Name: ____________________________________ Per _______
Unit 3: Cells
I. Structure & Function
A. Intro to Cells
Robert Hooke o nucleus
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek nuclear membrane
cell Theory nuclear plasm
cell Diversity nucleolus
o size chromatin
o shape o Plant Cell
o structure cell wall
B. Parts of Eukaryotic Cells
cell membrane C. Levels of Organization
o semi-permeable organelles
o fluid mosaic model cells
o mitochondria organs
o ribosome organ system
o endoplasmic reticulum organism
smooth ER II. Homeostasis and Transport
o Golgi apparatus A. Passive Transport
o lysosome diffusion
o cytoskeleton osmosis
microfilaments hypotonic solution
microtubules hypertonic solution
centrioles isotonic solution
o flagella B. Active Transport
I. Structure and Function of the Cell
A. Introduction to the Cell
1665- Robert Hooke: observed dead _____________ cells
1673- Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: first to observe living cells
1838- Schleiden: “all plants are made of cells”
1839- Schwann: “all animals are made of cells”
1855- Virchow: “cells come from other cells”
all living things are composed of one or more
cells are the units of structure and function in an
cells arise only from replication of
there are 300 different kinds of cells in the human body differing in:
o varies from being large enough to see easily (frog egg) to being microscopic. Most are 10 to 50
microns in diameter
o Most cells are small for two main reasons:
a). nucleus can only control a certain volume of active ____________________.
b). Cells are limited in size by their __________________ area to volume ratio. A group of
small cells has a relatively __________________ surface area than a single large cell of the
nutrients, oxygen, and other materials a cell requires must enter through its surface. As
a cell grows larger at some point its surface area becomes too small to allow these
materials to enter the cell quickly enough to meet the cell's need.
o dependent on
o ex. nerve cells
red blood cells
3) internal structure:
-no nuclear membrane -have nuclear membranes
-lack many organelles -have most ______________________
ex. __________________________ ex. ____________________ cell
B. Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell
aka plasma membrane
gives cell shape and controls passage of materials
into and out of the cell (semi-permeable or
cell membrane made of 2 layers of lipid
(phospholipid) with embedded
proteins attached to surface could be hormone ____________________, enzymes or cell recognition
proteins (or antigens)
____________________ proteins needed to pass substances through membrane
cell membrane referred to as a “fluid mosaic”, or dynamic structure that is constantly changing
colloidal suspension called the cytosol
may circulate or stream in cells (___________________________)
________________ + ________________________ = cytoplasm
centers of cell respiration- break down food to release energy to ATP
more numerous in cells requiring a lot of energy. Ex. _____________________
cristae increase surface area for chemical reactions that release 95% of energy in cell
mitochondria have their own DNA; reproduce themselves: origin?
= ___________________ factories of cell
most common organelle
attached to ER (= rough ER) or scattered in cytoplasm
o endoplasmic reticulum
= double membrane canal system between nucleus and cell content
internal ______________________ system of cell
two types of ER:
rough ER: ribosomes attached
most prominent in cells that export many proteins
smooth ER: no ribosomes
makes steroids in gland
controls calcium levels in muscles
breaks down toxins in ___________________
= protein packaging factories
involved in secretion
= sacs of proteolytic enzymes
involved in breakdown of food molecules, old organelles,
made from pieces of Golgi bodies that break off
common in animal cells; rare in ________________ cells
made of protein strands
involved in movement of cell content, muscle contraction
slender, hollow protein tubes
maintain the shape of the cell.
serve as tracks for organelles to move along within the cell.
form the centriole.
two bundles of microtubules at right-angles to each other.
each bundle contains 9 tubes in a very characteristic
at the start of cell division, the centriole divides, and one half moves to each end of the cell,
forming the spindle.
spindle fibers are later shortened to pull the chromosomes apart.
