Differentiated Instruction - PowerPoint 1 by N4G0n88

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           One Size Doesn’t Fit All

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The biggest mistake of the past
 centuries in teaching has been to
 treat all children as if they were
 variants of the same individual and
 thus to feel justified in teaching
 them all the same subjects in the
 same way.          -Howard Gardner

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Summer Vacation Survey
On a scale of 1-4, hold up the number of fingers
  that most closely identifies you.

    For vacation this summer, I traveled:
    4: abroad
    3: to another state
    2: somewhere in LA
    1: I left the house at least once.
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     My summer reading
4: 20+ books

3: 5-20 books

2: 1-4 books

1: People, Southern
  Living, or other

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         Physical Fitness
4: I learned a new sport,
   completed a triathlon,
   or jogged daily.
3: I was on a tennis or
   volleyball team and
2: I played A round of
   golf or another game.
1: Are you kidding? I
   floated in a pool!

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• Differentiated instruction is teaching
  with student variance in mind. It
  means starting where the kids are
  rather than adopting a standardized
  approach to teaching that seems to
  presume that all learners of a given
  age or grade are essentially alike. Thus
  differentiated instruction is
  “responsive” teaching rather than
  “one-size-fits-all” teaching.

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       Want it simpler?

• DI is fitting the lesson to the
  student and not the student to the

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   Carol Ann Tomlinson
• How we’re alike makes us human
• How we’re different makes us
• Goals for all:

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Think back….

Remember the one
room school house?

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Children who learn differently
 need to be taught differently.

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              DI is not…….
• DI is NOT chaotic, individualized
  instruction with fragmented lessons
• DI is NOT giving students more work
• DI does NOT assume a separate
  entry level for each student
• DI is NOT only for the stronger or
  weaker learners

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            Instruction IS:
•   Proactive
•   Qualitative
•   Student centered
•   A blend of varying sizes of learning groups
•   Multiple options
             »For taking in information
             »For making sense of ideas
             »For expressing what we learn

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 1. All students have
    the opportunity to      4. Guide on the Side
    explore and apply the   rather than Sage on
    key concepts and        the Stage
    principles through a
    variety of avenues
    and approaches.
 2. On-going
    assessment of
    student readiness
    and growth
 3. Flexible grouping
    consistently used

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  What is the theoretical/research background
         for this instructional method?

• Classrooms are becoming more academically

• Psychologists tell us that a student learns only
  when a task is a little too hard for that
  student. (zone of proximal development)

• Considering the diverse classroom, it is unlikely
  that a teacher will be consistently able to
  develop one-size-fits-all learning experiences
  that are in the zones of proximal development
  of all students in a particular class.
• It is likely that male and female learning
  patterns and preferences vary.

• Culture has an important bearing on how
  individuals learn.

• Student motivation and task persistence
  increase when students can work with
  topics that are of personal interest.

• Attention to a student's preferred mode
  of learning or thinking promotes improved
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                        emotion   attention
• Brain-based

• Changing

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• Content - subject matter students need
      to master and materials used in
      learning based on readiness and
• Process – sense making activities based on
      learning profile
• Product - student created tangible
      outcomes to demonstrate
      mastery based on interest and
      learning profile
• Environment – operation and tone of classroom,
      mood and respect

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     How Does DI Work?
                 Challenged           Average               Gifted

 Content         Three crucial    All aspects of the    In-depth study
                    points               topic
                Three concepts

 Process        Direct instruction Modeling                  Minimal
               of each step in the Independent work      instruction with
               research process Review and             probing questions
                                   practice             for independent
  Product       Group paper of     Five page paper       Power point
                  one page                             presentation with
                                                         graphics and
            RHYTHM of DI
1.   Rhythm of class                   6. Review of key ideas
     starts large & moves                  and concepts through
     to smaller & back                     sharing
2.   Exploration of topic              7. Small group apply key
3.   Study by readiness                    principles
     and learning styles               8. Introduce a skill
4.   Share information                 9. Self-selected
     and pose questions                    interest areas
5.   Assigned tasks                    10. Whole class listens

           Whole class   Small group        Whole class   Individual/group….

