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Community and Family Studies- Parenting and Caring Parenting and Caring Becoming Parents and Carers Biological Parents - Are those who produce and provide the genetic material for a child. The parenting begins at conception and continues until they are incapable of providing care any longer. Pregnancy- sperm combines with female egg. Nuclei begins to grow, unfertilized ovum moves into uterus and discarded with menstruation. Egg attaches to wall of uterus if fertilized. Placenta forms to nourish the baby. Umbilical cord carries nutrients and oxygen to the baby, takes away carbon dioxide and urea waste. Planned Pregnancy: - Economic status - Environment (social, emotional, physical, economic) - Health of parents- smoking, weight - Age effects fertility - Time - Maturity (ready for a child) - Responsibility- joint, stable relationship - Education- parenting - Access to resources/ networks - Medical (ART) - Long term commitments - Birth options - Religion/ cultural Unplanned - Health effects (parents and children, STI’s) - Abortion - Economic - Family/ partner support - Employment - Accommodation - Future problems/ goals - Religion/ culture - Social life - Public opinion - Age IVF- In Vitro Fertilization Females are given fertility drugs in order to produce more eggs for removal. The collected sperm is mixed with eggs in a dish or tube to create embryos, which are then placed back into the women’s uterus. IVF works for many couples, but the pregnancy rates for couples with severe male infertility are generally quite poor. GIFT- Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer The sperm and eggs are removed and placed into the fallopian tubes where fetilization will hopefully take place. This takes place within the body (religious), it has a low success rate. ART- Assisted Reproductive Technology Include IVF, GIFT, ICSI, AI, ZIFT Social Parents Are individuals who care for a child without providing genetic material. They take on the responsibilities of being a parent and may face many difficulties due to their relationship with the child. Adoption: alternative for parents who can’t conceive a child. Adoptive parents become legal parents of a child. Few babies and children are available. This requires parents to demonstrate commitment and parental obligations. Fostering: is a temporary arrangement ranging from a few days to years, where children stay with another family. The care must be safe, secure and comfortable. It’s the hardest form of social parenting for children due to socially, psychological and physical issues. Step-parenting: when a man and women marries and forms a de facto relationship with a partner who already has a child a previous relationship. This may be negative or positive. Surrogacy: Involves an arrangement between a woman and a couple who would like to have a child. The woman agrees to conceive, carry and give birth to the child for the couple. May use male’s sperm, fertilized ova or donor sperm. Controversial issues- illegal in QLD and VIC. Carer Relationships Voluntary: caring without pay. Includes grandparents, siblings, neighbours. Paid: Caring with pay. Includes babysitters, Before and after care, pre-schools, nurses, teachers, foster carers. The circumstances that lead to requiring care are planned- disability/ illness, age, commitments (work) Unplanned- accident, unavailable, illness, commitments Managing Parenting and Caring Responsibilities Preparations for Becoming a parent or carer Physical 3-6 months before conception, parents should begin planning for pregnancy Parents should give up smoking and alcohol (alcohol affects sperm production and may cause early miscarriages) Prescription and non-prescription medication can harm the developing embryo Stress can reduce the chances of becoming pregnant- it can affect sperm production and interfere with ovulation, affect the womb lining or inhibit implantation in females Balanced diet- vitamins, minerals and nutrients Women should not consume certain foods carrying organism listeria which causes miscarriage Visits to the doctor, obstetrician or midwife, many tests are conducted to ensure the baby is developing normally and that problems can be identified early Courses are held in hospitals and community Centres with trained midwifes explaining labour, childbirth, relaxation, exercise and caring. Regular exercise will help stretching. Social More planning is usually necessary, either to organise child care or prepare the necessary equipment needed for baby Parents who cares for the child at home may feel isolated Friends may also change activities more likely to involve other family families with children Most couples share the parenting responsibilities to allow each other some time out to enjoy social, leisure and sporting activities Insufficient time available for social relationships associate with employment and leisure activities Emotional Can experience extra stress especially if there are problems between the partners or financial issues Hormonal changes may make the mother moody. Fatigue and nausea may also cause depression. Mother may feel unattractive, reducing self-esteem Partner and siblings may feel neglected as she receives most attention It is important for parents to spend time with them after the birth to explain the new family situation and assist older children to adjust to new relationships Economic The costs of a baby vary depending on the child’s and parents health Medical expenses, such as the obstetrician, hospital, immunization and check-ups Maternity cloths and baby clothing Essentials for the baby (stroller, pram, cot, change table) and adjustments to the environment (car, house). Food expenditure increases Baby sitters are necessary to allow parents some time to themselves. To save money some parents join a baby sitters cooperative (parents pay each other in time not money) A lack of support services, inflexible work practices and loss of assistance entitlements prevent many carers from entering the workforce. Factors influencing resource