The CELL by 7PVXUDv

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									Father of the Microscope




Father to the term "Cell"
• Botanist first to study plant
  cells.




• Studied animal cells first
• Plants cells made other plant
  cells

• Animal cells made other
 animal cells
   proposed the cell theory in
    1838
    •cell biology research was
     forever changed.
states that:
   used a crude compound microscope to
    view a cork and seen honey comb
    shapes in 1665.
    He coined the term cells since they
    reminded him of the small box cells
    Monks lived in.
    Microscopes - magnify things not
    visible with human eyesight alone.



     Anton Van Leeuwenhoek , used a
    single lens to view cells in the
    1600’s.

    in the 1830’s



    • viewed organisms underneath
      microscopes and verified that all
      living things are made of cells.
                 Microscope
    • has a series of lenses that magnifies
     the object in steps.

               Microscope -

    • electrons are aimed in a beam through
      a magnetic field to focus them then,
      through or over a specimen in a
      vacuum, and finally onto a screen where
      it forms a image.
   Cells have to be limited in size by
    natural laws.

    •           enough to hold the
        essential components

    •          enough to accommodate
        nutrients received and disposed.
   Large cells have less surface volume
    relative to its size than small cells.

    • So the bigger the cell doesn’t mean
      more effective.


    The smaller cells can be serviced
    better by the cytoplasm.
   Computer chip technology

    • is similar to this natural
     phenomena.
   Eukaryote CELLS   (PLANT, ANIMAL, PROTIST &
    FUNGI)

    • range from 10 micrometers to 100
     micrometers in diameter.

   PROKAROTE CELLS (BACTERIA)
    • are a lot smaller and structurally
      simple
   is the first type of cell to evolve,
    there are NO internal organelle
    structures.
    It has DNA and cytoplasm and most
    likely single celled.
   Bacterial Cells
   Capsules –
    • Act as cell walls


   Circular DNA
    • Genetic information
         coiled DNA
           • No membrane for nucleoid region.
   Prokaryotic cells

    • are small and structurally simple

    • Simple membrane bound cytoplasm

    • DNA

    • RNA

   All Bacteria cells are Prokaryotes
   They can be single cell or multi-
    cellular organisms.




   Eukaryote - The second type of cell
    formed.
   Complexity

    • Organelles

         Nuclei

         Plants have cell walls

         Large Vacuole
   Multi cellular and Unicellular
    types have:
    • Plant - multi

    • Animal - multi


    • Protist – single and multi


    • Fungi - single and multi
         Cell Composition
   Plasma membrane

   Cytoplasm

   Organelles

   Nucleus


   Cell Wall (only in plants)
Animal & Plant Cell ORGANELLES
   Eukaryotic cells have functional compartments:


   NUCLEUS – Contains:
    • DNA – stores genetic information
    • RNA – transmits genetic information
          Messenger - mRNA

          Transfer – tRNA

          Ribosomal - rRNA


   Ribosome - makes proteins
    • Assembles amino acids into polypeptides
      polymers.
Animal & Plant Cell ORGANELLES
   Flagella – motor transport of cell (Animal &
    Protists)


   Centriole– helps cell division (Animal)

   Lysosome – breaks down particles. (Animal)

   Golgi Apparatus – stores and packages

   Plasma Membrane – regulates entry in to
    the cell and maintains homeostasis
    Animal & Plant Cell Organelles
   Endoplasmic Reticulum
   Transport passage for the cells
    chemicals.
   Types of E.R.:
     • Smooth – no ribosomes

     • Rough – with ribosomes
        Animal Cell Organelles
   Mitochondrion – energy generator of the
    cell (battery)




   Cytoskeleton – Supports the cells
    structure
    • Microtubule – comprises the cytoskeleton
    • Microfilament - comprises the cytoskeleton
         Plant Cell Organelles
   Cell Wall – Composed of Cellulose
    • Give strength and structure to plants


   Vacuole - Storage



    Chloroplast – Absorb sunlight for
    photosynthesis.
   1. All life forms are made from one
    or more cells.

    2. Cells only arise from pre-existing
    cells.

    3. The cell is the smallest form of
    life. Cells
           The Cell Theory

   Schleiden and Schwann proposed the
    cell theory in 1838,

    • cell biology research was
     forever changed.

								
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