Interest Groups, Political Parties, and Campaigning by r9maENR

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									Interest Groups, Political Parties,
        and Campaigning
   Informal and Formal Interest
             Groups
• Interest Groups   •   Legislative
• Pressure Groups   •   Judicial
• Lobbyist          •   Executive
                    •   Constitutional
                    •   Public Opinion
                        – Public Interest
            Interests in Texas
•   Business
•   Professions
•   Agriculture
•   Labor Unions
•   Ethnic Groups
•   Other Interests
    – Roe v. Wade (1973)
               Lobbying
• Lobbying
• Lobbyists
• Executive and Judicial Lobbying
Table 4.1 – Number of Lobbyists Reporting By
          Interest Represented, 2002
 Regulating Interest Groups and
           Lobbying
• Sharpstown Bank Scandal 1973
• Lobby Regulation Reform Law of 1973
  – Must register as a lobbyist
     • If spending exceeds $200
     • If one lobbies for compensation or part of one’s job
  – Must file monthly expense reports during legislative
    sessions
  – Must file quarterly reports between sessions
  – Must report contributors of more than $500
 Regulating Interest Groups and
           Lobbying
• Federal Election Campaign Spending Act of
  1974
  – Federal Election Commission
  – Political Action Committees (PACs)
              Political Parties
Political Party
      a coalition of political economic, and moral factions
         that are attempting to gain control of government
         in order to further their interests
Purposes
     Nominate and elect their members to office
     Develop issues or philosophy
     Mobilize voters
     Run government
            Political Parties
• The Democrats
  – Liberals
  – Conservatives
• The Republicans
              Political Parties
• Party Competition
  –   One-party Democratic State
  –   Realignment
  –   Two-party State
  –   Republican Successes
• Republican Dominance
  – 1994 Election
  – Realigning Election
  Figure 4.1 – Levels of Interparty
Competition in the States, 1989-1994




                                  Source: John F.
                                  Bibby & Thomas
                                  M. Holbrook,
                                  “Parties and
                                  Elections,” in
                                  Politics in the
                                  American States:
                                  A Comparative
                                  Analysis, 7th ed.,
                                  Herbert Jacob &
                                  Virginia Gray,
                                  eds. (Washington,
                                  DC: CQ Press,
                                  1996), Table 3-2.
         Figure 4.2 – How Texas Voted for President, 2000




Source: Federal Election
Commission,
www.fec.gov
Figure 4.3 –
   Texas
  Political
   Party
Organization
               Political Parties
             Geographic and Republican Distribution


• Republican Strength            • Democratic Strength
  –   Aransas county                 – South Texas
  –   German Hill Country            – between Houston and
  –   Edwards Plateau                  German Hill country
  –   Permian Basin                    and Gulf Coast
  –   West Texas to                  – East, Central and West
      Panhandle                        Texas
                                     – Southeastern
                                       Panhandle
              Political Parties
•   Party Organization
•   Voting Precinct
•   County or Senatorial District
•   State
•   National
              Political Parties
• Temporary Party        • Permanent Party
  Organization             Organization
  – Voting Precinct        – Voting Precinct
  – County or District     – County Chair and
    Conventions              Executive Committee
  – State Conventions      – State
               Political Parties
• Liberalism                 • Conservatism
  – Seek to change status      – Defend status quo
    quo                        – Edmund Burke
  – Regard man as rational     – Political stability
  – Problem solving              maintained by slow
    process                      change
                  Political Parties
• Campaigning
  – Informal Requirements
       •   WASP
       •   Image
       •   Name recognition
       •   Money
  –   Issues
  –   Campaign assistance
  –   Polls
  –   Media

								
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