About the Adolescent Girls Initiative by Z6Y96WL

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									Report of the Adolescent Girls Initiative Technical Meeting
            July 22-23, 2010 - Washington DC




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                          About the Adolescent Girls Initiative

The World Bank’s Adolescent Girls Initiative (AGI) is a public-private partnership to promote the
transition of adolescent girls from school to productive employment through innovative interventions that
are tested, and then scaled-up or replicated if successful. The initiative promotes the transition from
school to decent work for low-income girls and young women aged 15-24 by helping them build skills
that match market demand, find mentors and job placements. The interventions build on promising
approaches to address specific binding constraints to young women’s employability, adapting these to
each country context. The initiative is currently being implemented in seven countries: Afghanistan,
Liberia, Nepal, Rwanda, South Sudan, Jordan and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Donors to the
Initiative include: Australia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Nike Foundation.
The Bank’s Gender Action Plan has also supported the AGI country projects. Currently, total pledges to
the initiative stand at US $20 million.

The AGI has is also partnering with the Girl Hub–a Nike Foundation and DFID global resource centre
that will support developing world governments in delivering better programs, services and policies for
adolescent girls. The Girl Hub aims to be part advisor, part catalyst—built from an extended network of
organizations and individuals from the global south and north. It will concentrate geographically by
establishing hubs in key countries charged with advocating for girls, gathering insights on the conditions
of girls, and supporting champions in those key countries to do more for adolescent girls.

                             About the AGI Technical Meeting
On July 22 and 23, 2010 the World Bank hosted an AGI Technical Meeting to facilitate learning across
country teams and to discuss challenges and lessons learned from project preparation and early
implementation. The teams, which include both Bank staff and representatives from in-country
implementing partners, presented progress to date and discussed lessons learned and main challenges
moving forward. Experts from inside and outside the Bank provided critical input on specific issues
related to programming for adolescent girls and contributed to the discussion of country projects. Expert-
led sessions addressed programming challenges in recruitment, asset building, access to credit and
savings and financial literacy training, matching skills to market needs, and curricula development, to
name a few. The closing session was a roundtable discussion on the challenge of institutionalizing pilot
projects and ways to ensure the lessons from the AGI inform national programs and policies.




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                          Key Insights from Expert-led Sessions
Why invest in adolescent girls? Investing in the economic empowerment of adolescent girls is one of
the most powerful development multipliers there is and therefore, critical for speeding up the attainment
of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Research has shown that young women that are
more educated, earn income, and have greater access to reproductive health information and services are
more likely to delay marriage and childbirth, have healthier babies, attain higher literacy rates, and grow
into productive adults who contribute to the economic growth of their countries. Investing in adolescent
girls thus not only furthers MDG 3 on gender equality, but also helps advance other MDGs such as
eradicating poverty (MDG 1), achieving universal education (MDG 2), reducing child mortality (MDG 4)
and improving maternal health (MDG 5).

Promising strategies of adolescent girls’ economic empowerment programs
Experience shows that the following five program features help to maximize the impact of programs
targeting young women:
 Segmenting: Investments in adolescents will have limited yield unless they are more specifically
    targeted to subsets of adolescents, differentiated by age, gender, marital and schooling status, social
    status, economic class, living arrangements, and urban/rural residence, in order to reach a critical
    mass of girls. Some adolescent subgroups of significant size may be more neglected than others, and
    what happens to them may be particularly consequential to the shape of poverty, demographic
    change, and the HIV epidemic. Adolescent girls subgroups often left behind and deserving special
    attention are: (i) very young adolescent girls (aged 10-14) living outside the presumptively protective
    structures of family and school; (ii) poor girls on their own or managing HIV affected families, under
    pressure to engage in sex for gifts or money; (iii) girls at risk of child marriage and married
    adolescent girls. At a practical level, addressing adolescent girls’ diversity requires a disaggregated
    data base. The Population Council offers data analysis guides using DHS data for this type of
    analysis. The Population Council has compiled 14 standard tables on adolescents from Demographic
    and Health Survey (DHS) data on adolescents in 46 countries. The data guides are available in
    http://www.popcouncil.org/publications/serialsbriefs/AdolExpInDepth.asp.
 Anchoring social capital: Adolescent girls often suffer exclusion and isolation. The most socially
    isolated adolescents are the least likely to have contacts with youth centers, adolescent friendly
    clinics, and peer education programs. Because mobility is restricted for many girls, especially at the
    approach of puberty, the primary requirement for their social inclusion is a safe, supportive space
    where they can interact with peers and mentors, strengthen their social networks, and enjoy freedom
    of expression and movement. Safe spaces for girls can serve as locations for any number of beneficial
    services, including financial and business education, health interventions, assertiveness training, and
    skills building for sexual negotiation. Safe spaces also act as a foundation for building girls’ capacity
    to organize and mobilize themselves. Efforts must be made to increase available services and ensure
    girls’ access to those services.
 Engaging the community: Programs that target adolescent girls need to work with teachers, parents,
    healthcare professionals, the police, male peers, and community gatekeepers to gain access to
    facilities and to develop new services for girls. Community groups can make explicit commitments to
    actions such as: (i) supporting access for safe house-to-house surveys; (ii) facilitating the recruitment
    process; (iii) providing space and existing facilities for meetings, recruitment, training and follow-up;
    (iv) establishing permanent places where girls can meet and post the hours toadvertise girls’ access
    and rights; (v) improving safety (street lights, specific security and protection procedures, including
    during “fiestas” and sports events); (vi) enforcing protective laws more systematically; and (vii)
    organizing service provisions/entitlements at girl-friendly times of day, seasons, and weeks. One
    approach often used in Population Council programs is to craft a comprehensive community contract
    at an early stage to get buy-in from the community.

