Population Power Point

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					   PEOPLE
 EVERYWHERE

Scholarship Geography:
  PowerPoint Course.
    World Population Growth

Growth over time:
•   In earlier times            INCREASE IN THE WORLD’S POPULATION AND
    population grew more        THE TIME TAKEN TO ADD ANOTHER BILLION.
    slowly than today. It                  109 INCREASE IN
    took the entire history     YEAR.                        YEARS TAKEN
                                        POPULATION GROWTH.
    of the human race more
                                1830          1 billion
    than 4 million years to
    reach 1 billion in 1830.    1930          2 billion          100

•   Much faster growth over     1960          3 billion           30
    the last two centuries      1975          4 billion           15
    resulted in the world’s
    population reaching 6       1987          5 billion           12
    billion in 1999.
                                1999          6 billion           12
•   However, the rate of
    population growth is
    slowing down.               The table above shows the time taken for
                               the population to increase by increments of
                                               one billion.
World Population Growth
The extent of population growth:
•   World population should reach 10 billion by 2080 and then
    remain fairly stable.
•   Population growth is much higher in LEDCs than MEDCs.


                  WORLD POPULATION GROWTH (1750-2050)
    World Population Growth

Continental population growth:
                                       POPULATION SIZE BY RANK AND COUNTRY
•   The continent with the fastest                     (2004)
    rate of growth is Africa.
                                                                  POPULATION
                                     RANK.     COUNTRY.
•   Europe has the slowest rate of                              (MILLIONS – 106)
    growth. Without immigration       1          China.              1,300
    from other continents the         2           India.             1,087
    population would be falling.
                                      3       United States.          294
Division of world population:         4        Indonesia.             219
                                      5          Brazil.              179
•   China and India together
                                      6         Pakistan.             159
    account for more than one-
    third of the world’s              7          Russia.              144
    population.                       8        Bangladesh.            141
                                      9          Nigeria.             137
                                      10         Japan.               128
                                      The table above shows the contrasting
                                      sizes of population by country in 2004.
World Population Growth
The extent of population growth:
•   World population should reach 10 billion by 2080 and then
    remain fairly stable.
•   Population growth is much higher in LEDCs than MEDCs.


                  WORLD POPULATION GROWTH (1750-2050)
    Population Distribution &
    Density
Population density:                  DOT MAP ILLUSTRATING WORLD POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

•   This is the number of people
    per square kilometre.
Densely populated.
•   Many people live in some
    parts of the world. These
    areas are densely populated.
Sparsely populated.
•   Few people live in other parts
    of the world. These areas are
    sparsely populated.
                                       Population distribution describes the way
                                     people are spread out in a country or region.
Population Distribution &
Density
Examples of population density:
•   In the Sahara desert there is less         FLAT LOW LYING AREA
    than 1 person per square
    kilometre.
•   Flat, low-lying and fertile regions
    tend to be densely populated.
•   The Netherlands for example has
    the highest population density in
    Europe and Bangladesh has the
    highest density in Asia.
Population density relationship:
                                          Low lying and fertile region.
•   Population density rises when the
    population increases.
    Population Distribution &
    Density
Difficult or hostile environments:
•   Where possible people have avoided living in
    difficult or hostile areas.
•   Examples of hostile areas are deserts,         HOSTILE ENVIRONMENT – MOUNTAIN
    mountain ranges, rain forests and very cold             RANGES/ DESERT
    regions.
•   Antarctica, the most hostile environment in
    the world has no permanent residents.

     DIFFICULT ENVIRONMENT – COASTAL AREA




                                                    Oasis settlement in Tunisia.
    Population Change

Birth/ death rate definition:
•   The birth rate is the number of     BIRTH RATE 2004
    births per 1000 population per
    year.
•   The death rate is the number of
    deaths per 1000 population per
    year.
Rate of natural change:
•   The rate of natural change is the
    difference between the birth
    rate and the death rate.
                                            POPULATION
Demographic transition (population change):

•   The demographic transition model below shows how
    populations change over time. All countries started at Stage 1.
•   Most countries have followed this pattern.
•   The UK and other MEDCs are mainly in Stage 4 of the model.
•   However, some countries are now in Stage 5. This is when the
    death rate is higher than the birth rate.

