Greenhouse Gas Inventory by s3dn6csQ

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									               GREENHOUSE
               GAS
               INVENTORY




Summer, 2008   Central Washington University

               Prepared by the Central Washington University
               Carbon Reduction Task Force

               In compliance with

               American Colleges and University Presidents Climate
               Commitment using the Clean Air – Cool Planet guidelines
                                                                                                                                                           Greenhouse Gas Inventory



Contents

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 2
RESULTS.................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Institutional Data................................................................................................................................................... 4
  Demographics ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
Purchased Electricity/Steam/Chilled Water ............................................................................................. 5
On-Campus Stationary Sources ....................................................................................................................... 7
Transportation ....................................................................................................................................................... 8
  Motor Pool Vehicles, Gasoline and Diesel: ............................................................................................... 9
  Commuting......................................................................................................................................................... 10
  University-Sponsored Air Travel .............................................................................................................. 10
  Aviation Department Program: ................................................................................................................. 11
  Commercial Deliveries .................................................................................................................................. 11
Agriculture ............................................................................................................................................................ 12
  Fertilizer Application..................................................................................................................................... 12
  Animal Agriculture ......................................................................................................................................... 12
Solid Waste—Landfilled Waste with no Methane recovery ............................................................. 13
Refrigeration and other Chemicals ............................................................................................................. 14
Offsets ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Overall Carbon Consumption ........................................................................................................................ 16




        1       Central Washington University |
Greenhouse Gas Inventory




                GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY

                           CENTRAL WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY


                                             INTRODUCTION


        The intent of this report is to fully disclose the findings of Central Washington University’s
embedded carbon footprint as a supplemental report to Central Washington University’s Climate
Commitment Action Plan. The results of the 2007 inventory will be disclosed to the Association for the
Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) and the American Colleges and University
Presidential Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). Emission sources are reported for the Ellensburg campus
only, due to the fact that we do not operate the University Centers. By fully reporting Ellensburg’s total
embedded carbon footprint encompassed by Central, we are declaring our intent to reduce our overall
carbon footprint.

        Due to the expansive nature of carbon emissions, we seek to be a transparent as possible in
recognizing our total carbon emission. We seek to identify true and embedded carbon emission sources.
As outlined in the ‘Achieving Carbon Neutrality’ report, we determined three scope levels of carbon
sources. The scopes are determined as Scope 1, defined, Scope 2, partially direct emissions, and scope 3,
indirect emissions.

        The inventory was completed by using the Cool Planet, Clean Air, Version 5 calculator, accessible
from: http://www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/toolkit/content/view/43/124/. We realize that there are
limitations when utilizing this tool, but use it in order to provide a basis for comparison with universities of
similar demographics from across the nation. The results of this report will be publicly available from
AASHE and ACUPCC and serves as a baseline for future benchmarking against our efforts to reduce our
carbon emissions.

       The Carbon Reduction Task Force has consistently discussed the need to incorporate information
beyond the requirements of the ACUPCC. It is the goal of the committee to be as transparent as possible in
reasoning and explanation of recommendations in the Carbon Neutrality Report.




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                                                                          Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                                          RESULTS

As directed by the ACUPCC guidelines, Central Washington University used the Clean Air, Cool Planet
calculator to derive the carbon footprint for the Ellensburg main campus. Data was gathered from
Central Washington University’s Institutional Research Department, Central Washington University’s
fiscal records, and Facility Management records. The information gathered fell into categories, as
follows:

Institutional Data:
Budget
  Operating Budget
          Research Dollar Revenue             Institutional Research (IR@cwu.EDU)
          Energy Budget                       Facilities Management (Mickey Parker)
  Population                                  Institutional Research (IR@cwu.EDU)
          Full Time Student
          Part-Time Student
          Summer School Students
          Faculty
          Staff
  Campus Physical Size                        Facilities Management (Mickey Parker)
          Total Building Space
Purchased Electricity
  Electricity produced off-campus             Facilities Management (Mickey Parker)
On Campus Stationary Sources
  Stationary sources of emissions             Facilities Management (Mickey Parker)
Transportation
  University Fleet
          Gasoline Fleet                      Facilities Management (Sherri Heger)
          Diesel Fleet                        Facilities Management (Sherri Heger)
  Air Travel                                  Business and Financial Affairs (Bruce Porter)
  Commuters                                   Parking/ Auxiliary Services (Steve Breyfogle)
          Faculty/Staff
          Students
Agriculture                                   Grounds Management (Calvin Lang)
Solid Waste                                   Kittitas County Solid Waste (509.962.7542)
  Landfilled Waste with no CH4 recovery
Refrigeration and other Chemicals             Central Stores (Steve Young)
  HFC-404a
  HCFC-22
Offsets
  Composting                                  Grounds Management (Calvin Lang)
  Renewable Energy Credits                    Facilities Management (Mickey Parker)