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   Adapting training appropriate to each “girl segment”: To succeed, programs must adapt the
    training content in ways that progressively consolidate girls’ economic identity. At an early stage,
    training should be geared to fostering group formation, introducing specific life skills and topics,
    teaching how to save, and encouraging mentorship. At an older age, programs should provide
    vocational and/or business training, internships, credit and borrowing, and introduce microfinance
    products such as savings, credit and insurance
   Protecting girls’ new skills and assets: Programs should develop ‘shark repellents’ against threats to
    take away girls assets. Programs need to: (i) counter family members’ (parents’ and partner’s)
    attempts to take girls’ assets; (ii) help girls and young women hold assets to make contracts, own and
    control property; (iii) mediate disempowering administrative procedures that allow harassment and
    denial of benefits; (iv) develop explicit safety plans to assist participation and business establishment,
    and reduce levels of violence in the home, the workplace, and public spaces; and (v) make a
    permanent place in the community where females of all ages can receive financial literacy training,
    legal aid and advice, personal documentation, access to financial products, and training.

Building girls’ Assets: A staged approach

reduce girls’ vulnerability and help them manage risk and take advantage of opportunity, programs need
to build girls’ assets. These include social assets (i.e. social networks), human assets (i.e. skills, health,
self-esteem, bargaining power); physical assets (clothing, land, housing, productive); and financial (i.e.
savings and entitlements). When designing a program, it is useful to start with the assets you want to
help girls develop and then decide on the type of activities that would achieve the outcome. For example,
financial literacy training will build girls’ saving skills, while life-skills training is expected to develop
girls’ social and human assets such as social networks and bargaining power. Programs need to take a
staged approach to building girls’ assets. At an early age it is important to form groups, create venues to
provide safe spaces for girls to meet and provide social support, mentoring and life skills training. At an
older age, vocational and/or business training, internships or attachments, business development,
credit/borrowing, introduction to concepts of insurance are important. By the end of adolescence, we
would like girls to be prepared for meeting day to day needs, dealing with life cycle events (births,
marriage, educating children), coping with emergencies, crises, and unexpected events (risk
management), and taking advantage of opportunities when they present themselves.




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                Table 1: Types of Assets and Program Strategies that Build Girls Assets

    Type                       Types of Assets                     Program strategies that build girls’ assets:

Social assets    Social networks                                  Group formation
                 Group membership                                 Social support
                 Relationships of trust                           Development of social networks
                 Access to wider institutions of society          Mentoring
Human assets     Skills and knowledge                             Life skills training
                 Good health                                      Health education
                 Ability to work                                  Literacy programs
                 Self esteem                                      Financial education
                 Bargaining power,                                Rights education
                 Experience, autonomy                             Employability training
                 Control over decisions                           Vocational/skills training
                                                                  Business development training
                                                                  Business internships/attachments
Physical         Personal assets (clothing, jewelry, household    Access to tools or equipment for businesses
assets           items),                                          Safe physical space to meet
                 Land, housing, transport, tools, equipment       Safe place to work.
                 and other productive assets.
Financial        Cash, savings, entitlements.                     Savings, credit, remittance services, other
assets                                                            financial services.




Recruitment strategies for programs targeting adolescent girls

There are advantages and disadvantages of different marketing strategies for adolescent girls programs.
When designing recruitment strategies, you need to think carefully about who you want to reach and
ensure that they will not be left out due to method chosen for reaching adolescent girls. For example,
fliers will be useful in attracting literate girls, radio will only reach those who have access to a radio, and
marketing the program through community leaders may lead to elite capture.


                            Table 2: Pros and Cons of Recruitment Strategies

   Strategy                Pros                            Cons                  Who do we reach            Who we do not
                                                                                                                  reach
Through          - Informal household        - Older girls often do not live   - Young girls living     -   Older girls not
parents            level                       with parents                      at home and often          living with
                 - Certain influence on      - “Cinderella” factor: some         in school                  parents
                   decision makers             parents may select the          - Siblings and friends   -   Domestic servants
                 - Greater “buy-in”            children in the household to                             -   Homeless
                 - Can be fast once            attend the program.                                      -   Girls who are
                   parents are reached.                                                                     parents
                                                                                                        -   Girls who don’t
                                                                                                            have a good
                                                                                                            relationship with
                                                                                                            their parents
                                                                                                        -   Second or third
                                                                                                            wives (who could
                                                                                                            be targeted by the
                                                                                                            program).

