Please stand by for realtime captions >> THIS IS JONATHAN by XXK7mr


									Please stand by for realtime captions >> THIS IS JONATHAN. I AM ENJOYING   THE

Thank you to the three of you. Please let us know if everyone sounded okay. If
you have any audio issues, please let us know in the chat window. We will
begin the seminar and about seven minutes.

Thank you. Stay tuned. >> Hello, everyone. Thank you for joining us today for
the ELI seminar. I am Veronica [last name indiscernible], associate director.
We are pleased to present our speakers, Cyndi Rowland Jarod Smith and
Jonathan Whiting.

Our presenters slides are now showing in the presentation window which is the
largest. As we move through the presentation, the slides will advance. The
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Finally, if you run into any technical problems, send a private message to
EDUCAUSE help in the chat window to the left. You will also notice a button
labeled full screen in the upper right-hand corner. If you click on that,
your presentation window will be expanded so that you can see the content
more clearly. We will be doing some screen share throughout the presentation
today. So, I recommend going to the full screen mode of those times. Once the
screen shares have ended, go back to the regular viewing mode. Today, let's
turn to the seminar -- make it sure that everyone has access is critical. When
a person has an individual disability, the access may depend what you do as a
supervisor or an administrator. Today, we will explore different levels of
accessibility practices necessary at an institution. As the faculty and staff
level, the presenters will cover what you can do what you pretend you to
create and evaluate the accessibility of Web content. This might include
files uploaded into a learning management system as well as HP mail content
created locally or procure for your use. An administrative level, the
presenters will discuss the importance of enterprisewide Web accessibility and
tools available to aid an institution in the I toward the continuous
improvement that is a focus of regional accreditation entities.

We are fortunate to take to have with us three experts in the area of Web
accessibility -- first, Cyndi Rowland, the associate director at Utah State
University. This is a part of the national network of university centers of
excellence and disability research service and education. The focus of her
work and expertise is accessibility information communication technology. She
direct the national Center on disability and access to education. These are
both important resources. She has engaged in research and tool development and
education as well as policy and standards were throughout her projects at
national and international levels. We also have Jonathan Whiting, a director
of training at an organization based at the center for persons with
disabilities at Utah State. He is also currently involved in project goals as
lead step to develop a blueprint for institutional adoption of Web

As an instructional designer, he has published dozens of articles and
tutorials and instructional resources and in addition to training practitioners
around the country he has also provided accessibility evaluation and reports
for several higher education institutions.

Finally, we have Jarod Smith, the associate director. He is a presenter and
trainer and has prided accessibility training to thousands of developers
throughout the world. With a degree in marketing and business education and a
Masters in instructional technology and over 13 years experience. He brings a
wealth of knowledge and experience that will be used to help others create
and maintain highly accessible Web content. Thank you to the three of you.
Cyndi, Welcome. Please begin.

Thank you. We are pleased, the three of us, to have an opportunity to share
the seminar with everyone today. As you can imagine, with many years of
experience that we have had in Web accessibility, this is a deep passion for
us. We hope to be able to share some of what it really takes to make Web
accessibility a reality at your institution with an understanding that
everybody has a role to play in the solution. I would even say the converse -
- Web accessibility to content for student and faculty and staff with

As we get started, I have one initial question. We are interested always in
knowing what people's familiarity is with Web accessibility as we get started.
We are prepared a lot of content, but this may help us as well to customize
some of the comments. If you would go to the pool and -- the poll -- Mark
your familiarity of the topic. If it is new, if it is not new but I don't
know how doing Cajun accessibility is part of my work, or if I am very
familiar and make sure all my content is accessible. These are the people that
I say -- you should be doing these presentations.

It looks like some people are chiming in. About two thirds of you are
familiar with the topic, but could really use some hands-on stuff. We have a
few people for which this is new. What we are going to do -- I will close this
now -- I will share with you the focus for today. We want to make sure that we
are narrowing the topic of Web accessibility and talk about its application
within a higher education context. This is what the three of us will be doing.
But, we want to talk specifically about how it is linked to the professional
practices that everyone is involved in. Whether you are an administrator,
technical staff such as a web developer, or a content creator. I think of
faculty and staff as the people that create PowerPoint and Word documents and
YouTube videos -- things that end up being uploaded onto the web. These are
the things that we will talk about. We have divided it up so that each of us
is taking a shot at that.

I will start with the system level -- administrator piece. I want to know
four people that some of this may be a review if you are already familiar with
Web accessibility. Bear with me as I go through a week overview -- a quick
overview. Then, I will get to what it is at a system level people in
administration can be doing to advance the cause of Web accessibility on their
I want to mention to everybody that we have several resources that we will
mention today. You may want to launch a window in your browser and pull up
these resources so that you can see that things are that we have compiled for
today's presentation.

Will get started in accessibility in higher education. Of course, we need to
ask a question -- why is there a focus on this? Everyone understands that
there is an important for accessibility in the environment these days. There
is no question that the physical accommodations that were made as a result of
the ADA in the US in the 90s were a boon for all people, not just to include
people with disabilities, but they are also a part of the landscape that helps
the rest of us. As someone who is schlepping field luggage -- I am happy to
see those cutouts. I have occasion to go to a nosy -- a noisy sports bar -- I
am thrilled when there is closed captioning on the TV. So, there are a lot of
things that we have done already in our environment that advantages people
with disabilities but the rest of us as well. When we think about higher
education, we need to remember that for many of the campuses, we have an open
access mandate. In other words, for the students that meet the minimum
criteria, they can come. We need to make sure that we are not retained their
ability to participate. The other thing is that technology has exploded
across education and not just for students. Also for faculty and staff. We are
really talking about all three of those groups and I have a question that
comes up with that. As you think about folks that have disabilities that your
own institution, for whom do you see that Internet access is an issue? If you
see it for all three groups, go ahead and apply to all three. For some folks,
occasionally, we will visit with people that say -- we just don't have
students with disabilities that we need to work with, but we have faculty and
staff. Or a subversive.

It looks like across all three categories -- just about everybody is
recognizing that they have issues for Internet access across all of those.

 Thank you. >> I want to make sure that everyone is on the same page and tunes
of who we are talking about -- who it is that is affected. Whether it is
student, faculty, or staff vendors, we are talking about people with vision
problems, people are people that are extraordinarily hard hearing or deaf, or
people with high motor difficulties such that they are unable to use a
traditional mouse and keyboard and will need alternative access. For example,
switches to get into and navigate around the web.

Individuals that have cognitive limitations -- a developmental disability
such as Down's syndrome or a learning disability, or whether we are talking
about a traumatic injury or a degenerative disease. There are many people that
come onto the campuses that have difficulties with things like distractibility
and things like making sure that they can really receive the content.
Certainly, there are some people in the population that have a specific type
of seizure disorder -- photo epilepsy where the content could induce seizure
in. We want to avoid this. Then, the omniscience of the above. A lot of people
forget that there is actually a fairly high incidence of people with both
vision and hearing problems. So, while there may not be a lot of people that
are classically deaf/bind, there could be people with other problems. We do
get combinations. As we age, these disability types are added to and
something that is at issue and with lifelong learning, this is something that
we need to consider as well.
The next piece -- I want to find out -- a quick poll -- how many of you have
heard how it is that an individual who is blind accesses content? How many
have heard of screen reader?

Let me wait -- I need to be patient. I have an example of that -- if
everyone has listened to this and understand how screen readers pick up the
content, it doesn't make sense to go through this. It looks like it is
something that we do not need.

I will go ahead and skip that example -- for Hanukkah, I know it was pre-
loaded -- but it may not be something that we need to do at this point in

If anyone would like this example, please e-mail me and I can send you the
link. It is a lovely example that was pulled together by the national
Federation of the blind. They allow the access. >> But, we will move now.
You just saved 6 minutes. This is probably good.

I am seeing in the chat that there are some people that want to see it
anyway. For those of you that are aware of the screen reader, you will have
another opportunity. Veronica, we will queue this up. You may want to view
this had full screen because you are going to listen to someone talking --
this is a person who is blind at -- and his experience. You will hear his
screen reader. Then, what you will see is occasionally the mouse moving around
on the screen and a selection of the radio button or typing in a form

Cyndi, Before we go to that -- some people are having a hard time seeing the
pods. We want to encourage everyone to refresh your screen. You can do that or
you can exit out and reenter using the URL showing in the chat pod. 99% of the
time, this will address the issue. When we have the polls come up, we put
them up over the PowerPoint slide so you can have a second to dissipate in the
polls. Then, we close the pool so the presenter can continue. You will see
this on and off throughout the presentation. >>

This is about 10 minutes. I will probably not let it go -- we will see. I     may
chime in and stop it after about six minutes.

We can   get started.

I am pulling it up now. >> We are bringing the video back. >> [captioner
has low volume for video - indiscernible - standing by] >> This is a good
place This is a Good Place, Veronica, to stop. What I can tell you is that
the Google applications have been an issue for campuses because there has
been wide adoption and their been significant accessibility problems with the
Google applications. At the same time, I can also say that Google is working
to get a number of problems fixed. One of the reasons I didn't want to display
that particular part of the example is that changes are happening with such a
high degree of regularity that I did not feel it was a fair representation of
where the accessibility is, but what I can tell a group of the right now is
that there continue to be problems. If any of your campuses are currently
using Google applications, just know that it will not be fully accessible to
you are student and faculty and staff with disabilities.

For Hanukkah, --   Veronica    -- playing -- bring my   slides backup.

I do as well. We are working    on that.
That's fine.

I am going to go ahead and talk ahead of my slides. We will get things caught
up. The next thing I want to address is -- at an institutional level -- when
you think about your institution Web presence for your institutional
architecture, you have to ask yourself -- what is it that needs to be
accessible? It is actually a simple answer. The answer is -- the entire
architecture of your web presence.

So, when you think through what it is that the constituents on your campus
need to have, for example registration, fees, textbooks, classes,
assessments, etc. -- there are a lot of the functions that students engage
in. All of these functions need to be accessible. If you are a staff or
faculty member -- if you are on the faculty, you need to be able to teach and
you need to be able to do research through your library and students to as
well. This includes staff members. You need to -- before you are go to your
staff, you need to be able to go through the HR process on the campus to be
higher. You may need to go through some web tased training -- Web based
training required. Think about the web based bits at our institution that
require us to go through as employee's? All of these things would need to be
accessible as well.

The social parts of the campus, too. We would want to say that the only people
that get access to the web based newspaper on the campus are people who are
able-bodied. The only people who are -- that can participate in some of the
electronic social aspects of our campus are people that are able-bodied. So,
as you think through all of the things that people do on your campus, you want
to make sure that all of these things are fully accessible to everybody.

And, everyone for a while there are questions as to whether -- to student
created pages -- do they need to be accessible? That would be an interesting
discussion. I am happy to discuss this at the Q&A time.