3   Central Washington University |
    Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                                                      INSTITUTIONAL DATA

         In order to ensure our mitigation strategies are on the right track, we need to be able to compare
         Central Washington University to other universities with similar demographics.

                                                             DEMOGRAPHICS

               Operating Budget
                     Research Dollar Revenue
                     Energy Budget
               Population
                     Full Time Student
                     Part-Time Student
                     Summer School Students
                     Faculty
                     Staff
               Campus Physical Size
                     Total Building Space
                     Total Research Building Space

         The operating budget is split into two sections, research dollars and energy. Central Washington
         University does not have separate facilities for research--based learning, so the same square footage
         as overall campus was input for the research portion of the report. The energy budget is the total
         costs it takes to operate facilities and auxiliary buildings. These numbers can be found in Facilities
         Management through Mickey Parker.

         Population was for both students and staff was taken at head count at full-time and part-time status
         enrolled per quarter and averaged over the course of fall, winter, and spring quarter. Summer School
         students were counted based on one-time enrollment. Full-time and part-time professors and
         lecturers were counted as faculty collectively, same for staff. These numbers can be found at
         Central’s Institution Research department.

         Total campus size was determined as all buildings owned and operated by Central Washington
         University, including those not in immediate uses (due to the continual operational nature to keep
         buildings conditioned during the winter). The updated numbers for total square footage in operation
         by the university is found in Facilities Management through Mickey Parker.

Fiscal                                                                                                                    Physical
                 Budget                                             Population
Year                                                                                                                        Size
                                                                                   Part-    Summer                         Total         Total
                                                                    Full Time
             Operating Budget   Research Dollars   Energy Budget                  Time       School    Faculty   Staff    Building      Research
                                                                    Students
                                                                                 Students   Students                       Space        Building
                    $                  $                 $              #           #          #         #        #      Square feet   Square feet
2004     $     134,190,619.00   $ 1,961,776.00     $ 3,246,202.00        7,131       599       2,636      547     851     2,877,645       2,877,645
2005     $     144,035,661.00   $ 2,171,123.00     $ 3,235,610.00        7,278       628       2,475      555     866     2,877,645       2,877,645
2006     $     153,682,800.00   $ 2,181,266.00     $ 4,104,674.00        7,433       674       2,583      576     854     2,877,645       2,877,645
2007     $     162,000,000.00   $ 2,191,000.00     $ 3,554,199.00        7,567       710       2,544      584     920     2,988,739       2,988,739

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                                                                                         Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                      PURCHASED ELECTRICITY/STEAM/CHILLED WATER


         Central Washington University purchases their electricity from the City of Ellensburg Electric
         Services. The City of Ellensburg contracts their power from Bonneville Power Administration. The
         contracts on based on a 10 year cycle, with the next renewal term coming up in 2011. Central
         Washington University’s electric consumption has consistently decreased over the past decade, due
         to continued efforts from facilities management to incorporate conservation methods towards
         building redesign and utilities use (see graph 1).

                                                                      Purchased electricity information is based in
            Central Washington University Institutional Data          Facilities Management and is outlined in
            Fiscal       Purchased         Puchased Steam / Chilled
            Year         Electricity               Water              billing format (with units being measured in
                     Electric produced      Steam and Chilled water   kWh purchased) (see table 2). Central
                     off-campus              produced off-campus      Washington University generates its own
                             kWh            MMBtu            MMBtu    steam and chilled water on campus.

