in company Upper-intermediate Unit 15 headword pronunciation translation/notes example sentence acquisition (n) /ækwə'zɪʃən/ This department is mainly concerned with the acquisition of property. activist (n) /'æktɪvɪst/ Environmental activists demonstrated outside Parliament. adopt (v) /ə'dɒpt/ He decided to adopt a more radical approach to the problem. affirm (v) /ə'fзːm/ The school affirmed its commitment to its students. alliance (n) /ə'laɪəns/ Independent companies are encouraged to form strategic alliances to help them compete. analyse (v) /ˈænəlaɪz/ Candidates must demonstrate an ability to analyse and evaluate information. analysis (n) /ə'næləsɪs/ The study included an analysis of accident statistics. analytic (adj) /ænə'lɪtɪk/ Adriana has an analytic mind. analytical (adj) /ænə'lɪtɪkəl/ With your analytical skills you should consider a career in forensic science. antagonise (v) /æn'tægənaɪz/ They were always careful not to antagonise rural voters. assign sth to sb (phr v) /ə'saɪn sʌmƟɪɳ tə ˌsʌmbədi/ It’s his job to assign tasks to the various members of the team. assignment (n) /ə'saɪnmənt/ His first assignment as a reporter was to cover the local election. attention (n) /ə'tenʃən/ pay close attention to sth /peɪ kləʊs ə'tenʃən tə ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ Please pay close attention to the demonstration. autocratic (adj) /ɔːtə'krætɪk/ Our new boss favours a less autocratic management style. bash (n) /bæʃ/ Are you going to Emma and Jonathan’s bash on Saturday. basics (n pl) /'beɪsɪks/ The basics of the game can be learned very quickly. battery (n) /ˈbætəri/ recharge your batteries /riːˌʧɑːʤ jə ˈbætərɪz/ She needs to take a break to recharge her batteries. bearing (n) /'beərɪɳ/ have a bearing on sth /hæv nəʊ 'beərɪɳ ɒn ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ His private life has no bearing on his competence as a manager. benevolent (adj) /bə'nevələnt/ ‘Keep up the good work’, said the CEO with a (opposite = malevolent) benevolent smile. blowout (n) /'bləʊaʊt/ Jim’s having a birthday blowout at the Hacienda. bond (n) /bɒnd/ The experience formed a close bond between us. bond (v) /bɒnd/ The team has bonded well. bonus (n) /'bəʊnəs/ Most of our employees will receive a Christmas bonus this year. bottleneck (n) /'bɒtəlnek/ We are currently experiencing bottlenecks in production, resulting from a lack of spare parts. brainpower (n) /ˈbreɪnpaʊə/ The organisers have gathered the greatest scientific brainpower together in one place. brainstorm (v) /ˈbreɪnstɔːm/ After a brief introduction, delegates were divided into groups to brainstorm. break up (phr v) /breɪk 'ʌp/ There were suggestions that her involvement had broken up the partnership. build on sth (phr v) /'bɪld ɒn ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ We need to build on the ideas we have had so far. bureaucracy (n) /bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/ We had to struggle through a maze of bureaucracy to obtain visas. burn out (phr v) /bзːn 'aʊt/ Many of these young executives burn out before they turn thirty. burnout (n) /'bзːnaʊt/ After all her hard work on the launch, she’s taken a week off to recover from burnout. bust (n) /bʌst/ His third movie was a bust. call for sth (phr v) /kɔːl/ Skill and initiative are called for in this job. /'kɔːl fə ˌsʌmƟɪɳ / charisma (n) /kə'rɪzmə/ Our finance manager is a man sadly lacking in charisma. chicken out (phr v) /'ʧɪkən aʊt/ I was going to tell her how much it really cost, but I chickened out. clock (n) /klɒk/ work around the clock /wзːk əraʊnd 'klɒk/ Rescuers worked around the clock to free people trapped in the wreckage. code of honour (n) /ˌkəʊd əv 'ɒnə/ Fire fighters have their own code of honour. cohesive (adj) /kəʊ'hiːsɪv/ Luis is part of a small cohesive research team. collectivist (adj) /kə'lektəvɪst/ Collectivist means relating to a political system in which the government owns all businesses and controls all institutions. competence (n) /'kɒmpətəns/ The research looks at ways of improving student communicative competences through teaching in English. compromise (v) /'kɒmprəmaɪz/ Her refusal to compromise infuriated her colleagues. conflict (n) /'kɒnflɪkt/ The issue provoked conflicts between the press and the police. conglomerate (n) /kənˈglɒmərət/ The company was taken over by a huge mining conglomerate. consensus (n) /kən'sensəs/ It will be difficult to reach any sort of consensus on this issue. constraint (n) /kən'streɪnt/ The organisation has to operate within the usual democratic constraints. conventional (adj) /kən'venʃənəl/ You can cook the meat either in a microwave or in a (opposite = unconventional) conventional oven. core business (n) /kɔː 'bɪznɪs/ Selling insurance is still our core business. counterintuitive (adj) /ˌkaʊntərɪn'tjuːətɪv/ It sounds counterintuitive but to work faster you (opposite = intuitive) need to slow down. de facto (adj) /deɪ 'fæktəʊ/ English is the de facto language of the computer industry. debate (n) /dɪ'beɪt/ There has been intense debate over political union. delegate (v) /'deləgeɪt/ He always delegates boring tasks to his assistant. delegation (n) /delə'geɪʃən/ The secret to staying on top of your workload is delegation. demonstrate (v) /'demənstreɪt/ The study demonstrates that cigarette advertising does encourage children to smoke. dilemma (n) /daɪ'lemə/ I’m in a dilemma over whether to tell him or not. diplomat (n) /'dɪpləmæt/ HR managers and diplomats require many of the same qualities in their work. diverse (adj) /daɪˈvзːs/ The newspaper aims to cover a diverse range of issues. diversify (v) /daɪˈvзːsɪfaɪ/ We need to diversify in order to still be competitive. diversity (n) /daɪ'vзːsəti/ We value the rich ethnic and cultural diversity of the group. dogma (n) /'dɒgmə/ Their opposition to the reforms is based on pure dogma. dominate (v) /'dɒmɪneɪt/ She tends to dominate the conversation. dotcom (n) /dɒt'kɒm/ In addition to their chain of stores, the firm has started up a mail order dotcom. elite (n) /ɪˈliːt/ Guests included heads of state and members of the political elite. embrace (v) /ɪm'breɪs/ Most countries have enthusiastically embraced the concept of high-speed railways. empower (v) /em'paʊə/ Our goal is to empower everyone on our staff. eradicate (v) /ɪ'rædɪkeɪt/ Inflation will never be completely eradicated from the economy. e-tailer (n) /ˈiːteɪlə/ Most e-tailers can offer more competitive prices than high street shops. ethnicity (n) /eƟ'nɪsəti/ There is an optional box on the form for you to indicate your ethnicity. evaluate (v) /ɪ'væljʊeɪt/ The study will evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to radiation. exceptional (adj) /ek'sepʃənəl/ The children had shown exceptional courage. excessive (adj) /ek'sesɪv/ The charges seemed a little excessive. exhaustive (adj) /ɪgˈzɔːstɪv/ After exhaustive research, Rob finally decided which camera he wanted to buy. experience (n) /ɪk'spɪerɪens/ In my experience, very intelligent people can still make terrible mistakes. expertise (n) /ekspə'tiːz/ The company is keen to develop its own expertise in the area of computer programming. feedback (n) /'fiːdbæk/ Initial feedback from parents has been encouraging. fictitious (adj) /fɪk'tɪʃəs/ He had registered at the hotel under a fictitious name. fierce (adj) /'fɪəs/ We face fierce competition from overseas competitors. fire up (phr v) /'faɪər ʌp/ She’s all fired up about this new course she’s taking. fluid (adj) /'fluːɪd/ Our travel arrangements are fairly fluid. focus sth on sth (phr v) /'fəʊkəs sʌmƟɪɳ ɒn ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ Efforts are now focused on cleaning up the beaches. follower (n) /'fɒləʊə/ Marx still has many followers in academic circles. formality (n) /fɔː'mæləti/ We went through the usual formalities at customs and passport control. formula (n) /'fɔːmjələ/ The company’s winning formula includes excellent service and quality products. general (n) /'ʤenərəl/ My grandfather was a general in the US army. generate (v) /'ʤenəreɪt/ The business is not generating enough revenue to cover its costs. global (adj) /'gləʊbəl/ There is no obstacle to making our company truly global. go along with sth (phr v) /gəʊ ə'lɒɳ wɪƟ ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ They describe him as a weak man who went along with the scheme out of fear. habit (n) /'hæbɪt/ George has got into the habit of going to bed late. hand (n) /hænd/ at hand /æt 'hænd/ Finish with the task at hand before moving on to the next one. hierarchy (n) /'haɪərɑːki/ He reached a high level within the Soviet political hierarchy. hour (n) /'aʊə/ put in long hours /pʊt ɪn lɒɳ 'aʊəz/ She’s putting in long hours at the library. hover (v) /'hɒvə/ The waiter was hovering by their table. illustrious (adj) /ɪ'lʌstrɪəs/ He’s retiring after 25 illustrious years in advertising. impact (v) /'ɪmpækt/ The failure of the transport system impacts daily on all our lives. implement (v) /'ɪmpləment/ The agreement was signed but its recommendations were never implemented. implementation (n) /ɪmpləmen'teɪʃən/ The full implementation of the system