18th Century Social Life

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					18 th   Century Social Life
                    Population
   1700 – 120 million
   1750 – 140 million
   1790 – 190 million



Why such an increase?
    Reasons for population increase
   Increase of food supply
   Better diet
   End of outbreaks of
    bubonic plague
           The family institution
   Patriarchal
   Wet nursing still
    common
   Arranged marriages
   Childhood began to be
    seen as a stage of
    development
                Toys, fun, games
   Jigsaw puzzles!
                          Children
   Children’s clothes
    became a new concept
   Infanticide still an issue
    for poor families
   Foundling homes
       50% to 90% mortality
        rate
       33% of Paris babies were
        brought to foundling
        hospitals
             Foundling Hospitals
   St. Petersburg, Russia
   London Foundling
    Hospital
   Foundling Home of
    Dublin
                       Marriage
   Average age 28 years old
   Lived in nuclear families
   Avg. 5 children

EXCEPT for aristocracy
                 A family economy
   Wives and children helped with farming
    and/or manufacturing of goods
       Knitting, spinning, laundresses and cleaners for the
        rich
    New Crops in Agricultural life
   Alfalfa
   Turnips
   Clover
                 Agricultural life
   Increased livestock
   Greater harvests with
    vegetables, potato, maize
                     Jethro Tull
   Using a hoe will keep soil
    loose and plants will
    grow better
   Plant seeds in rows
    rather than scatter by
    hand
     The Aristocracy and Farming
   Large landowners enclosed old open firelds
   Enclosure acts led to England becoming the
    land of large estates
       Small farmers became wage laborers
                     Noble Life
   3% population
   Top of the social hierarchy
       Noble life = The Good Life
   Exempt from taxes
   More abundance of food
   Lived off labor of others
                    Peasantry
   85% European population
   Required to tithe to parish
   No rights – flour mills, hunting, etc.
                  Peasant Food
   Dark bread, rye
   Water, wine, beer
                       Poverty
   Licensed beggars
   Prostitution

“Charity to poor beggars encouraged idleness.”

				
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