o cilia and flagella
assist in movement of cells
cilia are short and numerous on cell surface. Ex. __________________
flagella are long and there are fewer. Ex. euglena
control center of cell
usually the largest organelle
o nuclear membrane
not solid barrier
contains DNA and RNA
involved in synthesis of ribosomes
thin strands of chromosomal material
that become shortened into chromosomes
during cell ____________________
Special Structures in Plant Cells
surrounds cell membrane of plant cells; __________________ and ____________________
made up of middle lamella (pectin), thin primary walls (cellulose and pectin), and secondary walls (thick,
____________________ enzymes and metabolic wastes
very large in some plant cells
make or store ______________________
some are chemical factories
o site of _____________________________
o contain _______________________
pigment chlorophyll in grana
other pigments: xanthophylls, carotenes
some are storage facilities
ex. leucoplasts in potatoes
plant cells only
Fill in the chart.
Golgi apparatus (Golgi body)
Draw the picture and fill in each column for each organelle at the different stations.
station picture of organelle name function
Name _______________________________________ Per. ______
Animal Cell Coloring
I. Directions: Color each part of the cell its designated color.
Cell Membrane(light brown) Nucleolus (black) Mitochondria (orange)
Cytoplasm (light yellow) Golgi Apparatus (pink) Lysosome (purple)
Microtubules (dark green)
Nucleoplasm (pink) Flagella (red/blue striped)
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (dark blue)
Nuclear Membrane(dark brown) Ribosome (red)
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum( light blue)
II. Briefly describe the function of the cell parts.
1. Cell membrane ___________________________________________________________________
2. Endoplasmic Reticulum _____________________________________________________________
3. Ribosome _______________________________________________________________________
4. Golgi Apparatus __________________________________________________________________
5. Lysosome _______________________________________________________________________
6. Microtubule _____________________________________________________________________
7. Mitochondria ____________________________________________________________________
8. Nucleus ________________________________________________________________________
Plant Cell Coloring
Cell Membrane (orange) Cell Wall (dark green) Ribosome (purple)
Nucleoplasm (yellow) Nucleolus (brown) Cytoplasm (white)
Mitochondria (red) Chloroplasts (light green) Golgi Apparatus (dk blue)
Vacuole (lt. Blue) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (pink)
Chromatin (gray) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (pink)
1. Name two things found in a plant cell that are not found in an animal cell:
2. How does the shape of a plant cell differ from that of an animal cell? __________________________
3. What is the function of the chloroplasts? _______________________________________________
4. What is the function of the vacuole? __________________________________________________
Comparing Plant And Animal Cells
Directions: Complete the chart below, then answer the questions.
Cell Part or Organelle Is It Found In A Plant Cell? Is It Found In A Animal Cell?
1. What cell parts do Animal cells have that Plant cells do not have?
2. What cell parts do Plant cells have that Animal cells do not have?
3. Why do Plant cells have cell walls and Animal cells do not?
4. Why do think Plant cells have bigger vacuoles than Animal cells?
1. Most of the reactions of aerobic cellular respiration occur within the organelle known as the
2. What is the basic unit of structure and function in all living things?
Animal Cells Plant Cells
1. Which metabolic process is most closely associated with the
organelle represented in the diagram?
A. intracellular digestion
B. cellular respiration
C. synthesis of glycogen
D. hydrolysis of lipid
2. Which cell structure is represented by the three-dimensional diagram?
C. plasma membrane
D. replicated chromosome
Cell City Analogy
In a far away city called Grant City, the main export and production product is the steel widget. Everyone
in the town has something to do with steel widget making and the entire town is designed to build and
export widgets. The town hall has the instructions for widget making, widgets come in all shapes and sizes
and any citizen of Grant can get the instructions and begin making their own widgets. Widgets are generally
produced in small shops around the city, these small shops can be built by the carpenter's union (whose
headquarters are in town hall).
After the widget is constructed, they are placed on special carts which can deliver the widget anywhere in
the city. In order for a widget to be exported, the carts take the widget to the postal office, where the
widgets are packaged and labeled for export. Sometimes widgets don't turn out right, and the "rejects"
are sent to the scrap yard where they are broken down for parts or destroyed altogether. The town
powers the widget shops and carts from a hydraulic dam that is in the city. The entire city is enclosed by a
large wooden fence, only the postal trucks (and citizens with proper passports) are allowed outside the
Match the parts of the city (underlined) with the parts of the cell.
