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Father of the Microscope Father to the term "Cell" • Botanist first to study plant cells. • Studied animal cells first • Plants cells made other plant cells • Animal cells made other animal cells proposed the cell theory in 1838 •cell biology research was forever changed. states that: used a crude compound microscope to view a cork and seen honey comb shapes in 1665. He coined the term cells since they reminded him of the small box cells Monks lived in. Microscopes - magnify things not visible with human eyesight alone. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek , used a single lens to view cells in the 1600’s. in the 1830’s • viewed organisms underneath microscopes and verified that all living things are made of cells. Microscope • has a series of lenses that magnifies the object in steps. Microscope - • electrons are aimed in a beam through a magnetic field to focus them then, through or over a specimen in a vacuum, and finally onto a screen where it forms a image. Cells have to be limited in size by natural laws. • enough to hold the essential components • enough to accommodate nutrients received and disposed. Large cells have less surface volume relative to its size than small cells. • So the bigger the cell doesn’t mean more effective. The smaller cells can be serviced better by the cytoplasm. Computer chip technology • is similar to this natural phenomena. Eukaryote CELLS (PLANT, ANIMAL, PROTIST & FUNGI) • range from 10 micrometers to 100 micrometers in diameter. PROKAROTE CELLS (BACTERIA) • are a lot smaller and structurally simple is the first type of cell to evolve, there are NO internal organelle structures. It has DNA and cytoplasm and most likely single celled. Bacterial Cells Capsules – • Act as cell walls Circular DNA • Genetic information coiled DNA • No membrane for nucleoid region. Prokaryotic cells • are small and structurally simple • Simple membrane bound cytoplasm • DNA • RNA All Bacteria cells are Prokaryotes They can be single cell or multi- cellular organisms. Eukaryote - The second type of cell formed. Complexity • Organelles Nuclei Plants have cell walls Large Vacuole Multi cellular and Unicellular types have: • Plant - multi • Animal - multi • Protist – single and multi • Fungi - single and multi Cell Composition Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus Cell Wall (only in plants) Animal & Plant Cell ORGANELLES Eukaryotic cells have functional compartments: NUCLEUS – Contains: • DNA – stores genetic information • RNA – transmits genetic information Messenger - mRNA Transfer – tRNA Ribosomal - rRNA Ribosome - makes proteins • Assembles amino acids into polypeptides polymers. Animal & Plant Cell ORGANELLES Flagella – motor transport of cell (Animal & Protists) Centriole– helps cell division (Animal) Lysosome – breaks down particles. (Animal) Golgi Apparatus – stores and packages Plasma Membrane – regulates entry in to the cell and maintains homeostasis Animal & Plant Cell Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport passage for the cells chemicals. Types of E.R.: • Smooth – no ribosomes • Rough – with ribosomes Animal Cell Organelles Mitochondrion – energy generator of the cell (battery) Cytoskeleton – Supports the cells structure • Microtubule – comprises the cytoskeleton • Microfilament - comprises the cytoskeleton Plant Cell Organelles Cell Wall – Composed of Cellulose • Give strength and structure to plants Vacuole - Storage Chloroplast – Absorb sunlight for photosynthesis. 1. All life forms are made from one or more cells. 2. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. 3. The cell is the smallest form of life. Cells The Cell Theory Schleiden and Schwann proposed the cell theory in 1838, • cell biology research was forever changed.
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