I will keep moving ahead. I am thinking there is less of a reason to go
through why accessibility is critical in higher education than I had planned.
It seems like this audience has a little more grasp on understanding the
rationale. The content is there. I know that EDUCAUSE   will host the slides
and all the material for you. There will be additional materials on the
slides -- you can't see it right now -- but I will talk about this.

There are generally three reasons       --    we just

 Cyndi, We just reload your       slides -- can everyone see them?

I had to exit    out and come     back in.

So, should I close Adobe       connect exit

Am I on the correct slide --       number 11?

I don't have    the numbers.

Is it called -- why    accessibility --

Is there a way for me to see       the slide?
If you exit out and come back       in, you should be able to see them.   That goes
for everyone in the audience.

Give us 30 seconds to    do that.

We will stand by in case you    need help.

 All right. >> There are always technical issues on all webinars. It just is
what it is. I am always pleased that people have patience with technology.
>> You should see me about now.

Yes, we just brought    you back.

There are three classic reasons why you need to be thinking about excess
ability. The first one is that it is the right thing for your institution. For
many of you, you have statements about ethics that are central and core to
what it is you want to do as an institution. And as educators. Certainly, the
next one is that it is the smart thing to do. If you look at your
institutional mission statement, ways in which you would want to present
yourselves. As you look at expanding out to new technologies using mobile
technologies as a learning space and other emerging technologies, there is a
greater degree of compatibility when you are -- when you're Web content is
accessible. The fact is that although our focus is on fairness to all people
including people with disabilities, don't forget that this is good for
everyone that you have. Typical learners benefit from Web content that is
accessible. One example might be that if you have your video content
captioned, now you have a text element that is searchable. It is content that
can be indexed by Google. There are other ways in which adding in
accessibility becomes a very powerful thing for all of your users.

Also, it makes for sound fiscal policy. You would not build a house and then
later say -- we really want to have a basement. Clearly, this will incur more
costs than just designing architectural plans for a house that include a
basement. You are losing some efficiencies if the only way that you are can
doing with accessibility is this way. It's a good return on the investment.

The last of the traditional rationale is the last which is that it is the law.
We have got Web accessibility as a part of the rehabilitation act in section
504 in all institutions. It is codified for federal agencies in section 508.
This is an advantage to us because there are vendors that now realize that
they need to make their goods and services accessible to the federal
government. So, accessible goods and services are then available to us. While
the ADA was written before the word Internet was in use, so it doesn't appear
in that statute, even the Department of Justice is on record and says that
this could or would be a discriminatory activity if the Web content is in one
of the places of public accommodations. Education happens to be one of those

Some states -- depending on where you are -- have made        determinations that
state levels will be covered. By the way, I will throw        this out -- if you are
in one of those states, it may be easier to help get a        little bit of money
from your legislature if you are trying to do a massive       system change effort
since they were the ones that put this into statute to        begin with.

Of course, we are all familiar with the mandates at the state and federal
level. It's not a perfect fit, but sometimes it's worth making the effort.
We have a number of international laws -- the United nations -- that is the
acronym. It has been ratified in nearly 100 countries. So, to the extent that
some of your distance learning is being exported to other countries, it is
important to know that there are laws in countries where it would be an
advantage for you to be accessible if you are reaching out in an
international context.

The short of all of this legal stuff is all it in one of these for provisions
-- if you're Web content is not accessible out of the box basically as it is
developed or procured, there is an issue of timeliness. Getting the right
content to individual with a disability. So, the courts have been very clear
that you can't always do things after the fact. People did lose important
time. In the area of just-in-time learning, asking a student to wait a few
days while you get content available for them is being viewed as less and
less accessible. There is an issue about whether the accommodations that can
be provided after the fact really can provide effective communication. So, you
may be able to provide the same content on a certain page, a what about the
relative links that are also on that page. If an individual with a disability
can't navigate around this, but everyone else in the class can, can you really
say that they are experiencing the same level of learning and connected
learning as their nondisabled peers? Certainly, we have issues in the courts
right now around the reasonableness of accommodations. There are some
institutions that have provided the accommodation of having a nondisabled
individual said with the person with the disability to read on to ensure
navigate for them. Fewer people with disabilities are finding that to be
something that is eligible for them.

Their is a affirmative obligation to plan in advance for   auxiliary services. I
believe that my next slide -- talks about that.

I just want to remind everybody that in the last few years, there has been a
lot of inertia in the legal aspect. As of last year, the Department of Justice
put out an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking to clarify the whole notion
of Web accessibility within the ADA. They sought comment and feedback. They
indicated that they are going to be -- we are all going to hear more in the
coming year in 2013. Two years ago, you may recall that the White House sent
a letter to every single college and university president in the country.
That is an amazing teacher to think about in and of itself. The gist of it was
-- a reminder to the presidents -- it's not acceptable for universities to
be using new technologies if the technologies are not available to all the
students. In other words, students with disabilities. So, we have clear and
consistent messages going out. We also have the increasing climate of
litigation. I put some things on this slide -- 9 law schools -- there is a
suit pending because the admissions program is not accessible. So, if I were
someone with a disability I would be to call and ask for an accommodation on
the admissions process. This is essentially meet self disclosing the presence
of a disability during admissions. This is against federal law. The notion
that you have to self disclose before employment or an admission.

Institution using a Google application -- I put some more of those there. And
other institutions that have been under the gun. What is happening in higher
education in terms of the litigious nature of this topic is really just a
shadow of what is happening across the country. You've got a lot of energy
right now in the private sector as well on accessibility. There are some
examples here as well.
Here is some of the language used. These are things that -- if you are in a
post secondary setting, you have an affirmative obligation. You are violating
your obligation under the ADA act if you are only planning to have
accommodations for Web content rather than building it essentially out of the
box. This is an important concept that is continually repeated.

A lot of people say -- it's awfully hard to do this. Isn't there   a provision
that there is an undue burden here?

 Unfortunately, the documentation of this is probably a burden in and of
itself. If you were to claim that making a certain thing is to obligated for
our department to accomplish, and a legal level, they do not look at the
legal sources -- they do not look at the resources available. Not to your
department or your college. They don't even look at the resources available at
your university. They would look at the resources available within your
system of higher education. So, in Utah they would look at -- is fixing XYZ
an undue burden looking at the resources that are available to the Board of
Regents in the state of Utah? It is a different threshold that needs to be

At this point, I want to do a cold. We have gone through the rationale -- why
you want to do accessibility -- it is the right thing to do, the smart thing
to do and the law. But, I wonder -- if you think about your own institution,
which argument do you think will be the strongest? One of the reasons I ask
this is that I always feel a little bit add and perhaps a little apologetic
including the legal peace. It seems to me that the system change should not
be driven by being stick, but rather by the carrot. I hear in the field over
I can that if the carrot was going to do it, it would have by now. Maybe we
need the stick. We still have a few people voting. It looks like the
overwhelming number of you believe that for your own institution, the argument
that is going to get things moving is the legal one. This is interesting for
me to know.

Thank you.

 The problem does persist in higher education and it has for a long time. I
wanted to show some data. Web aim has data going back to 1998. We had
frighteningly identical results in 1998 as 2008. This data is now old. We did
a random selection of two institutions within every state. And the district as
I recall.

We looked only at the home page and first level and we did a random selection
off of that. So, if you look at it -- the second that someone goes off and
institutional homepage, we are saying is that in 2008 for the simple that we
had -- N. equals 100 is not as robust, but it is significant. We had
accessibility problems. We were judging it against the section 508 technical
component standard. We only have 3% of those pages that didn't have any
accessibility issues. We had 97 with at least one issue that would be non-
conforming to the section 508 standard.

So, this is an interesting thing. I am always keen to update where we are now.
I am hopeful that we are going to be doing a better job but we have got to
recognize that in higher education the kinds of things we are doing become
more on flex. Accessibility is not always a simple solution. We have the
results -- you have spotty accessibility across your pages. You have some
pages that are accessible and some that are not. Yet, the reality is that
most people need to go through a path of pages. Often, you can get to the
destination because there is an excess ability somewhere in the middle there.

-- In accessibility.

Most people are using a reasonable accommodation process to make things
accessible. There are some issues with that. It is more of an issue as more
and more users with disabilities are frankly just getting tired. They are
getting ticked off. They had about a decade of feeling like -- this will turn
around and things will change. Then, it didn't. They are turning to some
other things. I am interested in having you take this poll. Are you at your
institution using the reasonable accommodation provision as pretty much the
mainstay of how it is you are making content accessible to people with
disabilities? Again, the notion is -- our stuff is not accessible out-of-the-
box. We rely on people to let us know where they need help. Then, we make it
accessible for them.

Different people are going to have different responses. A lot of people are
working hard to get that dynamic flipped. It looks like most evil are using
the after the fact accommodation as a way to make content accessible. We will
close the pool now.

-- Close the   poll now.

 I want to ground us in the fact that this is a phenomenon happening across
higher education. EDUCAUSE -- I believe this is December 2010. -- Had an
issue on the web accessibility. You may want to go back and look at this. Just
to validate what it is you may be feeling on the other side of this broadcast,
you are in good company. A lot of people are trying to get this figured out.
A lot of people are trying to say -- how can we move away from just having a
few people that are passionate about accessibility and help the entire
institution take a shift to accessibility practices?

It is important to pay attention at the level of the entire institution. We
find that the people that are able to get there and get it sustained are the
people that are paying attention at a system level. Whenever you have local
champions, that often is a great way to get things started. But, if the top
double system structures can't wrap around everything, it is too fragile. The
second that someone takes another position and moves were they retire or they
lose interest or they have inertia, the entire thing to lapses in on itself.
Also, it is almost impossible if you are not looking at this from a system
level II impact some of the things that are critical. So, I put on the slide
the idea of procurement. If your institution doesn't have a process in place
to make sure that accessibility is a part of your procurement of large
purchases, then you are always going to be using your own institution's
resources to go back behind a -- an inaccessible procurement to fix it.

If you don't have a systemwide effort to make sure that all faculty and staff
members have training and support and accessibility, then you are always
going to go back behind them and fix the problems they created. If they just
had the training and support on the front-end, they would not be creating the
problems to begin with. So, you look at the problems of accessibility at your
own institution and you say -- where is the place to start? I will propose to
you that if you are in a hole right now, stop digging. Try to figure out ways
to create inertia and work that really is at a system level.
The last one on the slide is -- if you are not at a system level, you're not
necessarily going to put wake up with accessibility is one of the preferred
qualifications for employment of the next generation of your technical staff
such as web developers that are employed at your institution.

You need to think about the importance of making an institution wide commitment
to getting this done it will be a much more efficient way to move forward. We
have been at this at WebAim since 1998 and this is one of the things we have
seen over again. You can't just look at individual solutions. You have got to
look at big solutions.

Now I am going to shift from talking about the introduction to higher
education into what it is that administrators can do. Of course, I say -- I
have a question that I did not ask. Let's pull up the pool. -- The poll.