             1999             43,207,200                              The electricity fuel profile lends our enery
             2000             41,115,745                              consumption to be artificially low due to the
             2001             39,008,854                              high dependence upon carbon-free hydro-
             2002             36,682,271                              generated electricity. While hydropower is
             2003             35,559,986
                                                                      efficient and inexpensive, the impacts upon
                                                                      the surrounding environment is
             2004             36,201,984
                                                                      detrimetrial. However, for the purpose of
             2005             35,019,522
                                                                      ACUPCC, hydropower is considered ‘clean’.
             2006             35,921,595
             2007             37,123,280


Table 2: History of purchased electricity information.




Graph 1: Overall electricity consumption by the university.


     5     Central Washington University |
Greenhouse Gas Inventory




       Chart 1: Current electricity fuel profile purchased by Central Washington University. Each source
       of fuel emits differing levels of carbon or carbon-equivalent based emissions.

The current fuel mix for electricity in central Washington is predominantly generated from large scale
hydropower (85.59%). All electricity utilized by Central Washington University is imported from the
City of Ellensburg Municipal Utilities. Electricity prices for the university are significantly lower than the
national average. CWU pays approximately $.05/kwh, making on-site renewable energy a difficult fiscal
choice.




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                                                                              Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                            ON-CAMPUS STATIONARY SOURCES

    Central Washington University primary fuel consumption is natural gas. Natural gas is considered
    to be one of the cleanest and currently least expensive fossil fuel to burn. Our natural gas powered
    plant is efficient and is monitored continually for potential infrastructural improvements. Natural
    gas is also the largest generator of carbon based emissions on campus, producing over 61% of
    Central Washington University’s emission. Facilities Management is known for its conservation
    efforts and has strived to reduce the overall campus consumption of natural gas (a major feat when
    considering the addition of three new buildings in the past decade).




     Graph 2: Overall natural gas consumption by the university.




7     Central Washington University |
Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                                         TRANSPORTATION

       The transportation data is the most estimated portion of the 2007 inventory. We hope to
       implement a more in-depth database that collects actual miles traveled within each category. The
       method for measuring transportation created carbon emissions involved a review of the financial
       data attached to the purchasing of fuel and/or airline tickets, number of parking passes sold on
       campus, and rough estimation of commuter statistics.

       Central Washington University Aviation has the only program in Washington State to offer a 4 year
       Bachelor of Science Degree. Even though Central Washington University contracts out to a private
       company, Midstate Aviation, the hours in flight requirements are put forth by the Central
       Washington University Aviation Department. Due to this, the air travel is supplemented by the
       Aviation Department estimation of air miles logged by class per year. It is still under discussion
       whether to incorporate Midstate Aviation miles into the overall University Emissions, as a scope 3
       emission source.




       Chart 2: Transportation emissions by category, depicted in percentage. For full declaration
       please review table 2.




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                                                                                      Greenhouse Gas Inventory




          Category                        Fuel Consumed: 2007            CO2 Emission: 2007
          Motor Pool - Gasoline           61,692 Gallons                 547.7 Metric Tons
          Motor Pool - Diesel             8,251 Gallons                  83.2 Metric Tons
          Commuter – Students                                            621.1 Metric Tons
          Commuter – Staff                                               63.4   Metric Tons
          Commercial Air Travel           97,820 Gallons Equivalent      935.9 Metric Tons
          Aviation Department                                            636.7 Metric Tons
          Total CO2 Emissions from Transportation Sources                2888 Metric Tons
          Table 2: Summary of CO2 Equivalent Emissions from Transportation Sources

                             MOTOR POOL VEHICLES, GASOLINE AND DIESEL:

The Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 600.113) provides values for carbon content per gallon of
gasoline and diesel fuel which EPA (http://www.epa.gov) uses in calculating the fuel economy of vehicles:

Gasoline carbon content per gallon: 2.421 kg
Diesel carbon content per gallon: 2.778 kg

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for calculating emissions inventories
require that an oxidation factor be applied to the carbon content to account for a small portion of the fuel
that is not oxidized into CO2. For all oil and oil products, the oxidation factor used is 0.99 (99 percent of the
carbon in the fuel is eventually oxidized, while 1 percent remains un-oxidized).
Source: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/sres/emission/index.htm