management in the caring relationship Dependants (children) affected by the caring relationship Age Increasing with more women having their first child in theirs 30’s. More couples are delaying the birth of their first child due to their lifestyle and career choice and to ensure financial stability. Age affects the relationship that they share with their child. A teenager is still growing and developing. They have less experience of life and therefore do not have the same knowledge and skills, career or financial security as a mature age parent have. This may affect their ability to fulfill their role as parents. On the other hand, they are energetic and enthusiastic. Skills Includes experience and education. Experience is very important, and will assist parents to make better decisions about parenting. Parental classes, which can be accessed through the local council, child acre services that can assist parents in developing skills Capabilities Previous experiences can help people to develop certain capabilities. Assistance from grand parents, networks of friends, Playgroup can assist parents in sharing parenting ideas and helping people manage their new role Special needs Include illness and disability. This has an impact on the carers and the family. These carers are eligible for the disability Pension. Disability Services Australia is responsible for providing services for disabled children and supporting their families Resources Time The amount of time available for parents and carers to spend with their children is dependent upon there: Employment Travel to and from work Other commitments or priorities, hobbies or interests. The changing nature of the workforce means that more people are working in part time employment. They may need to work two jobs to equate to one full time wage. The hours of employment have increased. The social trend that people need to travel longer distances to get to and from work. Energy Younger parents have more energy than do older parents or grandparents in meeting the needs of their children. With a shift to parents having their children later in life, people generally have less energy then parents in the teens and twenties. Finances Being financially secure can make a big difference to the parenting or caring relationships as it can reduce the stress of the financial burden that a new family member brings. Financial support, such as the baby bonus, Maternity Allowance, childcare Allowance, Family Tax Benefits, Parenting Payments can assist parents meet the needs of their children. Housing Satisfies people’s fundamental need for shelter. Provides a place where people can withdraw from the world and enjoy privacy, a place to eat, relax and sleep, a safe place to keep possessions, a place to care family members. Households who have purchased their own home are widely considered to enjoy benefits not so readily available to renters. These include greater security in being able to accumulate a substantial financial assets. The increasing interest rates and first home buyers grant influences this. Parenting and caring relationships Roles in parenting and caring Individuals and groups who adopt roles Roles are obligations that a person needs to meet to fulfill a task. Roles are how people develop socially acceptable behaviour that is standardised by a group such as a family. Individual or group Positive impacts Negative Impacts Grandparents Teaches traditions Lack of energy Learn generation differences Limited money/ Time/ skills resources Different parenting style/ Forced on them discipline (reluctant) language Relatives- siblings extended family teaching no structure- time with young children children/siblings experience resources forced to care- reluctant Teachers teach don’t listen safe cultural divide- beliefs official/ authority time trained social transition Paid carers relief from family problems with different environment communication trained to care- specialised trust parenting style legal issues temporary relationship Significant others doctors- ensure health temporary/ unfamiliar (doctors, social social worker- socio- money workers, neighbours, emotional wellbeing time management friends) trained Factors influencing parenting and caring relationships Age More couples are waiting until they are over 30 to begin a family because of a focus on careers and finding the right person to begin a family. Many aren’t ready to settle down The age of parents increase so does the chance of them being financially able to support a child Reliable contraception also influences this. The risk of complications during pregnancy does increase with age In 2001, there were 18 800 primary carers aged less then 18 years old providing support for parents, children, relative or friend The experience positively effects their developing skills and building strong relationships Culture and Religion There are often differences in child rearing from different cultures For example in the Aboriginal culture brothers and sisters share the responsibility to care for the child as parents Religious groups provide a set of rules and behaviors, they may even dictate necessary dress and diet The principles of the family may be guided by religion (who they can marry, attitude of sexual relations, contraception). Parenting decisions may also be influenced by religion (school they attend) Education Level of education may influences the type of relationship that is developed with children Researching parenting techniques can assist with their parenting role and relationship, although excessive information may confuse parents This could be from discussions with other parents, suitable parent books. Parents with more education tend to be able to access more services, and therefore have more resources available to them Many parenting techniques are being taught at school (Exploring early childhood, CAFS) Education also effects the children Gender Traditionally, women were seen as the primary caregiver. However, this is changing and man are sharing the responsibility of care Gender role differences