                                       THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL



                                     High
         Birth and death rates




                                            Stage    Stage
                                 Moderate     1        2
                                                                    Stage
                                                                      3
                                                                            Stage
                                     Low                                      4




                                                             Time
                                          POPULATION
Demographic transition – continued:
                                         THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL



                                       High
           Birth and death rates




                                              Stage    Stage
                                   Moderate     1        2
                                                                      Stage
                                                                        3
                                                                              Stage
                                       Low                                      4




                                                               Time


•   Stage 5 occurs when a large number of families have only one child,
    as in Spain and Italy.
•   The poorer LEDCs, for example most of Africa, are in Stage 2.
•   The more advanced LEDCs such as Brazil and China are in Stage 3.
•   Countries move from Stage 2 to Stage 3 as more and more people
    use contraception.
    POPULATION STRUCTURE
Population pyramids:

•   Population structure is the make-up of the population of a
    country.
•   Age and sex are the most important aspects of population
    structure.
•   The age and sex of a country’s population can be shown by
    a population pyramid as shown below.

         Male.         POPULATION PYRAMID
                                                    Female.




                         Population in millions.
                                                           Source: US Census
    POPULATION STRUCTURE
Population pyramids continued:

•   The male population is shown on the left of the pyramid.
•   The female population is shown on the right.
•   Each bar represents a five year age group.
•   Other aspects of population structure are race, language and
    religion.

         Male.         POPULATION PYRAMID
                                                   Female.




                         Population in millions.
                                                          Source: US Census
     POPULATION STRUCTURE
LEDC/ MEDC variance:

•   The population pyramids     Male.   UNITED KINGDOM 2000 (MEDC)    Female.
    of LEDCs have a wide
    base due to high birth
    rates.
•   Population pyramids of
    MEDCs have a narrow
    base because of low
    birth rates.
•   Life expectancy in LEDCs
                                           KENYA 2000 (LEDC)
    is lower than in MEDCs.
•   So population pyramids
    are narrow at the top for
    LEDCs and wider at the
    top for MEDCs.




                                            Population in millions.   Source: US Census
Migration
Definition of migration:

•   Migration is the movement of people across a national or
    international boundary.
•   The United Nations defines it as a ‘permanent’ change of
    residence lasting more than one year.
Migration occurrence:

•   Migration has occurred throughout the history of humankind.
•   The world’s population is more mobile than ever before because
    of advances in and the reduced cost of transport and
    communication.
•   One in every 35 people lives outside the country of their birth.
                       Migration
Factors prompting migration:
Push factors.
                                               MIGRATION PUSH FACTOR
•   These are poor conditions where
    people live which encourage or
    force them to leave.
Pull factors.
•   In contrast to push factors, these
    are good conditions at a place
    people are thinking of moving to.
Intervening obstacles.
•   These are the difficulties that
    people face when they attempt to
    migrate.
                                         People living in poor conditions.
                         MIGRATION
     MIGRATION
Migrations can be classed
as either:
                                     TOP DESTINATIONS OF REMITTANCES
1.   Forced.                                    $Bn (2001)
2.   Voluntary.
Labour related migration:
•    Much recent migration has
     been ‘labour-related’ –
     people moving to find
     work.
Remittances.
•    This is the money sent
     home to their families by
     migrants working in
     another region or country.
      LONDON: A MIGRANT CITY

Ethnic groups and London:
                                     ETHNIC GROUP DIVISION WITHIN LONDON
•   London is the most
    multiracial city in Europe, if
    not the world.
•   Within the UK the highest %
    of most ethnic groups can
    be found in one London
    borough or another.
•   Over 200 languages are
    spoken in London.
LONDON: A MIGRANT CITY
               POPULATION INFLOW PER 1,000 BY CITY




  London is the destination for most of Britain’s 185,000 new
                     immigrants each year.
    LONDON: A MIGRANT CITY

Ethnic villages:

•   Immigrants tend to concentrate in certain areas known as
    ‘ethnic villages’.
•   Most ‘ethnic villages’, but not all, are in inner London.

      ETHNIC VILLAGE IN LONDON                   ETHNIC VILLAGE IN LONDON




                   .                                            .
    LONDON: A MIGRANT CITY
Examples of ethnic population division in London:
•   Tower Hamlets has the largest Bangladeshi population.
•   Harrow has the largest Hindu population.
•   Southwark has the largest African population.
•   Lewisham has the largest population from the Caribbean.

     ETHNIC VILLAGE IN LONDON                  ETHNIC VILLAGE IN LONDON
Question 1
Study the two images below.




   Write an essay discussing the message that these images are
    portraying.
Question 2
   Study the two graphs below.
Male.       UNITED KINGDOM 2000 (MEDC)    Female.

                                                    a. Compare and contrast
                                                       the two pyramid
                                                       graphs.
                                                    b. Explain the bulging mid
                                                       section of the UK
                                                       graph in comparison to
               KENYA 2000 (LEDC)                       the Kenyan graph.
                                                    c. What issues have led
                                                       to a growth in the UK
                                                       population?




                Population in millions.

				
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posted:8/7/2012
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