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   Strategy                   Pros                            Cons                     Who do we reach         Who we do not
                                                                                                                     reach
Door to door         - Inclusion (especially   -   Limited in reach                - Favored children,     -   Girls not living at
                       parents); can build     -   Labor/time intensive              all living in             home
                       trust in ways other     -   Survey fatigue                    household.            -   Domestic servants
                       methods won’t.          -   May create suspicion                                    -    Abused children
                     - Ensured message         -   Only good in small                                      -    Homeless
                       delivery                    communities                                             -   Most vulnerable
                                               -   Could create unrealistic                                    as they are rarely
                                                   expectations                                                at home (i.e.
                                               -   Without                                                     commercial sex
                                                   appropriate/clear/transparent                               workers)
                                                   guidelines, may lead to
                                                   mistrust.
Radio                - Reach many              -   Many local languages            - People with radios    - Girls who don’t
                     - Entertaining            -   Passive: may be                   or access to radio      have radio access
                     - Create dialogue and         forgotten/information           - People with free        or don’t listen
                       community buy-in            overload                          time                  - People/ girls not
                     - Incorporate many        -   Cost                            - Illiterate or semi-     available at the
                       voices                  -   Timing of announcement            illiterate              broadcast time
                     - Can localize content    -   Lack of follow through          - Larger                  (are working) or
                     - Good for maintaining    -   May attract people outside        audience/rural          not interested
                       momentum                    target community                  areas
                                                                                   - Community spaces
                                                                                     via speakers
Word     of      a   - Cheap and effective,    - Network driven: might not         - Those in close        - Girls far away
mouth                  girl to girl              hear if you are not part of the     proximity             - Married girls
                     - If trust exists –         network                           - Those who speak       - Those who do not
                       positive, friends and   - Need to have trust                  majority language       speak majority
                       peers may convince      - Message may be distorted          - Like-minded girls       language
                     - Reaches illiterate      - Message may not reach             - Illiterate girls      - Those who are
                     - Creates platforms for     isolated communities;             - Girls with broader      not in certain
                       group teams                                                   social networks,        groups and
                     - More trusted message                                          girls with friends      communities
                       – you must be                                                                       - Girls without
                       convinced before                                                                      social networks
                       passing it on                                                                       - Ethnic/religious
                                                                                                             minorities.
Fliers/Posters       - Cheap/easy              - Passive/not exciting              -   Literate            - Geographically
                     - Volume/quantity         - Limited information/unclear;      -   Mobile                distant
                     - One poster reaches        no peer effect                    -   Urban girls         - Illiterate girls
                       many                    - May forget about it with time     -   Referred girls      - Girls with little
                     - Lasts longer            - Might be destroyed.                                         mobility
                     - Greater transparency    - Fail to create ripple effect.
                     - "Hard" info that one      criteria may confuse
                       can retain              - Cinderella" may read it and
                     - Make reference to         think that it does not apply
                       and show to others        to her despite fulfilling all
                     - Seems more official -     the criteria
                       people will believe.    - Not always focused on target
                                                 population.
Community            - Community buy-in        - Elite capture - may only          - Elitez only           - Sometimes those
leaders              - Legitimacy from buy-      invite girls from friends'        - Area of leader's        not aligned with
                       in                        families                            interest                particular leader
                     - Ownership               - Girls may be coerced into         - All demographics -      (religion,
                     - Low/no cost               participation;                      with the right          economic,

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  Strategy                Pros                        Cons                  Who do we reach            Who we do not
                                                                                                             reach
                 - Knows "who" to talk    - Risk of sexual                  political leadership       political)
                   to                       abuse/corruption                                       -
                                          - May only reach his/her own
                                            ethnic/religious group
                                          - Disinformation campaign out
                                            of jealousy
                                          - Formality/lack of excitement

Key lessons from financial literacy programs.

Financial education empowers adolescent girls to make wise financial decisions. It teaches girls how to
save more and spend less as well as how to borrow prudently and manage their debt with discipline. It can
help more young women understand an array of financial services from money transfers to insurance.
Financial literacy is a skill that lasts for a lifetime. The following are key lessons in financial literacy
programs for young women:
 Adapting financial education to young people is not about downsizing the adult education. The
    themes are different and young people learn differently; they need shorter sessions and more
    interactivity.
 The success of a financial literacy program depends a lot on the “teachable” moment - when the
    audience is most receptive. Savings should be taught to girls when they are about to turn the legal age
    to open a bank account or to enter thelabor force.
 Engage parents as they often make decisions for girls, hence they need to understand and support the
    initiative.
 Encouraging savings without a formal place to save may potentially increase vulnerability and
    exposure of girls to violence.
 Participants must be able to apply their new skills in their daily life. A savings account which relies
    on a girl opening the account by taking the money from parents, storing it and withdrawing when she
    turns the legal age, does not teach a girl a saving behavior.
 If financial products are not offered in the market, financial training to use these products will not be
    effective.