2. Ribosomes _____________________________________________
3. Nucleus _____________________________________________
6. Protein _____________________________________________
8. Lysosomes ____________________________________________________________
9. Nucleolus _____________________________________________
** Create your own analogy of the cell using a different model. Some ideas might be: a school, a house, a
factory, or anything you can imagine**
In the space provided below describe the function of each cell organelle and then state what person in your
school serves a similar function in your school.
Plant Organelle Function within the Plant cell Who at your school has a similar job?
Plasma (Cell) Membrane
_____1. All of the cell shapes shown in the diagrams below have the same volume. Which form could
absorb nutrients most efficiently and quickly?
A. B. C. D.
_____2. Every single-celled organism is able to survive because it carries out
A. metabolic activities
B. autotrophic nutrition
C. heterotrophic nutrition
D. sexual reproduction
_____3. Which diagram represents an organelle that contains the enzymes needed to synthesize ATP in
the presence of oxygen?
_____4. The ability of certain hormones to attach to a cell is primarily determined by the
A. receptor molecules in the cell membrane C. amount of DNA in the cell
B. proteins in the cytoplasm of the cell D. concentration of salts outside the cell
_____5. Which letter indicates a cell structure that directly controls the
movement of molecules into and out of the cell?
_____6. In a cell, information that controls the production of proteins must pass from the nucleus to the
A. cell membrane C. mitochondria
B. chloroplasts D. ribosomes
_____7. Muscle cells in athletes often have more mitochondria than muscle cells in nonathletes. Based on
this observation, it can be inferred that the muscle cells in athletes
A. have a smaller demand for cell proteins than the muscle cells of nonathletes
B. reproduce less frequently than the muscle cells of nonathletes
C. have nuclei containing more DNA than nuclei in the muscle cells of nonathletes
D. have a greater demand for energy than the muscle cells of nonathletes
_____8. Homeostasis in unicellular organisms depends on the proper functioning of
A. organelles C. guard cells
B. insulin D. antibodies
_____9. Some human body cells are shown in the diagrams below.
These groups of cells represent different
A. tissues in which similar cells function together
B. organs that help to carry out a specific life activity
C. systems that are responsible for a specific life activity
D. organelles that carry out different functions
____10. While viewing a slide of rapidly moving sperm cells, a student concludes that these cells require a
large amount of energy to maintain their activity. The organelles that most directly provide this energy are
A. vacuoles C. chloroplasts
B. ribosomes D. mitochondria
____11. Which organelle is correctly paired with its specific function?
A. cell membrane—storage of hereditary information
B. chloroplast—transport of materials
C. ribosome—synthesis of proteins
D. vacuole—production of ATP
____12. Most of the hereditary information that determines the traits of an organism is located in
A. only those cells of an individual produced by meiosis
B. the nuclei of body cells of an individual
C. certain genes in the vacuoles of body cells
D. the numerous ribosomes in certain cells
____13. Which cell structure contains information needed for protein synthesis?
A. 1 C. 3
B. 2 D. 4
Base your answers to the questions 14 and 15 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagrams represent two different cells and some of their parts. The diagrams are not drawn to scale.
13. Identify an organelle in cell A that is the site of autotrophic nutrition. ________________________
14. Identify the organelle labeled X in cell B. ______________________________________________
C. Levels of Cellular Organization
unicellular colonial multicellular
ex. paramecium ex. Volvox ex. human
can carry out all life collection of genetically many cells with cell
processes in single cell identical cells living together specialization apparent
cells are organized into:
o a group of closely related _____________ functioning as a unit
o Ex. ______________________________________________
o allows specialization (division of labor)
o several tissues working as a unit
o Ex. ______________________________________________
o several organs working together as a unit
o Ex. ______________________________________________
o complete functioning living thing
_____1. Which sequence represents the correct order of levels of organization found in a complex
A. cells → organelles → organs → organ systems → tissues
B. tissues → organs → organ systems → organelles → cells
C. organelles → cells → tissues → organs → organ systems
D. organs → organ systems → cells → tissues → organelles
_____2. The diagram below represents levels of organization in living things.
Which term would best represent X?