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• Teachers (& students)
  accept & respect
  uniqueness of each
• On-going diagnostic
• Learning tasks planned
  & adjusted based on
  assessment data

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• is a process that improves the match
  between the learner’s unique

  –   Prior knowledge
  –   Cognitive level
  –   Learning style
  –   Motivation and affect
  –   Strength or interest

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•   K-W-L Charts     •   Performances
•   Journals         •   Conferences
•   Lists, Surveys   •   Concept Maps
•   Products         •   Learning Style
•   Misconception        Inventories

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• Ask students to describe •   Gives the teacher an
  processes, examples and      opportunity for a
  reflections related to a     One-On-One
  curricular objective         interchange with each
• Tell me what you know        student
• What is the purpose of…?

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•Tell me all the words that
come to mind when I say…

•List the attributes of…

•Name several types of…

•Give examples of …

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• Create a bar graph using data from …

• Show me your latest … report

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• Provide sample problems with errors in
• Students determine why solution incorrect
• Teacher deduce degree of understanding
  or area for instruction

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             Word Bank: heat, sun, hot gas, space, night,
day          constellation, day

            sun             Star                space


      night       constellation
                                                            hot gas

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       Performances or
• Explain how you found the answer
• Import a graphic for…
• Use a graphing calculator to plot an
• Read to me
• Complete a pretest (post-test)

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       Classroom Ideas- Role-Playing,
          Skits and, Mock Debates
• Differentiate roles so all can participate. Make sure that
  there are different kinds of roles (speaking and non-
  speaking) and activities with different levels of
  complexity (creating the "set," making on-the-spot
  costumes, holding up cue cards).

• For some activities, some students may need
  worksheets to organize their thoughts before

• Roles may be broken up so they can be performed by
  more than one student. For example students can debate
  issues in pairs or teams.

•          If students have problems remembering lines or
•        reading from a script, allow them to improvise.
                Ideas- Reading
• Complex material can be read in pairs or small groups.

• Have students read small pieces, assign small groups one
  paragraph to read and paraphrase for class.

• Enlarge text for vision impaired.

• Students can pair-up to read materials out loud.

• Have students "turn and talk" after reading each
  paragraph. Have them share their interpretations of the

•         Let students highlight historical documents and
          other materials.
    Ideas- Group Discussions
• Before breaking into small groups, the teacher can identify central
  points of the lesson/reading. Discussion prompts can be given.

• Prior to small group discussions, the teacher can model different
  discussion strategies (e.g. questioning, active listening).

• Encourage roles within small groups (e.g. recorder, discussion

• Give groups a short list of questions to discuss during their

•        If some students do not speak or have limited speech, the
    group can conduct some of the discussion non-verbally. Students
    can draw some of their thoughts on butcher paper, for instance. Or
    students can record their responses on paper and the individual
    needing communication support can point to the ideas they find
    most interesting.
                  Ideas- Writing
•   Cooperative writing assignments: everyone adds one sentence to a

•   Give students options; allow them to use pencil/paper, computer, or even a
    typewriter. Some students may need a scribe.

•   Teachers might give students a template or model to follow.

•   Students can be paired to complete in-class writing assignments.

•   Give pencil grips or markers to students who cannot hold a pencil easily.

•   Allow students to draw pictures or use magazine photos instead of written

•   Have students tell instead of show- let them verbalize thoughts instead of
    writing them.

•               Give students more time to work; share the writing assignment
•           with them ahead of time or give a head start by writing the first
•           few sentences for them.
             Ideas- General
• Allow students to design task/grading criteria sometimes.
• Develop learning contracts with students who may want to
  do more complex or slightly different work on a given topic.
• For Internet exercises, some students might need exact
  directions for searching the web (e.g., web addresses or
  search engines).
• For extra credit: web searches; interview community
  experts; or examine literature and reference material
• Give choices during lessons (e.g., work alone, with a partner,
  sit in your desk or on the floor, read the document or listen
  to it on tape).
• Give students many ways to understand the content of the
  documents--paraphrase, act it out, or interview each
  other to learn how different people interpret the words.
    Testing (both teachers and
     other support personnel)
• Modifying testing should not interfere with the
  integrity of the assessment.
• Modifications
• Tests read
• Verbal tests
• Shortened tests
• Literal levels of questioning
• More frequent tests
• Extended time for test completion
• Scribe for written responses
• Quiet place for testing
• IEP goal achievement as a basis of testing
• Course project rather than a written test
• Development of an instructional packet with a variety
  of activities to demonstrate knowledge
     Carousel Review
              • Each group moves to
                one chart
              • Group records items
                learned on chart
              • At signal, group moves
                clockwise to next
                chart with pen and
                records comments
              • Continue still all
                groups at all charts
              • Take 5 to wander
                among charts
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      PROCESS (Teaching)