In order to calculate the CO2 emissions from a gallon of fuel, the carbon emissions are multiplied by the
ratio of the molecular weight of CO2 (44 grams/mole) to the molecular weight of carbon (12 grams/mole):
44/12. CO2 emissions from a gallon of gasoline = (2.421 kg) X (0.99) X (44/12) = 8.788 kg/Gallon. CO2
emissions from a gallon of diesel = (2.778 kg) X (0.99) X (44/12) = 10.084 kg/Gallon.
Source: http://www.epa.gov/OMS/climate/420f05001.htm

In 2007 the Central Washington University used 61,692 gallons of gasoline and 8,251 gallons of diesel.
Using the EPA and IPCC numbers of 19.4 pounds of CO2 per gallon of gasoline and 22.2 pounds of CO2 per
gallon of diesel fuel, the universities carbon emission for 2007 is:

(61,692 gallons of gasoline) X (8.878 kg CO2/gallon of gasoline) X (1 metric ton/ 1000 kg) = 547.7 Metric
tons of CO2

(8,251 gallons of diesel fuel) X (10.084 kg CO2/gallon of diesel fuel) X (1 metric ton / 1000 kg) = 83.20 tons
of CO2

Total CO2 emissions = 542.7 + 83.18 = 630.9 tons of CO2


      9    Central Washington University |
Greenhouse Gas Inventory



                                                COMMUTING

A significant majority of CWU students live on or very near campus. Ellensburg is an independent small
town, approximately 3 miles wide, without nearby residential suburbs. Most student, staff, and faculty live
within the city limits. There are a number of faculty (and relatively few students) who may commute from
as far away as Yakima, Wenatchee, and Moses Lake on a weekly or daily basis. This data requires a survey
or other information to assess the magnitude of this data category.

                                 UNIVERSITY-SPONSORED AIR TRAVEL

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics publishes a report of passenger revenue yield (cents per mile) for
categories of network, regional, and low cost carriers (This information can be found in Tables 14 to 16,
http://www.bts.gov/press_releases/2007/bts058_07/html/bts058_07.html). Averaging the numbers in
that source gives a value of $0.16 per passenger mile. This value should be determined more precisely by
statistical methods for CWU’s travel. Some recent air fares had values of $0.1508 and $0.1803 per
passenger-mile.

Passenger-Miles per Gallon: The average number of passenger-miles per gallon of fuel can be found from
BTU/passenger mile data and the fuel specifications for BTU/gallon. Energy intensity for domestic aircraft
is reported for 2004 as 3297 BTU/passenger-mile (Table K-6, Energy Intensity by Passenger Mode
http://www.bts.gov/publications/ transportation_statistics_annual_report/2006/). With an energy
content of 135,000 BTU/gallon for Jet-A fuel, the result is 40.96 Passenger-miles/gallon. This number
takes into account the airplane occupancy rates and fleet efficiency.

CO2 generated per Gallon of fuel: According to the US Energy Information Administration, Report 1605,
Emissions of Greenhouse Gasses ( http://www.eia.doe.gov /oiaf/1605/factors.html), each gallon of Jet A
fuel produces 21.095 lb of CO2. Based on these factors, the CWU sponsored air miles traveled can be
calculated by dividing the dollars spent by the dollars per passenger mile. For 2007, this value is 3.167
million miles ($506,667/$0.16 per passenger-mile). By dividing the number of miles traveled by passenger
miles per gallon of fuel, a total estimate of aviation fuel used can be calculated. For 2007 data, this number
is 77,320 gallons (3.167 million miles/40.96 passenger-miles per gallon).

If every gallon of Jet-A produces 21.095 lb CO2, then the carbon footprint for 2007 air travel is calculated at
1.631 million pounds or 815.5 tons (739.7 metric tons CO2).

Sources:

CWU Director of Business Services and Contracts

http://www.bts.gov/press_releases/2007/bts058_07/html/bts058_07.html , Table 13, System Passenger
Revenue Yield (Cents per Mile); 21 Carrier Total for 2nd Qtr 2007

http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/ , National Transportation Statistics
Report, Chapter 4, Table 4-20 Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes (Updated December 2007), accessed April
28, 2008

Gasses http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/factors.html


                                                                 | Central Washington University     10
                                                                                   Greenhouse Gas Inventory



                                  AVIATION DEPARTMENT PROGRAM:

The Central Washington University Flight Technology program combines both classroom instruction as
well as flight training, because of this it is necessary to account for student flight hours. The Flight Tech
program keeps track of hours required for each students graduation; however, it does not account for
student retesting or extra in flight instruction. The student flight hours are contracted out to Mid State
Aviation (1100 Bower Road, Ellensburg, WA, 98926). The flight hours and the fuel efficiencies of the planes
that were provided by Mid State Aviation for 2007 were used for these calculations.