Key lessons of linking young people to financial service providers: Financial service providers have
much to gain in servicing the youth market. There is a youth bulge of 1.5 billion people globally with
many years ahead of them to be good clients as well as good networks to bring in more clients for the
banks. It is important to de-bunk two common assumptions: that youth are high risk market and that
young people are not interested in financial services. Organizations that provide financial education
should make the business case for targeting young people instead of appealing to the financial service
providers’ sense of social responsibility. The following are six good practices in linking young people to
financial services:
• Involve youth in market research and product development. Attention to the characteristics of the
    youth market and involvement of youth in the product development process may result in simple, yet
    important changes to existing and new products and delivery channels.
• Develop products and services that reflect the diversity of young people. The youth market
    contains sub-segments related to age (legal age), life cycle stage (marital and parental status), gender,
    education, employment status, and vulnerability. These differences should be taken into consideration
    in financial product design and delivery.
• Ensure that youth have safe and supportive spaces. These can help build youth’s confidence and
    enable them to take advantage of opportunities. These may involve infrastructure considerations,
    delivery mechanisms, and social networks.

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•   Provide or link youth to complimentary non-financial services. These may include non-financial
    services such as mentoring, financial literacy training, cultivation of a savings culture, and life-skills
    training.
•   Focus on core competencies through partnerships. Financial service providers should assess
    institutional capacities and complement strengths and weaknesses by collaborating with YSOs,
    schools, training institutes, and other entities, particularly for safe spaces and non-financial services.
•   Involve the community. Starting with the family, the community should be involved, including
    schools, teachers, and other local groups—to mutually reinforce and enhance the effectiveness of
    financial and non-financial services.

Understanding and responding to labor market needs

Youth training programs need to understand the market in which they are operating. Labor market
assessments can provide market information that inform curriculum development and determine course
offerings, shape the complementary services offered during training and provide information on post-
training linkages necessary to improve youths’ prospects for a sustainable livelihood. For youth
participants, information about current and emerging market needs is essential to making more informed
decisions and selecting an appropriate and marketable vocation. A labor market assessment is an
assessment of the labor-absorbing development pattern of the country or region, and should be based on a
comparison of the composition of economic growth (primary, secondary, tertiary sectors) and the sectors’
labor intensity (labor force in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors), leading sectors of the economy, the
size of the informal sector, domestic and foreign investment prospects, and growth projections in the
medium and long term.

A staged approach is recommended in conducting labor market assessment:
 Getting advice: An advisory group committee should include individuals from local economic or
    labor research centers, private sector, trade unions, vocational training institutions and public sector
    agencies. Advisors can provide guidance both on the design of the assessment as well as the usage of
    findings.
 Selecting sectors: It is important to identify areas of actual and projected growth, country’s economic
    priority sectors and gaps, as well as the special characteristics of particular geographic areas that are
    the target of the intervention. Surveying employers in priority sectors would help in understanding
    their experience in hiring and retaining young people. Questionnaires should be forward looking, i.e.
    inquiring what types of attitudes, knowledge and skills they will be looking for in the next 5 years.
    For instance, an assessment conducted in Jordan found that employers felt that youth lacked
    leadership, creativity and time management.
 Collecting and organizing data: Plot the data in a comparative way to understand the needs in a
    particular area, for particular types of jobs.
 Designing: In designing the program it is important to find out which hard skills are needed or
    whether employers are more concerned with soft skills. Programmers also need to have realistic
    expectations for youth, ensure which aspects of labor rights to reinforce, and identify both potential
    roadblocks and which companies to cultivate.
 Rechecking: Labor market assessments are not a one-time event. An important question is: How do
    we continuously assess? How do we ensure matching is right? What kinds of adjustments does the
    project have to make? What other strategies can use to assess the labor market?

The following examples from Kenya and Peru exhibit many of the recommended programmatic
approaches to understanding market demand and ensuring relevant curriculums, as well as other
programmatic approaches discussed above (See box 1 and 2).



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                  Box 1: Curricula development in NairoBits project in Kenya

NairoBits is a project that provided training in ICT multimedia & Web design, life skills and
entrepreneurship together with placement services to youth, ages 17-25, in informal settlement areas
around Nairobi. The curriculum was developed jointly with employers and quarterly interviews were
conducted to receive feedback regarding its relevance. In addition, annual curriculum review and
strategic plans were carried out with employer input. Employers were directly engaged, visiting
classes as guest lecturers and giving awards to graduates.