A. human C. stomach
B. tissue D. organelle
_____3. Which statement best compares a multicellular organism to a single-celled organism?
A. A multicellular organism has organ systems that interact to carry out life functions, while a single-
celled organism carries out life functions without using organ systems.
B. A single-celled organism carries out fewer life functions than each cell of a multicellular organism.
C. A multicellular organism always obtains energy through a process that is different from that used
by a single-celled organism.
D. The cell of a single-celled organism is always much larger than an individual cell of a multicellular
_____4. Which sequence represents the correct order of organization in complex organisms?
A. tissues → organs → systems → cells
B. organs → tissues → systems → cells
C. systems → organs → cells → tissues
D. cells → tissues → organs → systems
II. Homeostasis and Transport
A. Passive Transport
movement of substance across the cell membrane without any energy input from cell
movement of molecules from an area of _________________ concentration to an area of
driven by kinetic energy of the molecules down the concentration gradient
usually results in equilibrium (concentration of molecules is the same throughout)
molecules can diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane
movement of ________________ molecules across a semi-permeable membrane from an
area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
does not require energy, therefore a form of passive transport
o hypotonic solution
water concentration lower inside cell/ greater outside cell
Ex. distilled and __________________ water
provides plant cells with ____________________ pressure
loss of turgor pressure results in wilting
in animal cells, may result in cytolysis (bursting of cell)
protozoa cells use contractile vacuoles to remove excess water
animals use kidneys & lungs
o hypertonic solution
water concentration greater inside cell/ lower outside cell
Ex. salt solution
if allowed to continue, results in loss of turgor pressure and shrinking of cell content=
o isotonic solution
has same concentration inside and __________________ cell
Ex. Ringers saline solution
osmosis and diffusion are physical processes: do not require
only small molecules pass freely through cell membrane
large molecules that are lipid soluble can also pass
speed up diffusion by carrier proteins in a process called
Ex. movement of glucose across cell membranes
carriers are specific for types of molecules
ion channels allow passage of several kinds of ions across
B. Active Transport
moving molecules up concentration gradient; requires ______________________
carrier proteins can also serve during active transport; called “pumps”
o sodium-potassium pump
works to maintain a higher concentration of Na+ ions inside the cell and higher concentration
of K+ ions outside the cell
works against the concentration gradient, so requires energy
establishes an electrical gradient across cell membrane necessary for nerve impulse conduction
1. One way cells maintain homeostasis is by controlling the movement of substances across the [ cell
membrane / cytoplasm ].
2. Movement across the cell membrane that does not require energy is called [ active / passive ] transport.
3. The difference in the concentration of a substance across a space is called a concentration [ equilibrium
/ gradient ].
4. If there is a concentration gradient, substances will move from an area of high concentration to an area
of [ equal / low ] concentration.
5. The cell membrane is [ selectively permeable / impermeable ].
6. [ Equilibrium / Diffusion ] is the simplest type of passive transport.
7. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called [ osmosis / diffusion ].
8. The direction of water movement across the cell membrane depends on the concentration of free water
[ molecules / solutions ].