Mid State Aviation was unable to produce records for hours in individual aircraft, therefore, an average of
fuel efficiency for all 13 of their aircraft will be used for the CO2 calculations.

4 Cessna 152s    = 6 gallons/hour X 4 planes

6 Piper Warriors = 8 gallons/hour X 6 planes

2 Piper Arrows    = 10 gallons/hour X 2 planes

1 Piper Seminole = 16 gallons/hour X 1 plane

Average MPH      = 108 gallons/hour divided by 13 planes = 8.3 gallons/hour

To calculate the total CO2 emissions for the Flight Tech program in 2007, Midstate Aviation’s 8000 total
flight hours for Central Washington University students will be used. According to the Energy Information
Administration each gallon of Jet A fuel produces 21.095 lb of CO2.

Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov /oiaf/1605/factors.html

(Total flight hours) X (Average gallons/hour) X (Lbs of CO2/gallon) X (1 metric ton/2200 lbs) = Total
metric tons of CO2.

(8000 hrs) X (8.3 gallons/hour) X (21.095 lbs CO2/gallon) X (1 metric ton/2200 lbs) = 767.09 metric tons

The total CO2 emission for the university’s flight tech program is 636.7 metric tons.

                                       COMMERCIAL DELIVERIES

Some GHG documents have accounted for the fuel used by commercial deliveries to campus, such as food
service trucks. Tracking all delivery trips made to campus would be unwieldy and of questionable value
(beyond scope 3 emissions). However it would be possible to estimate the fuel consumed by some of the
regular major delivery routes, such as food service providers and UPS. If possible, commercial services
with deliveries hubs closest to Central Washington University should be considered.




    11   Central Washington University |
Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                                                           AGRICULTURE


                                                   FERTILIZER APPLICATION


     Central Washington University’s ground crew is continually improving environmental standards for
     grounds protocols, equipment, and fertilizer applications. Over 30% of the campus is green, not
     covered by parking lots or buildings. Direct fertilizer application is relatively minimal, with 24,000
     pounds of synthetic fertilizer (16% nitrogen) spread across the campus. Grass-waste passive
     composting occurs on non-athletic lawns to minimize yard-waste.



                                                      ANIMAL AGRICULTURE


     Central Washington University does not offer or operate an agricultural and/ or veterinary-based
     programs, however is a campus subsidiary of a world renowned chimposium, home to the
     Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute. The Chimpanzee and Human Communication
     Institute sponsors three chimpanzees. These three chimpanzees were noted in the “other” category
     as a support for animal subsidiary.


                                                       Agriculture


                                  Includes all agriculture and animal husbandry run by the university

                                                          Animal
                  Fertilizer Application
                                                         Agriculture

                     %                        %
      Synthetic                Organic                                    Beef
                  Nitrogen                 Nitrogen
                                                         Dairy Cows       Cows     Swine     Goats      Sheep   Horses   Poultry   Other

       Pounds         %         Pounds        %               #              #        #        #          #       #        #        #

        24,000         16%                                                                                                              4
        24,000         16%                                                                                                              4
        24,000         16%                                                                                                              4
        24,000         16%                                                                                                              3




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                                                                                Greenhouse Gas Inventory


     SOLID WASTE—LANDFILLED WASTE WITH NO METHANE RECOVERY

     Central Washington University waste management is operated by three different entities on
     campus, however all three entities send their waste to the same landfill. The waste is ultimately
     sent to the Wenatchee Landfill, which has no current utilization method for CH4 Flaring or
     electricity conversion, but does have a passive gas recovery system in place. It is estimated that
     Central Washington University sends a cumulative 900 short tons of waste annually. There are
     programs in place that redirect waste to be re-used, sold, or surplus. It is roughly estimated that 91
     tons of waste is diverted from landfill by Central’s Surplus With A Purpose program. This is nearly
     1/9th of the overall waste stream handled by Central. An additional 63 tons of waste is diverted
     from landfills by the housing and facilities waste management entities.