            Box 2: Matching training to market needs; Peru’s Projoven’s experience
 Projoven was created not only to improve employment opportunities for youth from 16 to 24 from
  low income families, but also to increase the quality of services in vocational training system.
 The program first started in 1996 and has expanded to 14 major cities in 2010 and trained over
  73,000 young people since its creation.
 The Public Employment Agency (PEA) provided intermediation services not only for trainees, but
  also dropouts.
 The training had two phases -- a 3-month long technical phase with formal vocational training
  followed by a 3-month long practical phase of on-the-job training in firms.
 The relevance of each course was calculated using a weighted average of: (i) potential demand
  (share of trainees who finished both phases during the past public call), (ii) links to foreign trade
  opportunities (i.e. economic activities with export potential due to preferential tariff rates from
  free trade agreements), and (iii) links to government economic plans (i.e. economic activities
  stimulated by public programs as construction or tourism).
 Courses with low relevance were excluded. Most of the courses excluded were related to
  occupations in service sector, traditionally associated with women, with very low expected salary
  and promotion possibilities.
 Challenges:
   o Limited capacity of participating firms (most of them small firms) to guarantee high quality
       on-the-job training and to avoid gender bias.
   o Low labor market insertion rate for PEA ‘clients’, particularly for women.
   o Weak monitoring of training quality and post-training performance.
   o Poor coordination between different public programs on vocational guidance, labor trainings,
       intermediation services and workers’ rights.
 Lessons learned:
   o Public programs should converge into a National Employment Service.
   o To avoid gender bias, emphasis should be placed on highly-qualified training institutions and
       larger firms.
   o Close monitoring of training regarding contents, trainee motivation and gender issues as well
       as post-training services regarding intermediation services and additional training
       opportunities should be strengthened.




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           Key challenges and lessons learned during AGI design and
                            early implementation

The lack of good data constrains both design and early implementation

Reliable and relevant data on adolescent girls and young women is sometimes scant in many AGI
countries; yet necessary for the development and implementation of the projects.
 In Jordan, the project team dealt with the lack of clarity on most important factors and mechanisms
    responsible for youth unemployment. The studies available are mainly qualitative and the evidence is
    anecdotal. Access to good quality data is a challenge in the MENA region.
 In Liberia, DHS data was available and with the guidance of the Population Council, the team was
    able to use the data to re-design its recruitment strategy (see below). Similarly, it was in part the lack
    of good data that in the first place made it necessary for a change in recruitment strategy.

Effective recruitment strategies are key to reaching vulnerable girls and young women.

AGI project teams are employing different strategies to address problems in reaching the target
populations.
 The project team in Liberia had to substantially redesign its recruitment strategy due to the lack of
   applicants that filled all selection criteria. The original recruitment strategy was a lottery process
   conducted in 9 communities. Despite a large turn-out (over 500 girls per community), 80 percent of
   the girls interested in the project did not meet the project’s selection criteria: a significant number of
   girls were older than 24, and some even over 30 years of age; among those that met the age criteria
   the level of literacy is significantly weak; and many candidates, both within and outside the age
   group, were currently attending school. After reassessing the strategy, five major changes were
   introduced:
         o The selection process changed from a “lottery” approach to more of a “recruitment” effort
         o Additional time as added for recruitment activities. For instance, two or three days of all day
            recruitment were held in each community, as opposed to the one day originally planned
         o The geographical boundary of the communities was expanded to accommodate girls from
            neighboring communities;
         o The age limit was raised as the majority of girls in the original target age range were either in
            school or illiterate. Post-war enrolment rates are usually high.
         o Publicity around the program was intensified.
 In Afghanistan, the project team is well aware of the specific cultural and security challenges in
   recruiting girls into the AGI and is including a social mobilization component. The AGI will be
   implemented by the Bank-supported Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP)
   implementation unit, which has set up community-based institutions - ‘school management shuras’ to
   connect with communities about education services and needs. The AGI project will use these
   community institutions as entry points to disseminate information about skills training activities and
   other aspects of the project. Multiple media sources will be used to attract women - in Mazar, a radio
   station run by a woman for women may be involved in launching an ad campaign.
 In Nepal, the project team provides financial incentives to training providers to train and provide job
   placement to the more marginalized groups such as ex-combatants, young widows, HIV-positive
   people, and dalit men and women. A communications strategy to reach these marginalized groups is a
   central project component.




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Quality training requires investments in curriculum development.

Many AGI projects are wrestling with how to define trades for vocational skills training that match
market needs. Demand-driven curricula development is a lengthy and complex process that requires
expert help from the very beginning. Many factors have to be taken into account: the existing skill set of
the girls, the reality of their lives, the length of training and the types of jobs girls and young women can
realistically find at the end of it.
Teams noted how engagement with the private sector early on in the project is needed to ensure that the
curriculum is in line with the types of skills needed to place the girls in jobs. An initial investment in good
quality, culturally sensitive, and demand-driven curricula is crucial for the success of the program.
 In Liberia, after the project team realized that a significant share of the young women applying for
    the program were illiterate, a decision was made to add a literacy component to the second batch of
    training. In addition, the project team decided to offer business development training for self-
    employment, alongside vocations skills to all girls in the program given that there are still very few
    jobs offered by the private sector.
 In Rwanda, most young women are interested in self-employment, in part because of the threat of
    sexual abuse in the workplace. However, a big challenge for the team is the lack of adequate training
    centers that provide business development training and low access to finance. In addition, the team
    will develop curricula for new skills as most of the training in rural areas is over-saturated with
    traditional trades such as tailoring.
 The South Sudan project team is operating in an environment where the private sector is still very
    incipient. The project team is finding identifying trades that have market potential very challenging.