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          LOW PREP                     HIGH PREP
•    Flexible seating         •   Anchor activities
•    Four corners             •   Complex instruction
•    Homework options         •   Cooperative learning
•    Informal flexible        •   Cubing
     grouping                 •   Curriculum compacting
•    Jigsaw                   •   Extension menus
•    Multi-level materials    •   Formal flexible grouping
•    Numbered heads           •   Independent learning
     together                     contracts
•    Student choice           •   Lit circles
•    Think/pair/share         •   Orbital studies
•    Varied graphic           •   Stations/centers
     organizers               •   Tiered assignments
•    Varied journal prompts

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• Group students to best facilitate
• Match task to student readiness, interest,
  learning profile
• Assess ability of students to read text
  and other materials
• Random or purposeful assignment to
  groups by teacher, student, or chance

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        Flexible grouping (cont.)
Rationale for use             Guidelines for use
• Allows for varying time     • Ensure that students can
  needs of students              work with like and unlike
• Allows for collaborative       peers
  and independent work        • Teacher assigns by
• Gives students a voice         readiness based on pre-
• Allows for wide range of       assessment
  interactions                • Teacher assigns when
• Keeps students from being      desirable for maximum
  “pegged” as advanced or        peer interaction
  struggling                  • Students select by
• Keeps students from            interest
  always being a helper or    • Teach & reinforce how to
  being helped                   work in groups

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               AKA: “Spare Time”

• Purpose: To provide meaningful work for students when they
  finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the
  class or when they are having difficulty with a task and are
  awaiting help from the teacher

• Anchor Activities: Can be used in any content area and/or
  across content areas; can be whole class assignments or
  individual assignments; can be tiered to meet needs of
  different readiness levels of the student

• Prerequisites for using anchor activities: Expectations are
  clear to the students; students are held accountable for on-
  task behavior and/or task completion
• http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/schools/hooverms/technology/a

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                  Anchor Activity Bingo –
                   Elementary task card
      B              I             N               G               O
Learning          Math        Sketch the     Use craft      Write a an
center            problem     seedling and   supplies to    acrostic for
                  of the      date it        make a         each spelling
                  day                        puppet         word
Write a funny     Write in    Read for 15    Figure out     Draw a picture
TV ad with        your        minutes        how much       of the clouds in
your spelling     journal                    your outfit    the sky & date
words                                        cost           it
Put all the       Make a      Write a       Find out        Find out how
books in ABC      greeting    letter to the about a         much money the
order by          card        lunch ladies famous           school spends on
author                                      scientist       milk
Draw pictures     Build a     How many       Fill in your   Organize your
for a book        toothpick   ways to do a   reading log    desk & cubby
                  bridge      census?
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  Anchor Activities –
• Task cards with written
• Clarify behavioral
• Give due dates
• Options:
   –   reading,
   –   journaling,
   –   skill practice,
   –   portfolio,
   –   web exploration,
   –   Independent investigations,

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• Students explore ideas that value their
  readiness level by building on prior
• Students use varied approaches to explore
  essential ideas
• Rubrics are used to assess tiered
  lessons/curriculum ladders that are
• http://ideanet.doe.state.in.us/exceptional
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    Don’t Be Afraid to
• Don’t forget that the
  internet is an excellent
  source for DI activities,
  anchor activities, extension
  exercises, etc.

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There is always a way to do
better …… Find it!
           ~ Thomas Edison

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