will take some time. impose (v) /ɪm'pəʊz/ They have imposed restrictions on trade with foreign companies. individualism (n) /ˌɪndɪ'vɪdjʊəlɪzəm/ Americans tend to be self-reliant so individualism is a part of their business culture. ingredient (n) /ɪn'griːdɪənt/ Good communication is the magic ingredient in good management. initiative (n) /ɪ'nɪʃətɪv/ Employees are encouraged to use their initiative if faced with a problem. innovate (v) /'ɪnəʊveɪt/ If we can see no immediate solution to a problem then we innovate. insight (n) /'ɪnsaɪt/ I got more insights about him from reading his books than from talking to him. intuition (n) /ɪntjʊ'ɪʃən/ Archaeologists often use their intuition to decide where to dig. lead (n) /liːd/ The Spanish rider has a lead of 35 seconds over his nearest rival. lead (v) /liːd/ lead from the front /'liːd frəm ˌfrʌnt/ The team has responded well to a manager who leads from the front. leadership (n) /'liːdəʃɪp/ The complaints from the club seem to be that the president isn’t showing enough leadership. lean (adj) /liːn/ The new management team is aiming to make the company leaner and more efficient. logic (n) /'lɒʤɪk/ I don’t understand your logic. logistics (n pl) /lɒ'ʤɪstɪks/ Decentralising distribution should solve many of our logistics problems. loyal (adj) /'lɔɪəl/ Even customers who have stayed loyal for over ten years are moving to our competitors. loyalty (n) /'lɔɪəlti/ She inspires great loyalty among her staff. master (v) /'mɑːstə/ She never managed to master the Greek language. mentor (n) /'mentɔː/ Every new employee is assigned a more experienced mentor. meritocratic (adj) /merɪtə'krætɪk/ A meritocratic system promotes people on the basis of their merit and expertise. mission (n) /'mɪʃən/ It is the international community’s mission to end terrorism. motivate (v) /məʊtɪ'veɪt/ We must motivate students to take charge of their own learning. mountain (n) /'maʊntən/ I’ve got a mountain of paperwork to get through before the weekend. multitasking (n) /'mʌltɪtɑːskɪɳ/ Recent brain research shows that multitasking actually slows you down. navigate (v) /'nævɪgeɪt/ There’s no one I trust more to navigate these tricky political situations. nurture (v) /'nзːʧə/ The magazine had a reputation for nurturing young writers. obsess about sth (phr v) /ɒb'ses əbaʊt ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ Joe’s always obsessing about his health. optimise (v) /'ɒptɪmaɪz/ These changes have been designed to optimise the efficiency of the organisation. oversee (v) /əʊvə'siː/ The government agencies that oversee the airline industry will issue a joint report on the incident. paralysis (n) /pə'ræləsɪs/ Perhaps a leadership contest will end the paralysis currently affecting the government. paternalistic (adj) /pə'tзːnəlɪstɪk/ Companies in Argentina tend to be rather paternalistic. Leaders try to gently persuade subordinates that their way is the best way. patriarch (n) /'peɪtrɪɑːk/ Leaders of all businesses in China, not just family businesses, act as patriarchs. patriarchy (n) /'peɪtrɪɑːki/ A patriarchy is a society, system, or organisation in which men have all or most of the power and influence. perfectionism (n) /pə'fekʃənɪzəm/ I sometimes find Caroline’s perfectionism irritating but she certainly gets good results. perfectionist (n) /pə'fekʃənɪst/ If you were less of a perfectionist, you might manage to meet deadlines more often. phenomenon (n) /fə'nɒmənən/ Violence in society is not a new phenomenon. philanthropic (adj) /fɪlən'Ɵrɒpɪk/ Companies that are philanthropic and focused on their local community attract more supporters. picture (n) /'pɪkʧə/ It’s important we don’t lose sight of the larger picture when we make these decisions. potential (n) /pə'tenʃəl/ Our common goal is to maximise our potential for economic growth. price (n) /praɪs/ pay the price /peɪ 'praɪs/ One day you will all pay the price for your selfish behaviour. procedure (n) /prəʊ'siːdjə/ Companies use a variety of testing procedures to select appropriate candidates. proposal (n) /prə'pəʊzəl/ Proposals for a new constitution are under discussion. pyramid (n) /'pɪrəmɪd/ This really only benefits the few at the top of the social pyramid. ratify (v) /'rætɪfaɪ/ The treaty still has to be ratified by EU heads of state. recession (n) /rə'seʃən/ As the recession deepened, the group folded. recipe (n) /'resɪpɪ/ Giving your kids too much freedom can be a recipe for disaster. reconcile (v) /'rekənsaɪl/ Management and labour are attempting to reconcile their differences. refurbish (v) /riː'fзːbɪʃ/ They have