Promising strategies to avoid drop-out during training are emerging

Keeping girls and young women engaged in the training and avoiding drop-outs was identified by teams
as a major challenge looking ahead. The Liberia project introduced incentives for girls in the form of
prizes for the best attendance records, either in the form of a certificate or small gifts. In addition, pairing
girls in small groups has had good results as the girls feel responsible to each other for ensuring their
success in the program.

The importance of engaging the private sector

While important to ensure the development of market-driven curriculum, engaging the private sector is
also key to enabling and ensuring job placement. In response, AGI projects are designing strategies to
engage the private sector early on.
 The Liberia project created an ‘Employers’ Advisory Committee’, a group of private sector leaders
    who have been consulted from project design and through early implementation. The key lesson is
    not to appeal to the private sector’s sense of social responsibility but rather create direct benefits for
    them. If an employer hires an AGI beneficiary for an internship, they are offered the opportunity to
    send one of their other employees to a training workshop on customer service. This way the
    recruitment of the girl has a tangible added-value.
 In Afghanistan, as part of the social mobilization component, the project team plans to conduct a
    marketing and outreach campaign to identify and encourage demand among private sector potential
    employers for female employees.
 The Jordan project hopes to include a component to create gender-friendly environment in firms.
    Firms have been asked to look for relatively simple ways to make themselves “gender friendly” and
    think about what it is that women perceive as harmful. In the later stage, firms will be invited to share
    their thoughts as well as potential policies and intervention ideas to create a gender friendly work


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    environment. The project team intends to build ownership by engaging firms in thinking about the
    issue.

Design and implementation needs to be done with institutionalization and scale-up in mind
   The Jordan team has established a multi-ministerial steering committee with representatives from the
    Ministries of Education and Labor, Chamber of Commerce and National Council for Women. The
    main project features - from design to implementation plans - were discussed with the committee.
    This way, even if the outcome of the project does not turn out to be as positive as expected, the
    ground for sustainability and cooperation has already been laid. The project team knows that
    managing expectations with implementation partners is key to maintain credibility and reputation.
   Institutional mechanisms that help engage the public and private sector, as well as civil society are
    also in place in Liberia and Rwanda
     o In Liberia, the institutional mechanisms put in place include: (i) an Inter-Ministerial Steering
          Committee that brings together all the different agencies in government who have some policy
          or operational mandate on adolescent girls (e.g. Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Ministry of
          Gender, and the Ministry of Education); (ii) an Employers Advisory Council that brings together
          a group of employers that provide guidance and offer job opportunities; and (iii) the Adolescent
          Girls work group─a group of NGOs working on adolescent girls in Liberia. The group is also
          engaged in carrying out spot- checks of the AGI at the community level. The expectation is that
          the NGOs will gain practical experience of this project through the monitoring of the training so
          that they can use the lessons to apply it to their own projects.
     o In Rwanda, the project team set up a steering committee consisting of national and local
          government agency representatives as well as relevant representatives from civil society. In
          addition to working through the institutional frameworks in place, the design of the project is
          also informed by relevant regulatory frameworks and policies, including the government’s
          policies on microcredit, on gender promotion and equality and on cooperative formation.
   In addition to the institutional mechanisms for engagement listed above, the Liberia project also
    includes an institutional strengthening component. This component aims to strengthen the Ministry of
    Gender’s capacity to develop and design adolescent girls programs and to broker the emphasis on
    adolescent girls and their multiple needs (for education, vocational training, health services etc.) in
    other government programs. The Ministry’s capacity to partner with different parts of government
    and the private sector more effectively is also being targeted. Ministry of Gender staff is also trained
    to do the day-to-day implementation of the AGI, as well as related policy reviews, advocacy work
    and inter-ministerial interaction.

        From pilot to programs: insights for institutionalizing the AGI

From pilot to programs: The role of Impact Evaluation

Rigorous impact evaluation is a tool to help project design, expansion and replication that:
 Helps to improve program design: The impact evaluation can tell you how participants benefitted,
   and what kind of unintended consequences the intervention caused.
 Helps to improve targeting: The impact evaluation can tell you which girls benefitted more from
   your program and how to better reach the others.
 Helps to improve program implementation: The impact evaluation can tell you which trainers and
   what courses were most effective,
 Gives you hard evidence of program’s impact: The evaluation results can help justify a scale-up
   the program.


                                                    11
   Provides guidance for replication: the impact evaluation can tell you which program components are
    the most essential? Which are cost-effective? Scaling-up the program will necessitate a careful cost-
    benefit analysis. How can you achieve your goal at the lowest cost? It follows then that it is important
    to collect unit cost data on capital costs, fixed costs and recurrent costs for the production of these
    outputs.

