AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 24.docx

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					Chapter 24: The Origin of Species

Overview

1. What was Darwin’s “mystery of mysteries”?
•In the Galápagos Islands Darwin discovered plants and animals found
    nowhere else on Earth

2. Define speciation.
•Speciation, the origin of new species, is at the focal point of
    evolutionary theory
•Evolutionary theory must explain how new species originate and how
    populations evolve

3. Distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution.
•Microevolution consists of adaptations that evolve within a population,
    confined to one gene pool
•Macroevolution refers to evolutionary change above the species level

Concept 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes reproductive
isolation

4. Use the biological species concept to define species.
•Species is a Latin word meaning “kind” or “appearance”
•Biologists compare morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and DNA
     sequences when grouping organisms
•The biological species concept states that a species is a group of
     populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in
     nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed
     successfully with other populations
•Gene flow between populations holds the phenotype of a population
     together

5. What is required for the formation of new species?
•Reproductive isolation is the existence of biological factors (barriers)
    that impede two species from producing viable, fertile offspring
•Reproductive isolation can be classified by whether factors act before
    or after fertilization
6. What are hybrids?
•Hybrids are the offspring of crosses between different species

7. Explain the two types of barriers that maintain reproductive
     isolation.
•Prezygotic barriers block fertilization from occurring by:
–Impeding different species from attempting to mate
–Preventing the successful completion of mating
–Hindering fertilization if mating is successful

•Behavioral isolation: Courtship rituals and other behaviors unique to a
    species are effective barriers

8. The following charts summarize the various ways that reproductive
    isolation is maintained. Explain and give an example of each type of
    isolating mechanism.

Prezygotic     Explanation                              Example
Reproductive
Barriers
Habitat        Habitat isolation: Two species           Water-dwelling
isolation          encounter each other rarely, or      Thamnophis;
                   not at all, because they occupy      and
                   different habitats, even though      Terrestrial
                   not isolated by physical barriers    Thamnophis

Temporal       •Temporal isolation: Species that        Eastern
isolation          breed at different times of the      spotted skunk
                   day, different seasons, or           (Spilogale
                   different years cannot mix their     putorius)
                   gametes                              ; and
                                                        Western
                                                        spotted skunk
                                                        (Spilogale
                                                        gracilis
Behavioral     •Behavioral isolation: Courtship rituals Courtship ritual
isolation          and other behaviors unique to a of blue-
                    species are effective barriers        footed boobies
Mechanical      •Mechanical isolation: Morphological      Bradybaena
isolation           differences can prevent successful    with shells
                    mating                                spiraling in
                                                          opposite
                                                          directions
Gametic         •Gametic isolation: Sperm of one          Sea urchins
isolation           species may not be able to
                    fertilize eggs of another species

Postzygotic              Explanation                          Example
Reproductive Barriers
•Postzygotic barriers
prevent the hybrid
zygote from
developing into a
viable, fertile adult:
Reduced         hybrid •Reduced hybrid viability: Genes       Ensatina
viability                  of the different parent            hybrid
                           species may interact and
                           impair the hybrid’s
                           development
Reduced         hybrid •Reduced hybrid fertility: Even if     Donkey,
fertility                  hybrids are vigorous, they         Horse,
                           may be sterile                     Mule (sterile
                                                              hybrid
Hybrid breakdown         •Hybrid breakdown: Some first-       Hybrid
                             generation     hybrids     are   cultivated
                             fertile, but when they mate      rice plants
                             with another species or with     with
                             either     parent     species,   stunted
                             offspring    of   the    next    offspring
                             generation are feeble or         (center)
                             sterile

9. The concept of reproductive isolation is essential for an understanding
of speciation, so we are going to have you look at it again. Refer to
Figure 24:4, and label the sketch below. Name each type of isolating
mechanism
Concept 24.2: Speciation can take place with or without geographic
separation

10. Gene flow can be interrupted in two main ways. Explain and give an
example of each by labeling an annotating the figure. Which shows an
ancestral species of fish and then the two modes of speciation.
11. What type of speciation is caused by a barrier, for instance like
the Grand Canyon?
Allopatric (“Other Country”) speciation
•In allopatric speciation, gene flow is interrupted or reduced when a
population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations

The Process of Allopatric Speciation
•The definition of barrier depends on the ability of a population to
disperse
•Separate populations may evolve independently through mutation,
natural selection, and genetic drift

Evidence of Allopatric Speciation
•Regions with many geographic barriers typically have more species than
do regions with fewer barriers
•Reproductive isolation between populations generally increases as the
distance between them increases

•Barriers to reproduction are intrinsic; separation itself is not a
biological barrier

12. Sympatric speciation occurs in populations that live in the same
geographic area. How is this possible?
•In sympatric speciation, speciation takes place in geographically
overlapping populations

13. Response to Question 13 should list polyploidy, habitat
differentiation, and sexual selection.
Polyploidy
•Polyploidy is the presence of extra sets of chromosomes due to
accidents during cell division

Auto-polyploidy
•An autopolyploid is an individual with more than two chromosome sets,
derived from one species




Habitat Differentiation
•Sympatric speciation can also result from the appearance of new
ecological niches
•For example, the North American maggot fly can live on native
hawthorn trees as well as more recently introduced apple trees

Sexual Selection
•Sexual selection can drive sympatric speciation
Sexual selection for mates of different colors has likely contributed to
the speciation in cichlid fish in Lake Victoria

14. Use the figure below to explain allopolyploid speciation.
Allopolyploid speciation
•An allopolyploid is a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived
from different species




•Polyploidy is much more common in plants than in animals
•Many important crops (oats, cotton, potatoes, tobacco, and wheat) are
polyploids

Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Review’

 •In allopatric speciation, geographic isolation restricts gene flow
between populations
•Reproductive isolation may then arise by natural selection, genetic
drift, or sexual selection in the isolated populations
•Even if contact is restored between populations, interbreeding is
prevented

•In sympatric speciation, a reproductive barrier isolates a subset of a
population without geographic separation from the parent species
•Sympatric speciation can result from polyploidy, natural selection, or
sexual selection

15. Before we leave allopatric and sympatric speciation, explain what
happens in sexual selection, and how this process can drive sympatric
speciation.
Sexual Selection
•Sexual selection can drive sympatric speciation
Sexual selection for mates of different colors has likely contributed to
the speciation in cichlid fish in Lake Victoria
•In sympatric speciation, a reproductive barrier isolates a subset of a
population without geographic separation from the parent species
•Sympatric speciation can result from polyploidy, natural selection, or
sexual selection

Concept 24.3: Hybrid zones provide opportunities to study factors that
cause reproductive isolation

16. What are hybrid zones?
•A hybrid zone is a region in which members of different species mate
and produce hybrids
Patterns Within Hybrid Zones
•A hybrid zone can occur in a single band where adjacent species meet
•Hybrids often have reduced fitness compared with parent species
•The distribution of hybrid zones can be more complex if parent species
are found in multiple habitats within the same region

Concept 24.4: Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can result from
changes in few or many genes
•Many questions remain concerning how long it takes for new species to
form, or how many genes need to differ between species
The Time Course of Speciation
•Broad patterns in speciation can be studied using the fossil record,
morphological data, or molecular data

Patterns in the Fossil Record
•The fossil record includes examples of species that appear suddenly,
persist essentially unchanged for some time, and then apparently
disappear

17. Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould coined the term punctuated
equilibrium. What is meant by a punctuated pattern?
•Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould coined the term punctuated
equilibrium to describe periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden
change
•The punctuated equilibrium model contrasts with a model of gradual
change in a species’ existence

 18. The figure bellows shows two different views of speciation. Label,
and explain how each of the pictures explains speciation.




Speciation Rates
•The punctuated pattern in the fossil record and evidence from lab
studies suggests that speciation can be rapid
•The interval between speciation events can range from 4,000 years
(some cichlids) to 40,000,000 years (some beetles), with an average of
6,500,000 years

Studying the Genetics of Speciation
•The explosion of genomics is enabling researchers to identify specific
genes involved in some cases of speciation
•Depending on the species in question, speciation might require the
change of only a single allele or many alleles

From Speciation to Macroevolution
•Macroevolution is the cumulative effect of many speciation and
extinction events

Testing Your Knowledge: Self-Quiz Answers
Now you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers
here:

1.________ 2.________ 3.________ 4._________ 5. _________
6.________

				
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