As you think about your own institution, have you begun to make some of those
systemwide changes to the problem? This looks promising. It's a long process,
by the way. The California state University with a entire system that went to
a system-level accessibility from their chancellor's office down to all 23
campuses. Next year would be the beginning of the fifth year of their change.
So, we are not talking about change that happens within a few months or even a
year. We are talking about multiple years here of work. Most of you did say
that you have begun some work. This is heartening to hear. For those of you
that have not, there are people out there that you can look to as models so
you are not reinventing the wheel.

I wanted to invite people to console -- consider participating in GOALS. This
is a funded project. We have a lot of different partners. You can see some of
them -- SACS, Southern regional education Board, the funny guy with the Clover
hit is the national disability center.

We have a lot of things. This is the main focus of the goals project. We want
to make sure that we are providing help and support that institutional
leadership needs to move Web accessibility along at their institution. We
know that there are a lot of reasons that this project is perfectly timed. We
have problems in the accessibility in higher education. We know the local
champions is not a sustainable model. We know that in order for this to
really work in higher education, there has to be administrative leadership
taking this. There has to be time available for this to happen and there has
to be resources and support.

So, this is the part of our seminar   that is really devoted to those   of you
that are administrators.

We are creating resources and processes and tools that we hope are attractive
to those upper-level administrators. When people do not feel at they are
having to reinvent the feel -- the wheel -- but whether they can look at the
best practices from the field nationwide which is what we have done and pulled
it into a framework or it we have a best practice framework that we have
converted into a self study tool for an institution. I don't know how many of
you remember the work of -- Sally Johnstone. She created the best
practices for online learning. This almost became the de facto standard for
distance and online learning. Later it became codified into law the regional
accreditation documents. We are wondering -- could be process that we are
engaging in now emulate the success that Dr. Johnstone had as well? We want
to think about what is motivating the leaders. For example, could a self
study process enterprise wide on Web accessibility be submitted to a regional
creditor is a part of the reaffirmation cycle? You have to show how what is
your institution is engaged in continuous improvement and performance. Could
be process and the resulting documentation from it essentially be a way to
move ahead on accessibility but also be a little bit easier from an
administrative standpoint?

This is what we have now. These are all on your research -- resource sheet
that I provided at the beginning of the session. We have the recommended
practice indicators for accessibility. There are four of them -- I will tell
you quickly what they are in a second. We have an action paper. There have
been papers written for technical people, but this is cured toward upper-
level administrators and hopefully we are hitting their points. This resources
in the resource list as well.

The benchmarking and planning tool -- a web-based tool that we would like to
let you know about and see if you are interested in because being with us.

Some other resources under development -- we have another two years of this
project. John is heading up developing some institutional through plants --
blueprints. He will share this with you today. We are continually improving
the self study tool so that it is of greater use to everybody. We are looking
at pulling together some cost case studies. We are going across 12 different
institutions. There is currently no data on the cost of Web accessibility. We
are going to start adding to the knowledgebase on that. Then, because we
have a regional at creditor is one of our partners -- we are working on
accreditation blueprint. How is the regional accreditation entities going to
look at accessibility as a part of the credit that they would give, so to
speak, institutions for continuous improvement and improve performance?

That is a quick journey about     the project.

Now I will go to the tool.    This is what we would invite you to participate in
if you are interested. We     have a system that walks you through taking a
snapshot of where you are     and looking at where you need to be or were you want
to be, and then making an     action plan on how it is you get there.

You would be working in teams from across the institution. Usually, there is
one team leader. There are a lot of voices in this. The self-study resource -
- results in a single institutional response -- that is why we have a team
leader to listen to the voices that make that response. We have ways to have
a formal report that is pretty much auto generated by the tool. You go back
in and edit it for odd language that -- sentence constructions that might pop
up. There are ways to track your progress over time so that you engage in a
self-study now and you create an action plan. Another year and a half or two
years, you do it again. We will keep your data and you will be able to
compare your formants over time. Certainly, we have resources to help folks
get started and we are looking for people that would like to help us identify
additional resources needed and frankly we are going to create them and make
them available for the broader goals community.

Also, this will be freed to     the first 50 institutions. We have   several now but
if you are interested, let      me know.

You will see across the top of this slide a -- for indicators. The first
indicator is a vision and leadership commitment to Web accessibility.
The second is planning and    implementation of Web accessibility   on   your

The third our support and resources    available. The last is assessment    and

These are the four indicators    that we take   people through.

 [Captioners transitioning]

He would be an example of one of the questions. Is included in your
administrative vision or statement, and then there is a hierarchy of some of
the questions and all those end up getting -- eventually, the team leader
can see how all the team has responded and I might add that there are some
folks that have taken rather than during it web-based, they just have
everyone come into a single location and block other day and go through
together in a face-to-face way but eventually the team leader goes through
looking at the rationale of their team members in making a final
institutionalist wants, which is reflected here. And then the institution it's
to see how they did on that particular indicator. After that, then they get
a chance to start looking at how they are going to create their own action
plan in the areas that they want to improve. Some folks would rather
strengthen areas that are already strong, and someone rather strengthen some
of the weakest areas. Folks have fall control over which areas they engage in
action planning. Right now, we are recruiting folks that might even start
late this summer or next fall so if you are an administrator looking at the
topic of this seminar, making it everyone's business, my challenge to you is
that system-level engagement is it important in their lots of resources of
Vale oboe. If you want to engage folks for finding those for your institution
or consider looking at the resources that are -- has Artie pulled together.

Right now, we're just about and hour. . What I would like to do is give people
a little bit of stretch time for about five minutes or so. But I'm also going
to go ahead and engage in any kind of does session or Q&A so if you need to
leave real quick, we understand. Jerod will start in about five minutes. But
are there any questions?

I wanted to make a quick announcement that we're going to to be switching
layout, and also I wanted to note that we noted that some of your having some
issues with the closed captioning and as a suggestion, if you reduce the font
a little bit to either 12 or 15, that helps a little bit. And also, if you
close that little arrow in the middle, that gives you a little bit more
reading room too. . I will send it back over to Cindy.

I am looking at any of the questions. Actually, Veronica, have you been
looking at the questions? I think I would have to go back through the whole

That's a good point are caught have been looking and folks have questions
about the legal obligations but I think you covered most of those in your
talk. To all of you out there, if you have additional questions along those
lines or other questions, please post them in the chat and we will be watching
for that.
And I will stay on the line to see if there are any questions for the next
few minutes. Other than that, I hope everyone is getting a chance to stretch
their legs. Sharon, can you give specific case references concerning
timeliness issues with respect to offering the material to students?

There are some OCR resolutions and some case law that deal with it. And
Sharon, I am happy to deal -- e-mail you dock in numbers things like that is -
- if that is of interest to. You could e-mail me and I can shoot those to
you. Can you get a copy of the PowerPoint presentation? I'm assuming
Veronica, all of these materials will be available to all the participants. Is
that correct?

That is correct. After the seminar is   over, you'll see them appearing   on the
seminar site shortly.

Very good. I think for now, the questions are at an end, and we will be taking
questions took at multiple points throughout this presentation. Him I will
turn this over to Jerod.

 This is Jared Smith. I'm going to go ahead and get started. With my section
of the presentation which is on principles of Web accessibility. City gave a
really good introduction to many of the issues that we face with Web
accessibility and the motivations and the challenges that are cross our
institutions we are going to face. And then some of the resources and tools
that can help. My focus will be a little more of implementation. Or to the
Technics level, more for developers and designers, implementers, managers,
people that might want to evaluate Web accessibility. It's a little bit more
implementation of Web accessibility. Often it's quite overwhelming when you
start to consider all of the aspects of Web accessibility and what all it
takes to -- University website that may be has not had a lot of focus on Web
accessibility and start to implement that. And then we have things like the
Web content, accessibility guidelines, we have technical specifications that
are very useful in implementing and evaluating web accessibility. They can
often be a little daunting or overwhelming.

My approach is going to be on principles of Web accessibility. It will not be
overly technical but provide a good overview of principles and the technical
aspects of Web accessibility. Things that you need to consider. When we
consider these principles of Web accessibility, before principles that I
will cover, receivable, operable, understandable, robust, these four principles
are the foundation of the Web content accessibility guidelines. The
international set of guidelines formulated by the World Wide Web Consortium.
And they are very helpful, version 2.0 is what we recommend to anybody to be
looking at, especially as we consider future of its two the Americans with
disabilities act Section 508. Pretty much everything when we consider why
accessibility is going to these updated set of guidelines. Web content
accessibility guidelines version two-point oh these four principles are the
core foundational principles of those guidelines, and this is a great way to
the Web accessibility. Where make our content meet each of these four
printable. Does a good chance it's going to be accessible to the users of our
website. And then we can use the guidelines and techniques and resources and
tools that are out there to help us achieve accessibility to these principles
of Web accessibility.

And helps us to remember those four principles and maybe we will make poor
content which is perceivable operable understandable and robust. It's also
important that we consider those distinct needs of users with various types
of disabilities. We always need to be careful when we categorize people into
groups, especially individuals with disabilities. But as we consider the
distinct needs of those with visual disabilities, which would include
blindness low vision and color blindness, distinct needs of those that are
hard of hearing, those with motor disabilities that may impact ability to
interact, use a computer keyboard or mouse, those are cognitive or learning or
intellectual disabilities or as Cindy mentioned briefly, the concerns of those
that may have photosensitive epilepsy where you can have web content induce
a seizure.

If we consider her for principles and the needs of the users and the types of
disabilities, we have a pretty good approach to addressing the accessibility
concerns and issues that we might find on our website. Our first principle is
perceivable . The way they can search user interact with that content. If it's
not perceivable, is absolutely accessible. The user has to be able to get that
content to their -- in some way. When we talk about perceivable, a few things
to consider them first thing I want to talk about perceived ability for those
with auditory disabilities. This would affect the use of video and audio
content on a website. If there was an audio components, somebody that is deaf
or hard of hearing of course would have difficulty perceiving that content.
That content needs to be perceived or presented to them in a way that can be
perceived some other way. What this boils down to is captions for video and
and live audio and text transcripts for all audio.

If you embed a YouTube video into your webpage that has both video and audio,
the requirements for accessibility and for compliance with accessibility
guidelines would be both captions which are synchronized to the presentation,
similar to what we have in this Adobe connect meeting right now. And also a
text transcript. And really, that is all that is necessary to make that
content accessible and perceivable. If you're only providing audio content,
MP3 file or podcast, something that dubs not have a visual component, and a
text transcript by its else is sufficient, that would allow the content again
to be perceivable to somebody that cannot hear that audio. That's really
pretty basic when you consider the needs of accessibility and perceived
ability to users with auditory disabilities, captions and transcripts. The
principles are very straightforward and simple and implementation on the
other hand can be a little more difficult when you consider captioning and
transcription. It can be rather difficult to be one of the more expensive
asset -- aspects. But absolutely vital for both compliance and basic --
even meeting the first initial principle of accessibility for those with
auditory disabilities.