A look at what we know from earlier programs and evaluations
 Impacts are hard to find: out of 289 interventions to support youth labor, only 14 proved to be cost
    effective and have positive impact (Betcherman et al, 2007). Only 6 out of more than 300 youth HIV
    interventions had positive, objectively-measured impact according to WDR 2007 evaluation.
 Even when existing, impacts are likely to be small and heterogeneous. It is unknown which
    intervention or combinations of interventions are most effective, for whom do they work better and
    whether they are cost effective. Programs are small, well-designed and consequently, expensive.
    Costing, on average between $500 and $1500 per participant, they are, currently, too costly if scaled
    up to 100,000. Obviously there are economies of scale, however a stronger emphasis on cost
    effectiveness is necessary to prepare for scale-up and replication.
 The cost is crucial as resources are scarce and policymakers are looking for the best way to allocate
    them. Each program needs to compute a unit cost data, including capital and recurrent costs into
    production of the output.


From pilot to programs: A roundtable discussion on the insights for institutionalizing the AGI

In this roundtable, Bank experts debated how to ensure that the successful project features and
components of the AGI pilot project are scaled up into national programs or replicated elsewhere. Several
issues were raised; the main ones are summarized here.

When to scale up, how to scale up? How do we know when and if to scale up? Who determines this? At
the core of answering these questions of how to institutionalize and how to scale up a pilot, is the need
know whether what you did, worked or did not work.

First, certain questions need to be answered at the design stage to ensure that pilots are poised to be
scaled up. First, is the development challenge we are trying to address in the pilot also shared by key
policy makers? Who agreed with you that it was important to train and employ girls? In other words, who
was it that signed on with the idea of investing in adolescent girls? It needs to be a shared goal of the
country and in many cases, this is not true. Are the chosen interventions embedded in facts and
understanding of the local context? Is there a commitment to “suspend” judgment on a policy change till
learning from the pilot is realized?

Second, we need to deliver on evaluation that assesses not only the success of the pilot but also the
implied costs. Cost effectiveness should also be considered. It is extremely important that the counterpart
and implementers are not defensive against failure. It is equally important to learn through failure what
not to do. Pilots by definition need to be evaluated. There needs to be a robust evaluation underpinning
the pilot, as well as openness to “failure” and fine-tuning. Also, while the pilots may succeed we also
need to think about the cost-benefit analysis. Knowing the implied costs is essential for scale up at a
national level. Cost effectiveness is another matter that needs to be considered - do we know whether
amongst competing ways of achieving the same objective, there is the cost effectiveness for the proposed
action?




                                                    12
Finally, we need to mind the process that ensures scale up and sustainability. Important questions to ask
are: Has the pilot intervention been underpinned by robust consensus building among government and
major stakeholders? Are we being realistic about political and capacity constraints in design of pilot?
Who are the winners and losers?

Lessons for the AGI from Bank Community Driven Development (CDD) projects

What is the challenge? To achieve institutionalization you would ideally work through the government.
However, in a post-conflict country, with government and market failures, communities and NGOs
sometimes have to take actions to fill the gaps of government and market.

Lessons from the experiences of World Bank CDD programs. A CCD project is a project where we do not
work through the government but give money directly to communities for building basic services,
livelihoods etc. In each of these projects, the challenge is when the Bank withdraws, will you sustain this
and how will you scale it up? Four ways can be identified where institutionalization has taken place:

   A first way is through capacity building of local governments and by giving them financial incentives
    to continue the participatory process. Lessons learned for the AGEI in Nepal, and perhaps other
    AGIs, is that we need to direct resources towards capacity building for government agencies within
    relevant line ministries.
   A second way is through political incentives. For instance, in some CDD programs we have seen
    mayors in municipalities that had supported the CDD projects were either winning elections or losing
    by small margins. In communities where mayors did not support the CDD program, they were
    beginning to lose elections. Could the AGEI create a network of 3,000 alumni who, together with the
    10,000 other girls that received training through Helvetas, could build political support for girl-
    friendly training and employment policies?
   Third, and relatedly, CDDs have been institutionalized thanks to the Bank’s effort to build the
    capacity of communities. As a result, the communities demanded the continuation of the participatory
    processes from their local governments.
   And finally, institutionalization can be achieved through private-public partnerships and through
    engaging the private sector in the implementation and delivery of services. In the case of CDDs, local
    governments are expected to contract out road works and other construction work rather than acting
    themselves as construction companies. Similarly, it may not be the government’s role to train and
    educate out-of-school girls and young women, and provide them with jobs. Perhaps this is instead the
    job of the private sector? The government’s job could then be to steer the process, create an enabling
    environment, and carry out quality control.

Comments based on the experience in Liberia

Drawing on the experience in Liberia – the AGI project furthest along in implementation – it was noted
that the institutional strengthening component is crucial to the sustainability of the project. The
component aims to build the capacity of the Ministry of Gender to design, implement and monitor girl-
targeted programs and forge strategic partnerships with other government entities and the private sectors
to ensure other programs and services respond to the needs of girls and young women. A set of key
questions were also identified:

   How do you build ways to scale-up and replicate these pilot projects? The evidence provided by the
    impact evaluation can help in convincing finance ministers to expand the program. But without the
    evidence, and so early on implementation, it is very hard.