9. A solution that causes a cell to swell is called a [ hypertonic / hypotonic ] solution.
10. Organelles that collect excess water inside the cell and force water out are called [ diffusion
organelles / contractile vacuoles ]
11. The process of taking material into the cell by infolding the cell membrane is called [ endocytosis /
12. In [ facilitated / molecular ] diffusion, membrane proteins help molecules across the membrane.
13. In diffusion, molecules [ spread out / condense ]
14. The lipid bilayer describes [ a type of transport / the cell membrane ]
15. Facilitated diffusion moves substances down their concentration gradient [ with / without ] using the
_____1. The diagram represents a cell in water. Formulas of
molecules that can move freely across the cell membrane are
shown. Some molecules are located inside the cell and others
are in the water outside the cell. Based on the distribution of
these molecules, what would most likely happen after a period of
A. The concentration of O2 will increase inside the cell.
B. The concentration of CO2 will remain the same inside
C. The concentration of O2 will remain the same outside
D. The concentration of CO2 will decrease outside the cell.
_____2. The process of osmosis would explain the net movement of water into a cell if the percentage of
A. water was 90% inside the cell and 95% outside the cell
B. protein was 30% inside the cell and 35% outside the cell
C. water was 95% inside the cell and 90% outside the cell
D. water and protein was equal inside and outside the cell
A biologist observed a plant cell in a drop of water as shown in diagram A. The biologist added a 10% salt
solution to the slide and observed the cell as shown in diagram B. The change in appearance of the cell
A. more salt moving out of the cell than into the cell
B. more salt moving into the cell than out of the cell
C. more water moving into the cell than out of the cell
D. more water moving out of the cell than into the cell
The diagram represents movement of a large molecule across a membrane.
Which process is best represented in this diagram?
A. active transport
C. protein building
D. gene manipulation
_____5. Which section is not part of the cell theory?
A. Cells are the structural units in living things.
B. Cells are the functional units in living things.
C. New cells arise from preexisting cells.
D. New cells have nuclei identical to those of preexisting cells.
_____6. Since cyanide is a poison that limits a cell’s ability to manufacture ATP, a cell containing cyanide is
least likely to carry on the process of
A. passive transport C. active transport
B. osmosis D. diffusion
_____7. The diagram below represents a container of water and two different kinds of molecules, A and B,
separated into two chambers by a membrane through which only water and molecule A can pass.
Which diagram of the container below correctly indicates the distribution of molecules A and B after the
net movement of these molecules stops?
_____8. Which row in the chart below best describes the active transport of molecule X through a cell
Row Movement of Molecule X ATP
high concentration → used
high concentration → not used
low concentration → used
low concentration → not used
_____9. If frog eggs taken from a freshwater pond are placed in a saltwater aquarium, what will most
A. Water will leave the eggs.
B. Salt will leave the eggs.
C. Water will neither enter nor leave the eggs.
D. The eggs will burst.
____10. Damage to which structure will most directly disrupt water balance within a single-celled
A. ribosome C. nucleus
B. cell membrane D. chloroplast
____11. When humans perspire, water, urea, and salts containing sodium are removed from the blood.
Drinking water during extended periods of physical exercise replenishes the water but not the sodium. This
increase in water dilutes the blood and may result in the concentration of sodium dropping low enough to
cause a condition known as hyponatremia.
Symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, nausea, and lack of coordination. Left untreated, it can lead
to coma and even death. The body has a variety of feedback mechanisms that assist in regulating water and
sodium concentrations in the blood. The kidneys play a major role in these mechanisms, as they filter the
blood and produce urine.
The best way to reduce the symptoms of hyponatremia would be to
A. drink more water C. eat salty foods
B. eat chocolate D. drink cranberry juice
____12. Most of the reactions of aerobic cellular respiration occur within the organelle known as the
A. lysosome C. mitochondrion
B. nucleus D. vacuole
_____13. Certain poisons are toxic to organisms because they interfere with the function of enzymes in
mitochondria. This results directly in the inability of the cell to
A. store information C. release energy from nutrients
B. build proteins D. dispose of metabolic wastes
____14. Scientists studying ocean organisms are discovering new and unusual species. Which observation
could be used to determine that an ocean organism carries out autotrophic nutrition?
A. Chloroplasts are visible inside the cells.
B. Digestive organs are visible upon dissection.
C. The organism lives close to the surface.
D. The organism synthesizes enzymes to digest food.
____15. The diagram below represents a portion of a cell membrane.
Which structure may function in the recognition of chemical signals?
A. A C. C
B. B D. D