There are great tools and resources out there that can help in this process of
generating transcripts and then from most transcripts, generating captions.
YouTube has an auto captioning and transcription system that works reasonably
well with very high quality audio that is spoken clearly with no background
noise. That might be one service you can outsource, the transcription and
captioning of multimedia. Generally, we found that outsourcing that
generation transcription captions tends to be more cost-effective than trying
to do it internally or often even better than using free automated service
like YouTube where the quality generally is not sufficient for most
multimedia content. In other words, you will probably spend more time fixing
the automatic transcription errors that it would take to actually do it
yourself or even better, two out% to somebody that can do that
professionally. There are some great services out there and Mrs. a basic
necessity for those with auditory disabilities. However, we know that with
this and with   most aspects of Web accessibility,   there are   additional

Cindy mentioned some of the benefits of captioning in a noisy sports bar.
Having those captions on it allow it to be perceivable to anybody and a very
quiet environment, a library, you can enjoy video content if there is
captioning. We speak of multimedia, which is multimodal by adding the text
component to that video and audio. You could make it easier to understand
really for everybody. Especially for users that may have cognitive or learning
disabilities. For users that their primary language may not be the primary
language of those in the video. For complex content, chemistry course is
streaming online, it would allow very complex words are racist to be
understood by the user. A lot of additional benefit there to both in
captioning and transcripts. Transcripts allow content to be searchable also
searchable to search engines which is very important when you consider
transcripts for videos, that is great content and making that content
available to your users also makes it available to search engines that really
love good content. A lot of good benefit and our focus is for accessibility
with users with disability and so basically, this principle of perceived
ability can be met I captions for video and live audio and text transcripts
for all audio. One additional note, if we consider users that are both deaf
and blind, often I know most of you indicated that you are familiar with
screen reader technology.

Often, people we interact with having considered the needs of users that are
both deaf and blind for content couldn't be perceived through audio or
perceived through vision instead it can be perceived through touch. You can
take a screen reader technology that would take the text content of a webpage
and presented audibly to a user and you can connect to that screen reader,
usually what is called a refreshable braille device. That device would have
pins that conform braille characters that could change on demand. User could
read a line of text into braille and hit a button and the pens on the device
would change to form a new-line of text in braille. Really, pretty incredible
if you think about that that somebody is both deaf and blind can fully enjoy
the web. It can be made fully accessible to them. If you make it to users that
are blinded users better deaf, you will have made it accessible to users that
are both deaf and blind and text transcripts really are the only mechanism for
multimedia that will allow multimedia to be accessible to someone that is both
deaf and blind, refreshable braille device cannot present streaming captions
or synchronized captions at a rate in which they will be usable to the user.
Transcripts of the solution or. Pretty straight forward implementation can be
a little ethical when you consider actually generating those captions and
transcripts but resources are available out there to.

If we consider the needs of users with visual disabilities, a few concepts to
consider here. First is that webpages are linear released they are accessed in
a linear method by users of screen readers. I like to think Fred as looking
at a webpage through a straw. When using a screen reader you can really only
access one portion of the page at a time. And that Warder in which the content
is accessed is an only top to bottom of the page but it's based on the
underlying HTML or source for that webpage. That's important to note. You want
to design your page so that as the user listens to that page in a linear
fashion or navigate a page in a linear fashion that it makes sense, that is
logical, generally that means it's going to roughly follow the visual
presentation order from top to bottom, left to right. With that said even
though I screen reader can really only read one portion of the page at a
time, screen reader users can navigate through the page be a lot of different
mechanisms, they can navigate by headings, structural elements, list and forms
and buttons and things like that and one of the most common ways in which
users will navigate through a webpage is by links and if you think about
your interactions with most webpages, that's what you do.

You come to a homepage and look things that are applicable . Hulett for the
links that will take you closer to the content you are actually looking for
and screen reader users can implement that same approach or technique by
coming to the page and navigating only through the links that are available on
that page. If you consider the text, of those links, the text then becomes
very important, because the user will really only hear the text and then
navigate through the page. If the text of your page is for athletics and the
link is click here, if all of your links or structure that way, the screen
reader will really only hit click here, click here, click here, as they
navigate through that -- through the links on the page. It's important your
links be meaningful, the link text, the blue underlined text describes the
content and function of that page that the user might activate with that
link. That is important. There are also additional benefit their. Everybody
can be confused by links. If I see the link here blue but not underlined, I
have to figure out what that click here is about. It's a great usability best
practice for all links on the web. Or other links that are similar to this and
often we see read more or continue or more links. They can also be ambiguous
to the users. And so it's important, as much as you can to reasonably make
those links so they are meaningful and make sense by themselves or they make
sense reasonably with the context that surrounds those links.

Next is alternative text for nontext elements. This is rule number one of web
accessibility. A screenwriter cannot analyze an image in figure of the
content of that image. It cannot analyze an image to figure out what that
image is presenting. So authors and developers need to provide alternative
text for those images and that will be presented in place in the image to
that user. Even though this is in many ways rule number one of web
accessibility, it can be in some ways one of the more difficult aspects of
web accessibility when we consider alternative text, what is a good
alternative? We hear the terms of alternative equivalent text. That can be
subjective, it can be complex and we have some great articles on our website
that provides several use cases of alternative text and can walk you through
some ways the philosophy on the technical asked acts of alternative text. This
is useful for ever but even if you're not a developer or, if you are
generating content at all for the web, the graphics in them, those graphics
will need alternative text. It's important that anybody, even professors,
people that are generating course content, there are the appropriate people
to be determining alternative text rather than just maybe passing it off to
some developer and saying here is an imaging content, figure out what you
think would be appropriate alternative text for that image.

As we think about system implementation, having a good knowledge base and
approach to alternative text can be very valuable. Next is associating text
labels with form elements. Consider for a minute a webpage that have a text
box and next to the text box of the words first name. You probably know you
need to type your first name into the text box. Because of the Association,
the visceral association and proximity of the word first name to that text
box. Somebody who is buying cap make that association based on proximity of
the text, first name, and the text box that is next to it. You need to provide
a more explicit or programmatic association that says this piece of text,
first name, is the label for this text box? And once you make that explicit
or romantic Association, that text can then be presented to a screen reader
user when they encounter that text box. That's another important aspect of
accessibility. Anytime you have form controls are elements, they need some
sort of visual or text description that identifies what that form control is

Similarly, we want to associate data cells to row and column headers. If you
consider a data table, maybe a class schedule that has courses and room and
building locations and times and things like that, you can look at a piece of
data and visually scan up and down, left and right to determine what that
piece of data is based on its row or column headers. Somebody that is blind
cannot make that visual association, they can visually scan up and down or
left or right to identify the headers for that particular piece of data.
Similar to form labeling, we can provide a programmatic association. This
piece of content, the number 128 is the room number four ILG 101. And based
on those headers, we can provide an association to that piece of data and the
information can be presented to a screen reader user when they encounter that
data cell. Is some other considerations, want to ensure there is sufficient
contrast. Everybody struggles reading content if there is not sufficient
contrast. There's not enough color difference or contrast difference between
the text on a page and the background. Things like light gray text on a dark
gray background are going to be difficult for anybody to read. We know that
for users with low vision, this would have a more significant impact on

There is in the web content, accessibility deadlines, there are specific
measures of contrast. There's a formula that allows you a stomach foreground
or text color and background color to generate a contrast ratio and based on
the contrast ratio, you can determine whether you meet specific contrast
requirements for text that are defined in that guidelines . You don't want to
be doing the math or formula to generate this contrast ratio and figure out
how it fits into the requirement. There are some rituals (-left-parenthesis
one of the tools and the resources is a link to a contrast checker that we
have developed, simply allows you to put in the foreground color, background
color, Ford text that might appear in a webpage and then based on my
foreground and background color, it will generate a contrast ratio and tell
you whether it meets the requirements for -- there's a double-A requirement
and AAA requirement and different measures of contrast for both small text and
larger text. Archer tech doesn't have to have as much contrast and I see
Jonathan just posted the URL of that tool in the chat box. And there are some
other tools that are linked on there and resources that can help you measure
sufficient contrast. Even though we have tools like that, even though we have
good measures, and the guidelines to tell us what is sufficient, with this,
pretty much anything in web accessibility, good common sense is probably most

If you look at a piece of test on your webpage and you say that probably
doesn't have enough contrast, it doesn't. It probably doesn't. It probably
needs more contrast. Consider that regardless of what the formulas tell you
and what the guidelines required because you want to make sure that there is
good sufficient contrast to make text readable. Next thing you want to do is
ensure that meaning is not conveyed with color alone. Color is great for the
web and color is great for accessibility. Often, when we consider the
requirements for contrast and the needs of users with color deficiency or
colorblindness, often that is interpreted to mean that you can't use color on
the web or sometimes when we consider those with color blindness, a red green
deficiency is the most common. It's color hard to differentiate the twin red
and green and often misinterpreted and presented as you cannot use red and
green on a webpage. That is not at all true. The key is there is sufficient
contrast with the colors that you use and the color is not him used as the
only way of conveying meaning. I will show a few examples in just a minute.
Use color all we want, just make sure you are using color appropriately. And
using good color combinations that are pleasing, that is helpful for
everybody, that for accessibility comes down to good contrast and not using
color to convey information or meaning alone.

You would also want to ensure that your pages are readable and functional at a
minimum of two times zoom and two times [ Indiscernible ]. You consider users
with low vision, they often are going to need larger content and they meet -
- make it bigger, increase the text size and really there are two mechanisms
or ways of doing that on a webpage, you can increase the text size or zoom the
entire page and make it bigger. The two times or 200% requirement is what is
defined in the Web content accessibility guidelines. It's pretty big. It can
be a little difficult to meet, especially for the text sizing requirement.
Increasing Juster text to twice it's size often causes page layout -- maybe
to break. Requires you to scroll more often and sometimes can result in things
overlapping, overlapping text or text sliding behind the background of
adjacent elements. It can be very difficult. We often recommend a little more
reasonable level of 150% for text sizing and 200% for page zoom, which is
generally pretty difficult to fill that requirement if you make the entire
page bigger.

Generally, the principle here is that if the user needs to increase the size
of things on the page, either the text or entire pages, it maintains it's
readability and functionality. Ideas to a couple questions there in the tech.
I will come back to those, you can keep them coming in the check and I will
take a break here or hold those until the end of my welcome back. Here is an
example. Something that you might experience. You won the lottery, press the
green button to accept her prize in the red button to decline. Really, what
you see there are a red and a green button but you are seeing them as they
would be seen if you had the most common form of color deficiency or
colorblindness which is difficulty in differentiating between reds and greens.
Color deficiency affects about 7% of men and about 0.1% of women. Much less
common in women. As you consider those two buttons, they really are red and
green, you're seeing them as if you had color deficiency and statistically,
there would be a couple people here that have some form of color deficiency. I
would ask the question in the poll is there visible on the screen, which of
those two do you think is the green button? the one on the left or the one on
the right?

