Running Programs and Finding
Out if they Work
Primary types of Funding
• Government Grants and Contracts
• Foundations/Federated Funding Sources
• Fees for Services
• Donations from Individuals
Choosing Funding Sources Can Cause Problems for
Social Change Organizations
• Government funding is not usually available for social change activities;
government prefers to fund service delivery.
• Reliance on one or two primary funders means that the funder can demand
the organization cease social action work.
• For an organization to have power, it needs to have money or obtain its
strength through numbers.
• Its is difficulty to raise money locally in low income communities.
The tax code and other regulations govern what a
advocacy work a social welfare organization can do.
• Government employees can not be forced to work for candidates. They can
not campaign on-the-job.
• Nonprofits cannot give money to political campaigns and can not pay
employees to campaign.
• 501 (c)(3) organizations are limited in how much of their budgets can be
used for lobbying. There are no lobbying restrictions on (c)(4) organizations.
To obtain funding you must submit a funding
proposal or negotiate a contract .
Components of a proposal are:
Cover letter Continuation
• Title page References/Appendices
• Executive Summary Staff Qualifications
• Problem Statement Proof of Tax Status
• Needs Assessment Organizational Chart
• Background of Organization Letters of Support
• Goals and Objectives
• Methods use to Deliver Intervention
• Time Frame
• Budget/Budget Justification
• Dissemination Plan
Sources of Information about
• Foundation databases on the Internet
• Grant-related listservs
• Federal Register
• Foundation Web Pages
Goals & Objectives are the most
important component of proposals
• Objectives must be measurable, time-limited, and contain an evaluation
• Be developed in relation to a specific program or intervention plan.
• Specify processes and tasks to be completed.
• Incorporate the program’s theory of action – describe how the program
works and what it is expected to do (outcomes).
Theory of action for a hunger program
Advisory Committee is formed to improve
food bank services
This improves service delivery
More food is provided
Families miss fewer meals
There is less hunger
Application of Empowerment
Theory to Program Planning
What are the basic theoretical
assumptions in the Itzhaky and
What are the outcomes
expected from the application
of empowerment theory?
What is empowerment practice
supposed to accomplish?
Theory of Action for Empowerment Program
Theoretical Empowerment Model: “Social workers labor to modify personal and
Assumption structural conditions to allow themselves, their clients, and others to achieve
power, on the one hand, and on the other empowerment: feeling powerful,
worthy of self-esteem, and competent’ (Itzhaky & York, 2002, p. 126)
Program 1) Workshops for social workers and residents on interorganizational
collaboration and resident participation.
2) Formation of committees for resident/parent participation in program
development and lobbying activities.
Goals 1) Increase in number of residents who participate in community
activities (from 5 to 100)
2) Increase in participant feelings of mastery, self-esteem , and
3) Improvements in the neighborhood’s image in the eyes of residents.
Outcomes Number of activists increased to 190. Increase in scores on standardized
tests measuring self-esteem, mastery, and empowerment. Successful
completion of community projects.