                                                    13
   How do you link these pilots from the beginning to existing programs? One way is to integrate the
    pilot into an existing program. The Afghanistan pilot is working with the EQUIP project. There is a
    platform there to collect and integrate the lessons from the pilot to an existing program. In Nepal, the
    pilot is integrated into the Employment Fund program. This is also a challenge because you have to
    justify the value added of an Adolescent Girls project in this type of project. We need to make sure
    we find a niche for AGI in the existing program and build on those.
   What types of partnerships do we develop to help leverage the learning? How do we engage the
    private sector, NGOs, and financial institutions?




                                                    14
                         Table A. Adolescent Girls Initiative: Country Project Design Features At-a-Glance

                                         Afghanistan           Jordan              Liberia          Nepal          Rwanda             South
                                                                                                                                      Sudan
                         Target          Females aged          Female          Females aged     Females aged     Females aged        Females
                         population          18-30,          community             16-27,           16-24,           15-24,        aged 15-24,
                                           eligibility         college            literacy,       eligibility      residence,       residence
                                         criteria TBD         graduates        residence, not   determined on      eligibility
                                                                                in school in     a course-by-    criteria TBD
                                                                                   past 12       course basis     (preference
BENEFICIARIES




                                                                                   months                           given to
                                                                                                                   vulnerable
                                                                                                                      girls)
                         Total           TBD (approx.           1,800               2,500           4,375        TBD (approx.         3,000
                         beneficiaries       2,000)                                                                  2,000)
                         Geographical       Mazar-i-       Urban and peri-             8        Approximately      4 Districts         100
                         coverage          Sharif and      urban Amman,         communities      50 districts      (2 urban, 2     communities
                                         selected rural        plus 5           in urban and     nationwide          rural)         in 4 states
                                          districts of      Governorates         peri-urban
                                             Balkh             outside           Monrovia,
                                            Province          Amman.            plus Kakata
                                                                                     City
                         Types of        Technical         Employability       Technical        Technical        Technical         Technical
                         training        skills, life      skills (business    skills,          skills, life     skills,           skills,
                                         skills            communication,      business         skills (with     business          business
                                                           time                development,     performance-     development,      development,
                                                           management,         life skills      based            life skills,      life skills
                                                           team-work, and      (with            incentives for   scholarships
                                                           leadership          performance-     job placement)   for secondary
                                                           skills)             based                             education
                                                                               incentives for                    (120 girls)
                                                                               job
KEY PROJECT COMPONENTS




                                                                               placement)
                         Length of       TBD (2-3          40 hours over       2 rounds of 6    Varies by        TBD               18 month
                         training        types of          2-3 weeks           month            course (3        (anticipated: 2   program with
                                         training for                          training         weeks to 3       rounds of 6       various
                                         approximately                         followed by 6    months)          month             trainings
                                         12 months                             month                             training          offered
                                         each)                                 follow-up                         followed by 6
                                                                               phase                             month follow-
                                                                                                                 up)
                         Supplemental    Job placement     Job vouchers,       Job              Job placement    Cooperative       Access to
                         services        services,         girl-friendly       placement        services         formation,        savings and
                         provided to     transportation,   work                services,                         mentorship,       credit
                         beneficiaries   girl-friendly     environment         small group                       psychosocial      facilities,
                                         work              training for        learning,                         support, child    leadership
                                         environment       employers           business plan                     care,             development,
                                         training for                          contest, links                    transportation,   child care,
                                         employers                             to                                links to          mentorship,
                                                                               microcredit ,                     microcredit       safe space
                                                                               mentorship,                       facilities,       for
                                                                               savings                           savings           socializing
                                                                               accounts,
                                                                               child care,
                                                                               transportation

                                                                              15
                                 Afghanistan       Jordan               Liberia       Nepal          Rwanda          South
                                                                                                                     Sudan
                 Timeline        Expected to   Training to start    Training      Training         Expected to   Training to
                                 begin late    September            started       started Spring   begin late    start
                                 2010          2010                 Spring 2010   2010             2010          September
                                                                                                                 2010
                 Lead ministry   Education     Planning and         Gender and    Education        Gender and    Gender,
                                 (MoE)         Intl.                Development                    Family        Child and
IMPLEMENTATION




                                               Cooperation                                         Promotion     Social
                                                                                                                 Welfare.
                 Implementing    MoE,           MoPIC,              MoGD, with    Helvetas, with   MIGEPROF,     BRAC South
                 agency          Training      MoHE,                4 Training    20-25 Training   Workforce     Sudan
                                 Providers     Training             Providers     Providers        Development
                                 TBD           Agency                                              Authority
                                               identified                                          (WDA),
                                                                                                   Imbuto
                                                                                                   Foundation,
                                                                                                   and other
                                                                                                   agencies
                 WB Task         Jennifer      Tara                 Rui Benfica   Venkatesh        Christopher   Yasmin
                 Team Leader     Solotaroff    Vishwanath           and Waafas    Sundararaman     Finch         Tayyab
                 (TTL)                                              Ofosu-
                                                                    Amaah




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