Looks at most of you, little indecision there, some people jumping back and
forth. Most of use of a button on the left is the greed    but -- but. 72%
chose the one on the left. Let's actually look at the actual image. 72% of
you were wrong unfortunately. The image there, red and green, were actually
the images this most of you at most people would me -- when we use the
example to pick the one on the left. Not because it looks any different, but
because the order of the text presents green before red and so you would
probably assume that the order of the buttons would match the text. We do
this intentionally to trick you a little bit. It would be good if
presentation and accessibility to have the order match the text but we try to
make the slow but difficult. When you consider accessibility here, some ways
in which you could make this accessible without relying on color. The use of
colors that necessarily bad. Use a red and green can enhance understandability
and comprehension of this content can enhance accessibility but the fact the
colors being used alone is what makes this difficult or inaccessible to some
users. Melanie just posted that in the chat box, add text. Label each of
those buttons. Reorder them to match the descriptive text. If they were
elements, you would need alternative text be read by a screen reader. That
would be the easiest way. Here's another example. The mushroom -- the green
mushrooms are okay to you and the red mushrooms will kill you. Five mushrooms
that are all presented in light test -- white text or how you would see
that text if you had a certain type of color deficiency clinical. Not only
man affects certain people with color deficiency but generally affect users
that are blind. Maybe a little obvious but if you are blind you are also
colorblind. The screen reader will not read the colors this it won't identify
that particular piece of text is colored red or green. Are also users with
low vision that are based on the level of low vision may override page color
so the heat colors and combinations that work for them. I may override your
page color so I see yellow text on a blue background. At the color combination
that I need most for both disability. Your color information would also be
lost in reliance on color would cause inaccessibility. It's more than just
colorblindness, it's other bloodless and other disabilities as well.

When you consider this list, I don't know how well you know your mushrooms,
but if you had to pick a couple, I hope you do well. In all the years we have
done this, nobody has ever said that [ Indiscernible ] sounds edible. It
sounds ominous, like it is going to kill you and in fact it is. When you see
the color here it becomes very clear and again, the color can be very useful
and enhance understandability and accessibility. Is the reliance on color
alone that is causing issues. When you consider this example, think of some
ways in which you can make this content accessible without relying on color
along Cukor. There are a few different ways. One way that is presented is to
use some text dialing such as bold or italic. Something like that to identify
that will kill you. That would generally work cited users that may be
overwriting page colors but it wouldn't necessarily work for users that are
using a screen reader. Screen reader will not read content that is italicized
or underlined. You need to be careful with severely visual styling is all.
Maybe in image like the stolen cost: -- with alternative text associated with
that particular item. They would help offset both visually and screen reader
user probably the best and easiest approach is most successful approach would
simply be to make to list and these mushrooms in this table -- you could
still use red and green if you want to. To enhance that but you would not be
relying on that alone.

There is this color filter tool, on the slide and chat box, that allows you to
see Web content as if it allows you to experience it as if you have your
storms or colorblindness or color deficiency. It's a neat tool for testing and
another way to test this, as well as a basic contract -- contrast to print
your page on a black-and-white printer. It works pretty well to detect whether
you have good contrast and mother content is relying on color long. Important
things here for accessibility to consider. Another thing to consider is the
use of text inside of images. We know that you take an image and you enlarge
that image, if you have low vision and you needed to large -- become a lot
more pixelated and text within those images can be more difficult to read.
That does not mean you can't put text inside of images, consider the
readability of those text when those images are enlarged. The requirements
and -- 200% or prices they. For text and images, consider an even higher%.
400% or 500% or larger for zooming or scaling large in page content. Consider
that when you can use true text, you want to use real text. You would want to
do that for a number of reasons one of which would be better accessibility.
Here's another example of text inside of an image that once enlarged with a
little more to go to read. If you need to consider it's readability when
those things are enlarged. Moving onto her second principle of operable, once
content is perceivable to you, you can get it to your senses and start to do
something with it. You want to be able to interact and operate within the
content. Operability deals with generally more physical interaction with the
page, activating links, interacting with forms, things like that. And I want
to take just a minute and talk about photosynthesis of epilepsy. You can list
roaming flashing content in a webpage, you can induce a seizure. Their
doublets for this. The content has to flash more than three times in anyone
second period. It says two times per second but it's about three times per
second and it has to be sufficiently big. A tiny blinking cursor will not
induce a seizure that has to be sufficiently brighter struggling in the color
red is more likely to induce an epileptic seizure. How big is too big a
brightest to bite, how red is to read what week all the annoying role. Big
bright and struggling more than three times per second, beyond being
distracting, it does it does have the potential to induce a seizure. This is
not very common, it is uncommon that your webpage would strobe and flash.
This is becoming more of an issue with multimedia. Video content on the web.
There was recently a promotional video for the London 2012 Olympics that are
coming up soon and in that video they had some special effects and we are
thinking HD quality maybe full-screen video, so limits the size requirement
and there were some special effects in there that were -- that met the
requirements and caused some of the viewers of that video to have seizures.
That's where you may encounter this on the web. Be considerate of it. This is
especially important because you not only are you talking about barring users
you could kill somebody by causing them be very considerate other things to
consider in the principal insert keyboard accessibility. Assistive technology
words or devices would allow users to interact with a computer due to a
disability but regardless of the type of device or input, it boils down to
ensuring good keyboard accessibility and this is great because anybody can
test keyboard accessibility. Just put the mouse away try to navigate that
page using only the keyboard and make sure all the content that you get to,
you can interact with anything so you can use the mosque.

You'd also want to ensure you don't remove focus and can respect of the
primary way of navigating through -- is using the tab key to navigate through
links and form controls. If you were -- it's important to note here the screen
reader users also rely heavily on keyboard accessibility. They will not be
using a mouse that's a visible input. Using the tab key, if you navigate
through form controls on the page is important that for a sighted user, you
can tell which all meant on a page currently has the keyboard focus or you
are able to interact with at that point in time. You should be able to with
the webpage you start hitting the tab key and navigate through that page, you
should visually be able to tell which element currently has focus and there
are some websites out there that actually inhibit or turn off that indicator
which is usually a dotted line that surrounds the -- [ Indiscernible ] making
it very difficult or impossible to use the keyboard to interact with or
navigate or operate that website. Don't do that. You want to make sure there's
a logical reading navigation order. As a screen reader user reads through the
page, keyboard user never gets page, the navigation order should follow the
visual flow of the page. Left to right, top to bottom. You can implement to
facilitate more efficient navigation, you can and generally should implement a
skip to main content length. This is a link that would be towards the
beginning of your webpage that would allow a user to activate that link to
jump over any of the navigation that is repeated throughout your website.
Really to jump directly to the main content of that page. Which is what your
users are looking for. They want to direct   the main content or functionality
of the page.

By providing the skip to main content length, that facilitates navigation to
that. You might consider -- we have a collie care that is quadriplegic that
uses a stick and his mouth to navigate using the keyboard. Consider the
effort, if you consider your website, how may times would he have to hit the
tab key with his keyboard to navigate through the links and all of the
navigation mechanisms at the top of your page to get to where they may content
begins back back back can be quite an effort. That can be dozens of times --
with a skip to main content link you can quickly navigate to that link, hit
the enter key and jump directly to the main content. Daniel asked a question,
how do you do a skip to main content? It is in your page that is that in a way
that would jump focused on tour that main content is. There's an article on a
website that talks about skip links. One question that often brought up is the
visual intrusiveness of those links. It has to be at the top of your page
because it can be intrusive to visual design. One solution is to visually
hyperlink that allowed to become visible when it receives keyboard focus.
Sighted keyboard users with dull have access to that link, it would become
visible and they need it, but cited most users would probably never see that.
That's one suitable alternative if it's implemented correctly and we can
provide you some additional guidance or.

Also important here is providing a good proper head inning -- heading
structure. Screen reader users very often navigate by headings in the page.
Him of the research that we have conducted we have found that navigating by
the headings, big bold text is marked up properly in a page is very commonly
used by screen reader users. This would be one of the top things that we would
recommend for accessibility have a good proper heading and structure that
allows the navigation. Also, useful for just for good content, good
presentation of your page content. When you visually when you come to a big
long webpage, what do you do? You look for big bold test to look for the
content and structure of the page and by using appropriate and true headings,
in the page, you allow keyboard and string reader users to essentially do the
same thing. That gives users control over timing. A quick example of that.
Because you're spending your afternoon here, listening to this webinar, we
decided to give to the secret of everlasting happiness. Here you go. Too
bad. This is a little interesting over webinars due to the lack. This example
of -- sometimes we do that, here's really important stuff but you have 30
minutes to do it, only 30 minutes to take this test. What are my favorites is
or least favorites I should say is this webpage is changed, is update your
book marks, displayed tool automatically redirect and five seconds. Cap member
vid you actually give the user time to update their bookmarks. The ideas here
we don't put arbitrary time constraints on our users. The power of the web is
that they can take the time that they need to interact with web content. They
can do it at their pace and their location independently so it's important
that we don't constrain them by adding time constraints that are not necessary
to web content.

I want to take a little bit of a tangent here, a little sidebar just talk
about a few concepts of accessibility. This is a photo of the -- an entrance
to a courthouse. It's a little but hard to see, but to the left of that photo
is a wheelchair ramp and if you follow that real chair ramp up you see that it
leads right to the landing in the middle of two sets of stairs. This is a
fascinating thing to consider. Somebody, when they were building this
entrance, considered accessibility. They build a ramp. they built a ramp in a
way that really did not provide any useful accessibility. In fact, having this
ramp is probably worse than no accessibility at all. You can waste the users
time to use that ramp to find out that it actually does not provide
accessibility and a meaningful or useful way. Somebody probably had a
checklist. It's important when we consider accessibility that we really
consider the user or it's. It's easy to get caught up in checklist of
accessibility and compliance of accessibility. Those things are important and
useful but we want to consider the expense. Consider the entire user flow or
process on your webpage. We experienced a website recently, e-commerce
website where you can order things and add them to your shopping cart. You
could sign up and register, you could put in your payment information,
shipping address, everything you needed until it got to the very last up where
you would confirm or submit your order and a button to submit the order was
not keyboard accessible. What somebody had created was a wheelchair ramp that
am 95% of the way up the stairs. You could get most of the way through this
general process just to find that the very last up was inaccessible. You want
to consider the entire flow and process and consider registration process or
your university. The last step in that registration process is probably one of
the least visited websites or webpages on your site but it is probably one of
the most important. We can't just look at numbers and visitors, we need to
really consider the entire user process as we implement accessibility.
Starting on the homepage is a great place to start, but don't just build on
from there. Really consider what is most important and what the entire process
will be for your users.