     A system is in place to improve tracking figures for waste stream across the various waste entities
     on campus. A database of information is being created to ensure uniformity of measurement and
     tracking methods are utilized.




13     Central Washington University |
Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                           REFRIGERATION AND OTHER CHEMICALS

       Central Washington University utilizes commonly-used refrigerants in their cooling system. It is
       expected that the US will replace HFC and HCFC compounds with alternatives by 2010 (EPA,
       http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/phaseout/hcfc.html) with subsequent total equipment and
       refrigerants phased out by 2020. Approximately 1% of Central’s 2007 carbon inventory is
       comprised of HFC and HCFC based emissions.

       It is expected that the university will pursue a suitable alternative compound for use in the
       campus’s chiller and refrigerator sources (http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/
       refrigerants/index.html). This information can be found at Central Stores, since all refills and
       equipment replacement parts must be purchased through this department. Central Washington
       University only utilizes HFC-404a for cooling, and HCFC-22 which is used for air conditioning and
       refrigeration.




                                                              | Central Washington University   14
                                                                              Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                                             OFFSETS

     Central Washington University has no actively pursued or purchased carbon offset actions in place.
     One aspect of grounds-keeping inadvertently met the requirements for offsets, the passive compost
     yard-waste pile.

     Central Washington University has a passive compost waste pile that is maintained and utilized by
     the grounds crew. It is estimated that the compost pile is 400 cubic yards (declared by Calvin
     Lang). The compost pile is comprised of yard waste and mulched debris. Any debris that does not
     meet requirement for composting is sent to the transfer facility. In 2009, the Kittitas County
     Transfer Station will have a composting system in place and will aid in the waste minimization
     efforts of Central Washington University.




15     Central Washington University |
 Greenhouse Gas Inventory


                                               OVERALL CARBON CONSUMPTION

           The campus’s overall carbon consumption is approximately 20,135 metric tonnes for the 2007
           fiscal year. The biggest contributor to Central Washington University’s carbon emissions footprint
           is natural gas. Transportation is the next biggest carbon emitter with electricity coming in a distant
           3rd (bolstered by artificially low carbon emission sources due to the carbon free nature of
           hydropower).
      MODULE            Summary
   WORKSHEET            Overview of Annual Emissions
   UNIVERSITY           Central Washington University


                                                     Energy                                      Other
  Select Year -->                2007              Consumption
                                                                    CO2        CH4      N2O
                                                                                               Chemicals
                                                                                                                eCO2           eCO2

                                                     MMBtu          kg          kg       kg       kg            Short         Metric
                                                                                                                Tons          Tonnes

Purchased Electricity                                                                                                          1,262
                                                     146,726     1,261,663      0        0                 1,391
Purchased
Steam/Chilled                                                                                                                    -
                                                                                                           -
Water                                                     -          -           -        -
Stationary Sources                                                                                                            12,156
                                                     229,599     12,120,849    1,211     24                13,399
                                                                                                                              12,156
                        Non Co-Gen                   229,599     12,120,849    1,211     24                13,399
                        Co-Gen Electric                                                                                          -
                                                          -          -           -        -                -
                        Co-Gen Steam                                                                                             -
                                                          -          -           -        -                -
Transport Total                                                                                                                5,599
                                                        50,373   5,528,836     505       199               6,172
                        University Fleet                                                                                        634
                                                        8,799     620,229      112       39                699
                        Student Commuters                                                                                      1,621
                                                        22,533   1,581,888     316       109               1,787
                        Faculty/Staff
                                                                                                                                236
                        Commuters                       3,281     230,350       46       16                260
                        Air Travel                                                                                             3,107
                                                        15,760   3,096,369      30       35                3,425
Agriculture Total                                                                                                               15
                                                          -          -           -       52                17
Solid Waste                                                                                                                     891
                                                          -          -        38,739      -                982
Refrigeration                                                                                          -                        211
                                                                                                           233

Total                                                426,697     18,911,348   40,455     275       -           22,194         20,135

Offsets                                                                                                         (16)           (15)
                        'Green' Electric Credits                                                                  -              -
                        Composting                                                                              (16)           (15)
                        Forest Preservation                                                                       -              -


Net Emissions
                                                                                                           22,178            20,120




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