Concepts of State and Government Political Theories / Political by N07os1e5

VIEWS: 44 PAGES: 24

									  Concepts of State and Government

Objectives:

a) Familiarity with basic concepts related to
    state and government

b) Familiarity with the profile of the
   Philippines as a state
        CONCEPTS OF STATE
State
A community of persons more or less numerous,
  permanently occupying a definite portion of territory,
  having a government of their own to which the great
  body of inhabitants render obedience and enjoying
  freedom from external control.


Elements of the State
a) People b) Territory c) Government d) Sovereignty
Elements of the State
a)   People: the mass of population living within the state
    Population
     97,976,603 (July 2009 est.)

    Age structure
     0-14 years: 35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)
     15-64 years: 60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)
     65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381)

    Median age
     total: 22.5 years
     male: 22 years
     Female: 23 years

    Population growth rate
     1.957%

    Ethnic groups

     Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo
     7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, Kapampangan 3%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
Elements of the State
b) Territory: it includes not only the land
  over which the jurisdiction of the state
  extends but also the rivers and lakes
  therein, a certain area of the sea which
  abuts upon its coasts and the air space
  above it.
Elements of the State: Territory
   Area:
    total: 300,000 km2
    land: 298,170 km2
    water: 1,830 km2
   Coastline: 36,289 km
   Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
    continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles (370 km)
    territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nautical miles (185 km) from coastline as defined by 1898
    treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nautical miles
    (528 km) in breadth.
   Natural resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
   Land use:
    arable land: 19%
    permanent crops: 12%
    permanent pastures: 4%
    forests and woodland: 46%
    other: 19% (1993 est.)
   Irrigated land: 15,800 km2 (1993 est.)
   Distances from Manila:
    10,000 km – San Francisco
    8,000 km – Honolulu, Hawaii
    3,400 km – Micronesia
    2,900 km – Tokyo
    2,400 km – Singapore
    1,000 km – Taiwan and Hong Kong
Elements of the State: Territory
The Philippines is divided into three island groups:
  Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. These are divided
  into 17 regions, 80 provinces, 120 cities, 1,511
  municipalities and 42,008 barangays. The
  Philippines is an archipelago comprising 7,107
  islands with a total land area of 300,000 km2.
  The 11 largest islands contain 94% of the total
  land area. The largest of these islands is Luzon
  at about 105,000 kms. The next largest island is
  Mindanao at about 95,000 km. The archipelago
  is around 800 kms from the Asian mainland and
  is located between Taiwan and Borneo.
Elements of the State: Territory
The islands are divided into three groups: Luzon,
  Visayas, and Mindanao. The Luzon islands
  include Luzon itself, Palawan, Mindoro,
  Marinduque, Masbate and Batanes Islands .
  The Visayas is the group of islands in the central
  Philippines, the largest of which are: Panay,
  Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte and Samar. The
  Mindanao islands include Mindanao itself, plus
  the Sulu Archipelago, composed primarily of
  Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. The island of
  Romblon lies exactly at the center of the
  Philippine archipelago.
                      Region            Designation                 Regional center

Ilocos Region                          Region I       San Fernando, La Union

Cagayan Valley                         Region II      Tuguegarao, Cagayan

Central Luzon                          Region III     San Fernando, Pampanga

CALABARZON                             Region IV-A    Calamba City, Laguna

MIMAROPA                               Region IV-B    Calapan, Mindoro

Bicol Region                           Region V       Legazpi, Albay

Western Visayas                        Region VI      Iloilo City
Central Visayas                        Region VII     Cebu City

Eastern Visayas                        Region VIII    Tacloban

Zamboanga Peninsula                    Region IX      Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur

Northern Mindanao                      Region X       Cagayan de Oro City

Davao Region                           Region XI      Davao City

SOCCSKSARGEN                           Region XII     Koronadal, South Cotabato

Caraga                                 Region XIII    Butuan

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao   ARMM           Cotabato City

Cordillera Administrative Region       CAR            Baguio

National Capital Region                NCR            Manila
Elements of the State: Territory
List of Landlocked provinces in the Philippines

   A landlocked province is one that has no coastline, meaning no access to
    sea or ocean. There are 16 landlocked provinces in the Philippines:

   All provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR): Apayao, Abra,
    Kalinga, Mt. Province, Ifugao and Benguet.
   Two provinces of Cagayan Valley (Region II): Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino
   Two provinces of Central Luzon (Region III): Nueva Ecija and Tarlac
   Four provinces of Mindanao:
        Bukidnon of Northern Mindanao (Region X)
        Cotabato Province of Soccsksargen (Region XII)
        Agusan del Sur of Caraga (Region XIII), and
        Maguindanao of Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
   Similarly, Laguna and Rizal Province and of Calabarzon (Region IV-A) have
    coastlines on Laguna de Bay. Since lakes do not allow access to seaborne
    trade, these provinces are still considered to be landlocked.
     Elements of the State: Territory
List of island provinces in the Philippines