refurbished their office and improved their image. replenish (v) /rɪ'plenɪʃ/ Rachel’s taken a few days off to replenish her energy levels. revenue (n) /'revənjuː/ The magazine had been losing advertising revenue for months. reverence (n) /'revərəns/ The staff at the school have a reverence for tradition. reward (v) /rɪ'wɔːd/ He always believed that the company would reward him for his efforts. ride out (phr v) /raɪd 'aʊt/ We hope to ride out this recession better than last ride out a recession /raɪd 'aʊt ə rəˌseʃən/ time. rivalry (n) /'raɪvəlri/ There is friendly rivalry between the two teams. roll out (phr v) /rəʊl 'aʊt/ The firm rolls out 21 million tons of steel a year. run (n) /rʌn/ in the long run ɒɳ rʌn/ Cutting jobs could be more expensive in the long run if we have to hire freelancers. scene (n) /siːn/ behind the scenes /bɪˌhaɪnd siːnz/ These agreements have been drafted by officials behind the scenes. sceptic (n) /'skeptɪk/ Global warming sceptics state that climate is something the human race can do little to influence. screw up (phr v) /skruː 'ʌp/ He made a bad decision that screwed up his entire life. self-reliant (adj) /selfrɪ'laɪənt/ It’s important to help your child become self- reliant. shake up (phr v) /ʃeɪk 'ʌp/ A new managing director was brought in to shake up the company. shop floor (n) /ʃɒp 'flɔː/ Rumours of pay cuts have caused resentment on the shop floor. slog through sth (phr v) /'ʃlɒg Ɵruː ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ I slogged through the first 200 pages before finally abandoning it. smart (adj) /smɑːt/ If you were smart, you’d buy now before prices go up. sponsor (v) /'spɒnsə/ Nissan sponsors the championships as part of its community relations work. standardise (v) /'stændədaɪz/ We need to standardise discipline procedures throughout the school. statesman (n) /'steɪtsmən/ The president has earned universal respect as a statesman. step (n) /step/ one step ahead /wʌn step ə'hed/ She was congratulating herself on her cleverness, but he was one step ahead of her. step back from sth (phr v) /step 'bæk frəm ˌsʌmƟɪɳ/ When filming is over, he’s going to step back from his career for a few months to spend time with his family. strategy (n) /'strætəʤi/ The countries hope to devise a common strategy to provide aid. streamline (v) /'striːmlaɪn/ The new CEO plans to invest in re-training and streamline overseas operations. subordinate (n) /sə'bɔːdɪnət/ He never won the respect of his subordinates. suppress (v) /sə'pres/ State monopolies had suppressed all forms of economic competition. swamp (v) /swɒmp/ Online bookshops were swamped with orders during the pre-Christmas rush. tactful (adj) /'tæktfəl/ He made some tactful enquiries about her family (opposite = tactless) life. target (n) /'tɑːgət/ Not many states will meet their targets for energy conservation. tend (v) /tend/ The gym tends to get very busy at about six o’clock. thrive (v) /Ɵraɪv/ This type of plant thrives in cool conditions. throw (v) /Ɵrəʊ/ Let’s throw a dinner party for him. top-down (adj) /tɒp'daʊn/ In Argentina, leaders take an almost military approach. The leadership style is very top-down. tough cookie (n) /tʌf 'kʊki/ Helen’s a tough cookie. She’s more than capable of dealing with an industrial dispute. track (n) /træk/ get back on track /get bæk ɒn 'træk/ Vanessa got back on track and won the match. track record (n) /'træk ˌrekɔːd/ They have a long track record of being mean with their money. turn sth around (phr v) /tзːn ˌsʌmƟɪɳ ə'raʊnd/ The £400 million loan will help turn the Russian economy around. ultimately (adv) /'ʌltɪmətli/ Technological advances could ultimately lead to even more job losses. upside down (adv) /ˌʌpsaɪd 'daʊn/ The new management has turned the company upside down to try to make it more productive. venture (n) /'venʧə/ The event is a joint venture between the British and Italian authorities. vest (v) /vest/ They are vested with the authority to police the park. voice (v) /vɔɪs/ Matthew voiced some doubts about our plan. warlord (n) /'wɔːlɔːd/ The sword belonged to a Japanese warlord. warrior (n) /'wɒrɪə/ Archaeologists believe it is the tomb of an Aztec warrior. wisdom (n) /'wɪzdəm/ The Egyptian leader was praised for his courage and wisdom. withstand (v) /wɪƟ'stænd/ A head teacher needs to be able to withstand criticism. work ethic (n) /wзːk 'eƟɪk/ Giuseppe expects the whole department to share his work ethic. workload (n) /'wзːkləʊd/ She was suffering from stress caused by her heavy workload.
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