help with raising a child Children’s concepts of gender roles develop from their on experiences Positive relationships with parents in early childhood help to establish gender identity parents should be aware of behaviour and allocate household responsibilities Previous experiences and own upbringing Parents experiences and own upbringing influences how they themselves parent Parents have ideas about what parenthood invloves and their own capabilities Many of these ideas are based on observations of other parents and are supplemented with other factors, such as culture, media and gender. This may lead to unrealistic expectations and therefore goals aren’t met. The majority of parents who abuse their children were abused, and neglected in their childhood Socioeconomic Status Family income determines the resources utilized for maintaining relationships Costly activities (holidays, adventure sports) may not be available to low income families, while a higher income family may allow for extra schooling and home help These things can allow socialisation to develop and the parent to spend more time with the child Socioeconomic status is often significant for parents as lower income families can’t afford childcare, and have to care for the child themselves, they also rely on Government payment and benefits The number of hours and type of work, determines how much time and energy available to spend time with children The geographic location of the family home also influences the parenting relationship. Living in a city or rural area determines the facilities available (childcare, health, resources) Media Parenting relationships are portrayed in all types of media It transmits images of how different groups in society should behave Parents often modify their behaviour to be more like those in the media Parents may not wish for their children to be influenced by media behaviour. However, often parents and children are copying practices they have seen or heard with positive or negative results Visual images shows perfect parenting These images are not realistic and may cause tension in relationships Material goods are often advertised so s to make the parent or child think they ust have them Parenting shown on current affair’s shows portray assertive behaviour that challenges parenting and caring. Topical issues like nutrition and divorce challenge parenting authorities Child abuse and neglect are openly discussed in the media There are codes that certifies TV shows and times they are shown Nature of Relationship The nature of relationship of parents and children influences the development of the bond that develops The arrival of a new baby brings stress to every couples relationship The emotional development of the child and contact strengthen baby’s feelings of comfort and security Love is a basic need for children emotional and social development- effects wellbeing Style of parenting The family culture and background, religion, he media and societal expectations influence parental authority Parents should always allow for mutual respect between the parent and child There are 4 parenting styles 1. Authoritarian parenting: involves one or both parents making all the decisions and rules and instructing and directing the behaviour of children. Children are punished and rarely rewarded 2. Democratic parenting: is characterized by all family members having equal rights and participation in decision making. To reach decision, all options are considered and a vote may be taken. Parents encourage children to make decisions and take responsibility. May set goals and reward children. Punishment and rewards are negotiated with children 3. Permissive or indulgent parenting: I characterized by supportive and tolerant parenting with little control. Children don’t take on responsibilities and no method of decision making and therefore, children don’t learn this skill. Parents usually give in to children, this causes confusion later and are unable to determine acceptable behaviour 4. Negligent parenting: Means that parents fail to take responsibility for their children actions and behaviour. Occurs when parents have failed to provide adequately for their needs. Parents may fail to show any love and concern. DOCS takes interest in these families Special Needs A child with special needs require more attention and care These include chronic conditions (asthma), learning disorders (dyslexia), development disorder (autism), physical disorder (visual impairment) or the child may be gifted WHO defines disability as a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being There are many professionals who offer specialized medical treatment for children These professionals offer the parent and child support through learning, development and educational activities Gifted and talented children need special attention to reach their full potential Implications for parents and carers of children with chronic illness include: - Making doctor appointments and accompanying the child - On going care- sometimes 24 hours a day, which restricts both employment and social opportunities - Financial pressures brought about by paying for specialist care, medicines- carers have a lower income - Disruption to the family routine because of hospitalization and appointments - Having to balance the need of an ill child and those of other family members - Poor mental health of parents/ carers and overall family distress - Having to educate the child because of limited schooling opprtunities - Siblings may resent the child, but studies show that they develop maturity, responsibility and tolerance they become individual Multiple role expectations Society places many pressures on parents Parents have role expectations placed on them in a variety of areas such as family, work, sport and community groups The complexity of roles can lead to conflict The trend for small families, more women in the paid workforce, and the increasing involvement of fathers in child rearing have all contributed to the change in parental roles and expectations It is the