An island province completely surrounded by water, is the opposite of a
   landlocked one. There are 15 island provinces in the Philippines:

   One province of Cagayan Valley (Region II): Batanes
   Three provinces of MIMAROPA (Region IV-B): Marinduque, Romblon and
    Palawan
   Two provinces of Bicol (Region V): Catanduanes and Masbate
   One province of Western Visayas (Region VI): Guimaras
   Three provinces of Central Visayas (Region VII): Cebu, Bohol and Siquijor
   One province of Eastern Visayas (Region VIII): Biliran
   One province of Northern Mindanao (Region X): Camiguin
   Three provinces of Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM):
    Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi
   One province of Caraga Region: Dinagat Islands
Elements of the State: Territory
 Ten largest cities

 The following is a list of the ten largest cities in the country in terms of population,
 with their population according to the 2007 census. Component cities and
 municipalities of Metro Manila and Metro Cebu are taken as one to show the extent
 of urbanization.

 Rank City Population in 2007

 1. Metro Manila 11,553,427
 2. Metro Cebu 2,314,897
 3. Davao City 1,363,337
 4. Zamboanga City 774,407
 5. Antipolo City 633,971
 6. Cagayan de Oro City 553,966
 7. General Santos City 529,542
 8. Bacolod City 499,497
 9. Iloilo City 418,710
 10. Iligan City 308,046
Elements of the State: Government
It refers to the agency through which the will of
   the state is formulated, expressed and carried
   out.

Forms of government may be classified according
  to the number of persons exercising authority
  (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy); extent
  of powers exercised by central or national
  government (unitary or federal); relationship
  between executive and legislative branches
  (parliamentary and presidential)
Elements of the State: Government
ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF PERSONS
   EXERCISING SOVEREIGN POWER

Monarchy: one in which the supreme and final
   authority is in the hands of a single person

Kinds of monarchy:
a)  Absolute monarchy – one in which the ruler
    rules by divine right
b)  Limited monarchy – one in which the ruler
    rules in accordance with the constitution
Elements of the State: Government
Aristocracy: one in which political power is exercised by a
    few privileged class

Democracy: one in which political power is exercised by a
   majority of the people

a)   Direct or pure democracy: one in which the will of the
     State is formulated or expressed directly and
     immediately through the people in a mass meeting or
     primary assembly

a)   Indirect, representative or republican democracy or one
     in which the will of the state is formulated and
     expressed through the agency of a relatively small and
     select body of persons chosen by the people to act as
     their representatives
Elements of the State: Government
ACCORDING TO THE EXTENT OF POWERS
  EXERCISED BY THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

Unitary government: one in which the control of
  national and local affairs is exercised by the
  central or national government

Federal government: one in which the powers of
  government are divided between two sets of
  organs, one for national affairs and the other for
  local affairs.
Elements of the State: Government
ACCORDING TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
  THE EXECUTIVE AND THE LEGISLATIVE
  BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

Parliamentary: one in which the state confers
  upon the legislature the power to terminate the
  tenure of office of the real executive

Presidential government: one in which the state
  makes the executive constitutionally
  independent of the legislature as regards his
  policies and acts
Elements of the State: Government
The politics of the Philippines takes place in an organized
  framework of a presidential, representative and
  democratic republic whereby the president is both the
  head of state and the head of government within a
  pluriform multi-party system. This system revolves
  around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent
  branches: the legislative branch (the law-making body),
  the executive branch (the law-enforcing body), and the
  judicial branch (the law-interpreting body). Executive
  power is exercised by the government under the
  leadership of the president. Legislative power is vested
  in both the government and the two-chamber congress -
  - the Senate (the upper chamber) and the House of
  Representatives (the lower chamber). Judicial power is
  vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the
  Philippines as the highest judicial body.
    Theories on Origin of the State
   Divine Right Theory: the state is a divine creation and
    the ruler is ordained by God to rule the people.

   Necessity or force theory: state was created through
    force

   Paternalistic theory: state developed from a single
    nuclear family under the authority of a single parent

   Social contract theory: state must have been formed by
    deliberate and voluntary contract among the people to
    form a society and organize government for their own
    good
          Important Distinctions
   State: a political concept (see the previous
    definition)

   Nation: an ethnic concept; a group of people
    bound by common social and cultural origin

   Government: an agency through which the state
    expresses its will; its main purpose is the
    promotion of common good or public welfare

								
To top