Here are two photos for entrances to buildings. On the left would have a real
chair ramp, there's a wheelchair sign on the right. We have a revolving door.
A little more common in places like Utah where we have quite a varied weather.
It's hard to tell but on the revolving door in the rise, to the right of that
entrance is a button with a wheelchair placard that you could hit in the
store might stop and in this case, the right, the doors actually revolve to
open. You could take your wheelchair right through that door and be fully
accessible to. Two ways of getting into a building, really both provide
accessibility. The one on the loft, there are additional benefits, I can push
my kids in a stroller up that ramp and the delivery guy can use that ramp.
And in some ways, what it presents is something that -- if you have a
disability, go over here to get your accessibility. Oftentimes they're around
the sides are wrong back visually, it looks like it was slept on after-the-
fact. The color doesn't match a building, somebody noted it is a little bit
deep, it took out into the sidewalk alone but. And I like it was bolted on
exit Realty. We would advocate the hotel is right, to ground mobile entrance
but is universally designed is a better approach. Often, the approach
accessibility is -- it will create a screen reader version a text-only version
of a webpage and that can be very dangerous for accessibility because what he
was saying is and that I guess separation can be very questionable and
dangerous than the other word you often hear us discrimination beside
separate is unequal and that text-only version of your site does not provide
an equivalent equitable version of the content on your main site, you met the
two words that help define discrimination, separate and a new will. You don't
have to do that, you can implement accessibility fully into your main site,
you can embed a text-only version of your page into your page. There's no need
to create separate versions. We would not abdicate that approach. Building
things universally so all users can access the content in the way that they
need to, independently, is a much better approach to accessibility.

At the same time, we have to consider the needs of users are going to be
different users will on track with your webpage in different ways. We don't
for example drag wheelchairs up the stairs to give the same experience of
getting to the second floor that we might have. We don't drag them up the
stairs and instead we provide a ramp or elevator or some mechanism. We support
their way of interacting with web content and that approach to accessibility
is much better. What the old one site, implement accessibility naturally and
beautifully into that page. Moving to a third principle of understandable,
once we can perceive content and we can interact or operate the content we
want to make sure that make sense and is understandable to us. To make sure
the messages we're presenting our clear and understandable and accurate and
useful to the user. This will affect primarily users with cognitive
disabilities. Users with cognitive disabilities outnumber those with all other
disabilities put together. It's very significant number of users that are up
there with cognitive or learning disabilities. And this affects everybody.
Having content understandable is useful to everyone. Because their users with
various cognitive disabilities having different needs and interest, and you
think it conflicts with attorneys. Generally what we talk about understanding,
you'll talk about good general usability recommendations. It made sense for
most of your users and then we are supporting the needs of users have more
distinct needs. Some things to consider with understandable. Be careful with
movements of other destructors, that animating banner ad on your webpage might
be mildly annoying to you but it could render the entire webpage totally
inaccessible to somebody with very high levels of distractibility. That might
not be able to read any text content on the page which is -- continually
distracted by the animation or background audio or music that plays on the
webpage. Want to strive for brevity. Using simplest language that's
appropriate. Make things good. Easy-to-read, reef, and these are things that
are useful for everybody. Want to focus the user's attention on those things
that are most important. That's always going to be your content and
functionality. We try to focus attention elsewhere to add things like that.

Use good design, use white space, use color, fonts, good this will design,
images, things like that can help focus the user's attention on that which is
most important. Sometimes chunkier original content for simplifying content
can be great for accessibility, one great big long page, maybe breaking the
page into multiple smaller sections might be better. That universally, but it
might be something to consider. Certainly taking one big piece of text and
breaking it into smaller paragraphs and especially adding headings structure
to identify the content of sections can be very useful to anybody. Especially
users with certain cognitive disabilities. A lot of what this principle of
understandability comes down to is balancing cognitive load and functionality.
Consider your homepage. Ever but he wants their thing on the homepage.
Everybody wants their image, their story, on your homepage. And homepages are
historically a place that have a really high cognitive load. A lot of
functionality and content and stuff all packed into one small space. Also
pretty high functionality. You have a lot of stuff that you get to read from
the homepage so it's finding a good balance. How much can you decrease the
cognitive load and simple firewall also maintaining the functionality that is
necessary? If you consider that, you're going to do a lot to help any of the
users that come to your site. Especially those with cognitive disabilities.

If you think for a moment about your typical web developer team, typical web
design team, this is your typical web developer team. With their white crisp
shirts and corner office and we point out their Mac book with the Apple logo
that has been Photoshop out of it. If you consider what is really your more
typical web developer team or web design team, and I can make fun here
because I am pretty geeky, eight get it -- doesn't get much more geeky than
me. If you consider developers like these guys, the law cap unbroken launcher
when somebody one time point out these guys are developers, they are outside.
The point is that most of your web people and some of you might be web
people, very comfortable with the web, I have a web browser open all day
long. I carry a web browser around in my pocket with my phone. I'm connected
all the time. I have developed techniques, conventions, strategies for using
Web content. I'm pretty good at it. Those banner ads on your webpage, I don't
even see those things anymore, I become blind to them, I've learned to tune
them out. Often, it's important that your web people, and that maybe you, you
take a step outside of your box, outside of your own experience and consider
the needs of others. Especially as we consider user testing. User testing is
also critical to everything that you do on the web. It doesn't have to be
complex, doesn't have to be expensive, it can be a very simple and including
users with disabilities in that user testing process can be so informative and
useful to identify and address them properly accessibility for those users.

Take a step out and really consider the cognitive load of understandability
of your web content. And then moving onto our final principle of robust,
robust really deals with technology strength or technology compatibility.
Primarily we're going to talk about compatibility with browsers. Making
things work with the technologies of some reprints to your webpage. We would
include in this assistive technology, screen reader, screen the larger, have
you provided keyboard accessibility and support for captioning and
transcripts? General technology compatibility across what the user might be
using. We would add to that following the rules of the web, following the
guidelines and techniques that are provided to us, following the rules of
HTML and CSS and following and implementing the web content accessibility
guidelines. Robustness deals with hardware compatibilities, large-screen
devices, small screen and mobile devices which we know is absolutely huge and
incredible and very significantly, among users with disabilities. That we will
be releasing in a couple hours here the results of a pretty comprehensive
screen reader user serve away -- survey that we have done. This will be
available on our site Shirley. A sneak peek for you. The survey results were
released very shortly, 71.8% of respondents indicated using a screen reader on
a mobile device. Pretty incredible. Think of screeners, blind reserves, only
2% of them are using a screen reader on a mobile device. Which indicates --
has to be essentially a smart phone. 72% of the population does not use a
smart phone. We're talking about blind users here. It's pretty incredible,
mobile is significant for everything and really significant and we consider
users with disabilities such a great platform for accessibility.

Those are our for principals, receipt -- perceivable, operable,
understandable, and robust. It's a good framework for which all accessibility
can be based. Those are principles and an overview, is a lot more out there of
course to accessibility than just those principles. We would invite you to
check out our website, some good resources and tutorials for really
implementing these and how do do this at a cold level and how do you build
these things into webpages. How do you implement these things in the design
phase. May be a new website rollout that you are working a lot of resources
that are out there to help. One resource I want to highlight for just a moment
is wave. Wave is a web accessibility evaluation tool. This is a tool we have
been -- developed. It's a free tool and it's available at wave got web aim
.org and with wave you can go to the webpage, and also download a Firefox
toolbar that warms the tool directly within your browser. You can type in a
webpage address had a button and it will give you feedback about the
accessibility of the page. It does this in a graphical way. Rather than give
you a big text report or line code numbers, instead what it does is it shows
you your page with icons injected into that page to give feedback about it
accessibility. The approach with wave is to facilitate human evaluation. The
very best accessibility tool really is not very good. For tell you how
accessible your pages. No tool can tell you if your pages accessible.
Accessibility is about the human experience and only a human can adequately
evaluate that. Tools can be very helpful to you, a human, and evaluating how
accessible Web content really is. Wave is developed that way. We designed it
and develop it hopefully to facilitate understanding and accessibility and
human evaluation. We invite you to go check out wave dock web aim .org and if
you find it useful we would encourage you to use the Firefox toolbar version
which allows evaluation of content on intranet pages, private password-
protected pages, things like that, entirely security on your computer. That
is wave and we will be in the very near teacher rolling out a new viewers and
-- version. You can keep an eye on a website which again is web aim .org and I
invite you to look there. Select we do have an e-mail discussion list,
tutorials, articles, blog, things like that on the website that you can take
a look at and we invite you to check it out and with that, I thank you for
your time and I will -- I will go back just a little bit and answer some of
the questions that have posted in the chap that if you have any others, I
would invite you to post those and I will answer them and we will take about
five minutes. A little bit of a break his answer these questions and Jonathan
will come back and continue with the presentation.

Jarod, if you want to go ahead and respond to some of those questions   while we
transition, that would be just fine.

Jen had a question about do have any examples of how to make a map that is
spatially continuous and nonpoint based maps accessible? This is an
interesting one. We get this question a lot. If you get something like Google
maps which is very interactive and spatially oriented, not just about showing
you a location it's about and directing in an environment, these can be very
difficult. Say a campus map can be difficult, because it is so spatially
oriented, how do you make that accessible primarily to say a screen reader
user that cannot see that map? Which is interesting because when you consider
those racial relationships, buildings on campus, having a mental map or
picture of that -- those spatial relationships is very important to blind
users. The characters look and see where the building is. That type of content
can be really important. Some approaches certainly using text alternatives is
a viable option and some of those often when we consider maps, there is
underlying data that can be presented, a data table or spreadsheet and it's
not equivalent exactly the same as the graphical presentation, it can provide
the same content in a different way. There are a few perches with that. Some
things that really just intended for visual display and presentation. What
you need to focus on is that corporate content and try to present that unaware
that can be accessible to all users.

Data hide the question what to recommend to faculty that want to include
clicker or quiz questions with a short timeout during class? Another
excellent question . The requirements and the Web content accessibility
guidelines and Section 508 to require that users be alerted and given
additional time. One approach we have seen on this is maybe and said of
forcing a time constraint on the user, you've got two minutes and then you're
done. Maybe you give them two minutes but all users are given additional time
and the meant time is just recorded. Maybe if it takes a student four-minute
to complete that quiz, that time is simply large, they can still complete the
test and based on the time you can do what you want with it. Is the user with
a disability, maybe you consider that. That's one approach with same, Sherry
asked if we have any chance that the wave tool will be available for chrome.
That's on our roadmap at some point to release the tool for other browsers.
Right now, it is available online to anybody in any browser and then there is
the Firefox toolbar version. And Sharon had a question about learning
management systems and more complex wings like Google apps that are not
necessarily accept the bowl and what recommendations do you have for this?

 This is a little but more of a complex question because generally you don't
have control over the accessibility of those resources. It is important a
few thoughts here before turn the time to John, that you are asking those
questions up front. You're asking about accessibility and you are requiring
accessibility and procurement and you are really just considering that
accessibility in the tools that you are using and if we had -- exert enough
pressure, from your perspective, we can use these tools almost there minimally
accessible and with the current and future legal environment that's going to
be required -- higher levels, these things are going to get better but for
right now you do it you can use the most accessible technology that you can
find. John R said he may have additional thoughts are and without I think I
will turn over to Jonathan. Thank you for your time today.