parents role to meet the basic needs of their children- food, shelter and clothing Parents are often trying to balance their role in the family with their role as a member of the paid workforce Employees are required to accommodate the needs of employees who are responsible for the care of family members Flexible working practices assist Parents may have to organise child care to coincide with work arrangements Having children means less time available for leisure activities As children grow older they can develop independence, however parents must still transport them and be involved It is important for both parents’ and carers’ physical and psychological health that they maintain their interests outside the home Strategies to assist parents and carers with this management Having voluntary carers- (grandparents), cheap care Having paid carers- (baby sitters, pre-schools)- children are properly cared for. Government allowances- assist carers financially (baby bonus, Carer pensions) Flexible working places- some provide care for children, allow for company cars, are flexible for employee who have children Working part time Working from home to care for children Parents take turns in caring for children (weekends or during the week) Having a cleaner allows more time for responsibility and leisure activities Rights and Responsibilities in parenting and caring Rights and responsibilities- Parents and Carers The United Nations has developed a Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Parents have broad rights on their freedoms to bring up children as they wish. When a child is not cared for, the court or other organisation my punish and/or remove the child. The Family Law Act states that parents and legal guardians have the rights to: Determine the child’s upbringing and education Discipline the child Consent to the child adoption Take legal proceedings on the child’s behalf Under the same law, parents and legal guardians have the responsibility to: Maintain the child- the level of maintenance depends on the child’s needs and the adults resources Send the child to school between the ages of 6 and 15 years Parents and carers owe a duty of care (have a moral obligation to meet the needs of those entrusted to their care) to the children in their care. This is contained in the responsibilities that parents and carers have under the law. This also includes such things as setting limits for their children and in meeting out discipline. Both of these should: Not be of a violent nature Not infringed upon the basic rights of a child be reasonable, clear and consistent Maintain the dignity of the child Ensure that parent/Carer and child are able to reconcile at the conclusion of the event Be consequential Rights and responsibilities- children There are international and national legal rights that protect children. Australia has signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Children have to right to: - identity - family - express oneself and have access to information - safe and healthy life - special protection in times of war - education - special care for the disabled - protection from discrimination - protection against abuse - protection from harmful work - special treatment if arrested Sources of Conflict Conflict between children, parents and carers occur for many reasons. These may include lack of respect for either child or Carer by either party stress and strain of daily life and life events children growing up and testing the boundaries, seeking independence and questioning conventional thinking and rules stress of caring for a child or other adult with a special need or chronic illness financial strain Change in the family or routine (death, divorce, drugs, health, moving home) Support for Parents and carers Health services Health services offers advice and resources to manage medical and health issues. Some hospitals specialise in the treatment of children. This includes physiotherapy, tresillian, early childhood Centres and community nurses. Welfare services Welfare agencies can provide resources to help meet the needs of parents, carers and families. Examples include the Salvation Army, St Vincent de Paul Society, Anglicare, and Unitingcare Burnished. Parenting Groups These are specific groups relating to parenting that offers advice, information and support for all parents. Parentline is a service for people who want information and advice about caring. The Multiple Birth Association refers parents of twin’s etc to their nearest twins club for information, support and social contacts. The Australian Breastfeeding Association offers support, encouragement and information to mothers who wish to breastfeed. Community groups These are associations in local areas that offer services for parents and children to meet their parenting needs. For example, playgroups, churches, charities, World Vision and Meals on Wheels. Government agencies Various levels of government offer payments, services and advice to the public. Department of Community Services provides information on family assistance, youth and student support, child support, aged, disabilities etc. Centrelink offers a range of information and government payments including Parenting Payments, Family Assistance, Child Support, Family Tax Benefits and Carer Allowance Payments. Child-care services They provide care for children while the parenting works or has other responsibilities. Some are parent run, some are independently run by a parent body, others are council owned and run. Services include long or short day care, occasional or vacation care, in home groups care, before and after school care. Carers’ support groups Carers’ support groups specialise in offering advice and support for carers. Families and carers are provided with information and guided regarding problems and issues that they are trying to manage. Carer support groups allow people in similar circumstances to share experiences, feelings, concerns and information. Respite is a form of support for carers.
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