're defeated. Scottish
                     and Irish dissent was also ruthlessly suppressed during this period.
                     The Puritans
                     Puritanism was a movement that arose within
                     the Church of England in the latter part of the
                     16th century. The Puritans wanted to carry the
                     reformation of the Church beyond the point
                     represented by the Elizabethan settlement
                     (1559), which had been an attempt to find a
                     compromise between Roman Catholicism and
                     the ideas of the Protestant reformers. Puritanism
                     was very influential in the first half of the 17th
                     century, and from the Civil War until the
                     Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 a Puritan
                     government ruled England.
                     After the Restoration Puritans were at first
                     denied participation in the Church of England
                     and refused rights of free religious

1651                              1652-54
                                  1653                                                       Puritans Going to Church (1867), detail,
                                                                                                         by George Henry Boughtt,n.
                                                                                                   New York Historical Society, New Yak.
Navigation Acts.                  War with Holland.
                                  Cromwell proclaims himself Lord   Restoration of the monarchy with
                                                                    Protector of England.               the succession of Charles C.


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