My portion is going to be screen sharing so it will take me just a second to
set up the screen sharing but. Can you see my screen? I'm hopeful you can,
see Microsoft Word.

I can see   it. Select   great

Great. I will spend a little little time -- or Cindy mentioned, we are trying
to build on this, first we're talking about what administrators in the
importance -- to implement the importance of a systemwide or strategic pros to
accessibility and Jared talked about what developers can do to make sure their
web content is more accessible it were maybe more tab local and now I will
spend bit of time talking about more content creators maybe people were bit
less technical but they can't this, what those people can do come and
hopefully some review feel like you're in that group. I want to start with a
couple poll questions. We'll just take us one second to pull both poll
questions up. They're not there --

They're coming.

I think we're making a big changes faster than anticipated. Year comes the
first question, how familiar are you with the creation of accessible word
PowerPoint and/or PDF files? The familiarity with the accessibility of those,
somewhat, very, somewhat, federal. One brave soul thing not at all. Give it
just another second. Looks a bit most lantern. Atolls could find out, looks
like we have the Voelker of people are somewhat to not very group with a few
people on very MM at least 1% saying no to both mother, this is what I
expected. Just wanted to make sure his to the right group and next question,
the first three questions before diving. Next question, I will start reading
it while we are pulling it up. How much of the online content created at your
and the tuition originates in Word or PowerPoint? Almost all, most, some, not
much, none. Not your just your public facing content but courseware and some
of those other things that maybe are more private but quite a big portion of
your web content. Looks like we're pretty evenly split between almost all,
most, and some. With one person saying not much. That's great, but what I
expected this well. We are all aware that maybe this is the most ideal close
Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, maybe it's not the ideal format for content that
ends up on the web, the reality is that much of the content that is being
created, that is how it's being created. And what version are you using? The
majority are 2010 for Windows which is good. We do have quite a few 2011 for
Mac users and 42,007 Windows users, most of the things I will discuss are
mostly same in '07. With just a few slight differences. For those of you who
are using Mac, I'll start with the badness which is there are quite a few
accessibility issues with office for Mac but not a Mac problem, it's a
Microsoft problem. For some reason, they create -- I will just get that out
that there are limitations in some of the things are being addressed and some
of the dates are introducing new problems, the short version is if you're
going to be creating content in Mac, you will run into some additional
accessibility issues. They can't really be adequately addressed. That's the
badness. I did want to start out with those three questions, and just so I
could get a feeling and the familiarity of the group and what they're using.
I will be focusing mostly on accessibility of -- 2010 and how to improve the
accessibility of content that's created for PDF. First thing I want to do is
directed to the handouts that are available in the resources link. I will
paste that link into this again real quick into the talent of. Does that link
again. I want to quickly show you what that looks like and it will be to spall
to read. I have attached or included a PDF that has cheat sheets or quick
reference guide and creating content with the board also within PowerPoint.
And the conversion process because that's an important part. If you're create
something in Word, will end up as a PDF and need to make sure that process is

And then just a big about Acrobat. We try to limit to a single sheep virtual
which does limit what can be addressed but that way they will be brief enough
that people are going to hold those who admit to. any dumb although of those
and look at them while we are talking. And I will jump in to work. How to make
word content accessible. The first thing our headings or because is the most
fundamental thing you can do. People create headings, and thank you, I will
mention what Victoria does put in the chat window and that you can go to full-
screen if you would like to see this better. I do still have a window open so
I can try to answer questions I come up in the chat pod. You may want to
follow along and full-screen and that is your choice. A lot of sense of people
do is take content and I want this to be a heading and I don't -- I like for
Donna, a two-point, bold and italics, and look there is a heading. That might
be a big big league at the idea. That so many people create headings in Word.
There is much better easier and accessible way to do that that I want to show
you and here are a couple of examples. This right here is marked as a true
heading. Just like headings in HTML. And means that it is a heading so it
does look different. It is bigger, it is bolder, but it also functions as a
heading. Someone navigating to the page with a screen reader, if there's one
single thing you do to improve the accessibility of your content created in
Word, this is it. You can also -- if you don't like the weather looks you can
change the style. You can look back at the handouts if you want to do this
more quickly but you can change the styles or something. I want this to be
under modified -- I don't like the blue that they use, I wanted to be a dark
gray. And 14 is a touchable, I wanted to be 16 and I say that. If I take some
more text and say -- and I want that to be a heading, I will quickly show you
or mention keyword shortcut for those of you using Windows, control alt and
the numbers one or two or three will create first, second, and third level
headings. I push control alt one and this new heading has the same styles as
the old hunting. It save you quite a bit of time. First level heading here,
second-level heading created in the same way, then I have an image that I
Artie put in here. Images can be given alternative text in office at the word
pieces would wish to right-click an image and there's a box alt text. There's
two fields here, familiar with alternative text might want to use this title,
this first field that's more -- smaller field, but you have to put the
alternative text in this description. This is important. If you put it in the
field, it is going to be saved as a PDF or HTML, for some reason, word has
two fields no that you really does want to keep it in this description field.
That's the same thing if you're using PowerPoint. If you use the description
field and you put the appropriate alternative text in that field, this image
now has alternative text. I want to show a couple of things briefly. I have
this list or to remind me of a couple things. Make sure you're using to
relist, and same with numbered list, the bolded icon a number of icon, if
you're using a true list, that meaning will be available as well. Always
used to relist whenever you are doing anything with little numbers. This is
now a number of list, reminding me that I want to show you three more things,
tables, links, and I will skip form fields for the sake of time, but let's
mention tables on links. If I want to create a table in office, insert table,
I will make this three by two, three by three, for those of you who are
familiar, you have what are called table headers. And you may want to -- in
your table a lot of times if it's got data, I will copy and paste this.

You have these fields and typically what you might do is make those old, you
might choose to center the text in those. So you want that to be bold and he
wanted to be centered and you want those to look like headers, go. That
information isn't really available in Word not in the same way it is available
in HTML. There's one thing you can do. If you are in this first row here, you
can right-click on that role and choose table properties, and then the Row
tab, there is an option year to repeat a header row across the top of each
page. If you check this box, sometimes these first cells will be identified
as headers. When you save it out to PDF, those will be identified as headers.
That is one thing you can do. It still about waiters who boast -- it's not
quite as robust as HTML but that something you can do. The one thing I want to
show you finally is a link. You got a link to our handouts. We like to
create Linksys WAN office because it is easy. You take the link and it's now
I link you can click on to go to the webpage but this doesn't mean a lot to a
screen reader. This is an intuitive length but if it were a link to say some
item on Amazon that's got 50 characters to the link, just nonsense. It will
not mean a lot to anybody.

You can edit or change the text that appears in the link. If you right-click
on it and select edit hyperlink, there's a text display feel. Depending on the
type of item you want to display you can take this and replace it with
something like -- or maybe an edit hyperlink this is intended to be printed
or viewed on long best online. You can provide a text description and the URL,
something like that. Now hit okay the text is displayed, EL I resources, that
information will be available, and if you think it is appropriate, stone
could be URL or you decide just the text itself is enough. That will be much
more readable. For everybody. Those are just a few things I wanted to -- if
you're using PowerPoint same principles apply their special unique things
that are specific to PowerPoint that I wanted to quickly show you one of these
is the use of these -- the first thing I included this slide to remind me to
mention one other thing. When you are deciding what format to use and end up
online, HTML is almost always going to be best. Almost always. It will be
more usable, how many of us -- I don't even has to ask you to raise your
hands, I'm sure all of you have gone to a link, you click on the link and if
it was a PDF I probably wouldn't have clicked on it because most of us we just
don't like EDS. We don't like take -- most of us referred to view content
right in your browser as HTML. It's also going to be more accessible in
addition to be mean your more usable and more like by people who access or
content. In general, your HTML will be more excess of and or PDF are probably
going to be more the next most successful option and dock and PowerPoint are
your final option unless you're using some other format which might be even
less accessible. If you are creating content and PowerPoint, it is pretty
difficult to take PowerPoint content and converted to accessible HTML mail,
if you're using PowerPoint, quite often saving it as accessible PDF file will
be the best option. I do want to show you a couple other things first in
PowerPoint. And that we will talk about PDF and Acrobat.

The layouts, native layouts, pretty much every version PowerPoint, dear these
pre- formatted slide layouts or templates. You've got the swale but if you
choose one of these, so I want to see title and content, employees choose the
two side-by-side columns here where I can choose to add text or insert an
image. Him those are always going to be more accessible because these true
headings and because the structure -- the reading order is going to be better
so whenever you can, you do want to stick to these reformatted layouts or
templates . There are times when postal credit, you do need to create your own
slides so I do have an example of that right here, a slide that handsome
reading order issues. This page visually ... this is what you would read first
then texture, and see this image and this text pointing to a. 12, three, four.
But because I used text boxes to create this page and insert images, the
reading order is not right. It reads quite differently. You can't you're
reading order. On this on tap there is in a option, and usually for things
like Ruby objects are bringing peace to the front so you can see them or
aligning and those kinds of things. There's also an option, the bottom called
the selection pane that those allows you to view the reading order of the
content of this page with one huge caveat. The reading order is reversed. The
bottom item is the item that will be read first by a screen reader users who
comes to the content and reading order if it's a PDF and -- [ Indiscernible
] the bottom will be read first and then it goes from bottom to top. If I
wanted to reorder this content, I want this content right here, text box
fixed to be the next thing I read, reorder buttons on the bottom. That will
never second, I want this to be next, I put that there, Aero, and then finally
this content here. Now they reading order has been fixed on the slide.

That is something to be aware of if you're not using those free --
preformatted slides away out. You do need to look at the layout and you can
change your reading order. That is office in a nutshell. I want to take a
minute to see if anybody has any questions up to this point. I want to ask a
couple more questions, but I will take a quick water and see if there are
any questions. More about Mac and office 2011? It's mostly bad news. The
differences altered text: That's one issue. PDF as well, the accessibility
information will not be included. Those are just a couple of the issues with
accessibility. Should we put transcripts in TXT or HTML? That's a good
question. If you're talking my transcripts for media, no real reason they need
to be TXT. One advantage to HTML is you can format the transcript to make it
a bit more intuitive. You can put content and heading or formatted though it's
a bit easier to read. That's an option as well. You can put transcripts in
HTML. Let's jump to our next poll question. It is how much online content at
your institution is provided as PDF? What percentage or how much of your
content is provided as PDF? Your courses and content as well. . That's
again what I expected, I just wanted to see what people thought. Most, some,
with a couple people saying not much of your content is PDF, PDF is a format
that is used quite a bit. It's use quite a bit in higher read in part because
a great deal of the content in higher Ed is and created by many people who are
a bit less technical. Your professors or administrative assistance grading
content and they created word and save as PDF and they posted. Quite often
using alum us or something like that. That something that's very common, not
ideal but we don't deal in ideals, we deal in reality. The final question,
what version of Adobe acrobat do you use? Looks like most of you are using
Pro. Adobe Acrobat Pro, the reason I messing the question is because Pro is a
tool that you need to do what I am going to show you, to edit content that has
accessibility information in it. You do have to have Pro. I will be showing
time. Nine is similar. It does have to be professional. For those in higher
Ed, it's not too expensive. The licenses bus if you buy it with some other
sweet, but for access abilities, it is the tool you need. Before jump right
into acrobat the tool, I do want to go back to this Word document that I
created and I'm going to take this and save it as a PDF. The first thing I
will show you the wrong way to do this, wrong way is common, quite often
people say file, then they go to print, and then they choose one option, I
have way too many of these but one of these is Adobe PDF. Those they print is
Adobe PDF and if you choose that option, you actually will lose all of your
accessibility information. It will be saved as an image. Adobe uses what's
called a diss dolor and it's like scanning the image and printing it
electronically. That something you want to avoid.

You can save it in a couple ways. In 2010 there is an option to save it as,
and then you can choose Adobe PDF or PDF is what they call your. That is one
option. If you have Acrobat installed, then one option is -- what I would
recommend is PDF maker, this Acrobat tab, if you select this Acrobat tab
there's a create PDF option and quite often the accessibility of this is
better. Create PDF, it will want to save this file so I will Davis filed. And
it will going to convert it to PDF. I will jump back to word real quick and
show you -- if for some reason you're not getting some of the accessibility
information where talked about, you may want to look at your preferences and
make sure that this right here is elected, accessibility and reflow with
tagged Adobe PDF. When you talked about Titan PDF in a format, tag exist
purely for accessibility purposes, it's the only reason they exist. Basically
for screen reader users. They should be transparent so if you have a tagged
PDF it should look any different but have this additional layer of
accessibility. That exist for screen reader users. If you have done that,
what you should end up with is a PDF just like this and we will look at the
accessibility of this PDF for a quick. There are a couple of windows or panes
or a couple things that you need to be familiar with if you're going to be
doing any tagging and Acrobat. The first one is this text paid, pain, they
like to change the name of this but it is the text paid. You can go to view
and show hide and under navigation, pain, you want to make sure you have that
tag selected. Once you have selected it, it should remain in these pains here.

I open it here and edit pops up to the side. You can navigate through this
using your arrow keys. You can use left and right arrow keys to expending
class tings and user up and not keys to navigate through the content. As I
go up and done, you'll notice that there is a blue box that appears around
items for example I'm on this right here and you'll notice one night -- we
isolate this P tag, there is a light blue box from his texts, that appears by
selecting this highlight content option. That will make them visible which I
recommend, it does make it a lot easier to keep track of what tag corresponds
with the content in the PDF. Once you have selected you can check to make
through and make sure your tags are correct. I made it big and bold and that
they P tag, paragraph. This content was not properly tight. This next take
care is each one, similar to HTML and H two Heer. And this P here, paragraph
here, -- for some reason I'm not getting this. Image. I will have to double
check that. List, table, within this -- first results are actually marked up
as table headers. Because of that technique I showed you within word. And then
some paragraphs at the bottom. For some reason I was able to find this image.
If I selected, there's an option of -- option of finding from -- normally,
I don't know what happened there, but normally this should be a figure and it
should able to -- by Ms. Tag but there's member were to look for that and I
will show you in just a second. That is the tag panel. If you do want to
change tags, you can do that here in the panel and you have this P should be
H one and you can right-click under properties you can change us, this isn't a
paragraph, I think the type is heading one and you can go in and change it.

I will leave it the way this for now because there's actually an easier way to
do a few of these things that's called a touch of order tool. In Acrobat ten
there is as tools option right here and and accessibility submenu within
tools. And toward the bottom you'll see something called the touch operating
order tool. And when I selected that, I will close this takes panel to have a
bit more room, this window pops up. I just noticed for that figure wasn't
showing up where was supposed to show up. Sorry for the poster, I will explain
that, but this money shows up in it allows you to do quite a bit of the
tagging we talked about in an easier environment. You'll see that each of
these items has a box around it and it also has a number. The box corresponds
to the tab basically or group of similar tags, might just put one be box
around them. The box shows up as and toes with the Tigers. The member gives
you the reading order. Select content by grabbing that tag or you can also
use the crosshairs here and type box around the text. Selected bolded text.
This is not tagged as an H one or having one. can do the same thing, even
take content of decorative and you can choose as background option to hundred.
A lot of times in PDF you'll have a repeating footer, where page of the
document. You can drag a big-box rumba, and you can say this is supposed to be
background. Those are artifacts. And it's like no alternative for those of you
who are familiar the null alternative text. It is like that but you can do
for any item on the screen, it doesn't have to be an image. The image is a
figure or is what PDF calls an image. You have this figure, with alternative
text of Adobe, these are lifts -- list items, and say in this table these two
cells in the side here in the first song, these are supposed to be headers.
You connection made this header in Acrobat. Using this touch operating tool,
a table editor. When you click on that, the boxes around and color-coded red
and great. If I select these two boxes right here, select these two boxes.
Salt properties then these are data cells, header cells and there's a scope of
rope because Roe headers. Choose row, hit okay, and these are marked up as
headers. Though will be identified that way like this PDF and they will be
able to navigate this table correctly like they would be able to HTML. That is
the touch of reading order tool.

And I'm just going to take a quick drink, any questions or -- we have time
for questions. That the touch operating or tool. There's another part of the
total, the tagging aspect and the reading order aspect. As you can see in
this document, the reading order is incorrect. The image is seventh item in
the reading order. Akin to this document it may very will read -- one to
three and it would skip this figure and then read this list here and the table
and get bottom and read the figure. You can fix that using in order panel
similar to the tag panel but it's used to control or change the reading order
of the content. If I select the show order panel, a new panel will appear here
on the side. And use of the containers, each container has a number, that is
the reading number. You can change the reading order by dragging these items
and dragging them. Grabbed this number seven, it should be number four. So
you'll notice the reading order now is correct, 123-4567. If they come to
this content they should be able to get to it and navigate through correctly.
The touch operating order tool does have its limitations. Only so many tags
you can pre- within it it it really well save you a lot of time. You'll notice
that even though I created this document correctly in Acrobat, inward, there
still were a few issues with it. So there were some improvements to be made
in Acrobat. That is a reality, you can do quite a bit and he relishes Arden
office or in design, for example the document -- she cheats that were created
in design so those documents were created in design and accessibility mine.
Once they were exported to PDF there is very little that needed to be done to
improve the accessibility. There were almost perfect as is. They're really is
the secret. If you have the source document and word document, or PowerPoint
or design file or whatever was used to create it, you can -- you should, you
really should do as much as you can to make that document accessible in the
first place and after you do that, then you can clean up or improve the
accessibility in Acrobat.

There are a couple final things I want to show you. There is this form field
recognition and if you sometimes people create forms in Word and they may do
it by creating a text box and -- and they may do that but reading some text
and then say underline or they do it in a table with a first field is the
label. And then you have an empty box next to it which is -- if you enter
data. If you do not, not that I recommend it, if you're doing that, there is
this form field recognition that you can run Jenny pretty good guessing and
this is a most warm fields within Acrobat. Change and improve that
Association but and it's a beyond what we can talk about today. HTML is the
best format for forms but if that is something you have this form field
recognition could save you quite a bit of time. The final thing that I wanted
to point out is the accessibility report. You can run and accessibility report
that will -- I will go back to this image and this figure right here, go to
the properties, it had that alternative text, delete the alternative text so
and I have an image with no alternative text and I will run this
accessibility report. There is an excess builder report, I am going to do the
full check, that one is easier. I run the full check and I say I want you to
give me all kinds of stuff and the default options. My resolution is so low
that I'm not able to see the bottom of this field here. I will have to drag
it over here for just a second. We found some problems, and it opened the
accessibility report. It will play with the problems are. Structure errors,
specifically image with no alternative text. It will highlight this image and
if I right-click, I can edit alternate text so it does help walk you through
some of the potential accessibility issues.

This window pops up, Adobe, alternative text, and now this has alternative
text. That can saves you some time especially if you're starting with
something that has a man tag very well to begin with. You may want to run that
accessibility check. Within this text panel, sometimes you do have a document
and the document might have some either one of two things. Poorly tagged or
the tag just don't exist to cut that was incredible tags in the first place.
Delete tag, and I have no tags available. This document is now not take. Worth
mentioning, I can't undo this, you can't do a lot when you're working with
and Acrobat, you will want to save often, save this document as often as you
can, make sure to back it up regularly because you will make some mistakes
and it's very difficult or impossible to go back. Now I have these note tags
available. Him I will say add tags and Acrobat will think to say I will best
of the best tag structure for this document and it does, it gives you tag
structure for the document, you'll notice on this first teddy bear, it marks -
- it's very, age four, it did get to the figure. A good guess but this was a
list, did Beckley guess it inserted a bunch of empty table headers as well so
that's an issue. An empty cell with content and an empty cell, you need to
go through and delete those cells. Sometimes it other than nothing if you do
have an untagged document. Those other things I wanted to show you and those
rituals, I highly recommend you refer back to those handouts that were
We have a few minutes, ten minutes left for any questions. I will stop talking
and turn it over to any questions regarding any thing we discussed.

While we're waiting for some questions, we will go ahead and open up the
evaluation for those of you that are getting ready to head out. Want to make
sure that you have a second to take that. We do really appreciate your
feedback on these kinds of events. Just wanted to mention also that the
PowerPoint and also the resources that were shown today are going to be
posted on the website that just appeared in the chat. And Jonathan, I see
there's a question math from Mark about what you said -- ages that we
shouldn't use a PDF form? Wasn't sure if he heard you correctly.

I mentioned in there, it's preferable to use HTML, PDS can be is to great
forms and you can take those farms, but it's not a recommendation but the good
news is if you do have PDF forms, you can make them accessible.

Okay, great. I also want to post one more time the link to all of the
resources although we will post a link to the EL eyesight as well. If there
are no other questions, then on behalf of our participants, we thank our
presenters for sharing our insights with us today. I would like to thank all
of you, our audience, for participating a two-day seminar leader much why
your feedback on today's session and so if you do have a minute, please take
two-day survey and it really is very short. It should only take a minute or
two. And its good to take that survey when the content is fresh in your mind
so please do that for us. As always, we look for to having you join us for
our next EL I am EIN seminar which will be on September 12 -- September 24
and we will be taking a deeper dive on designing learning for mobile
environments during that seminar. On behalf of my associate, Malcolm Brown,
my colleague, Victoria -- and Lauren -- take you very much for joining us
today. [ Event Concluded ]

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